Chimpanzees have lived as captive animals in the United States for over a century and today exist in a wide variety of circumstances including zoos, roadside attractions, circuses, sanctuaries, laboratories, and also as privately owned pets and entertainers. This chapter discusses what is known about the critical elements of captive chimpanzee environments and how they might affect behavior and, ultimately, psychological well-being. Within that context follows a historical-based description of the wide array of settings in which chimpanzees live today with particular attention to the features of each that might influence the welfare of this complex species. In sum, the chapter provides an overview of the complex relationship between humans, their closest living relative, and the artificial environments in which chimpanzees are housed.
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