Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Imprisoned by the PastWarren McCleskey and the American Death Penalty$

Jeffrey L. Kirchmeier

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199967933

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199967933.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.370) (p.371) Bibliography

Imprisoned by the Past
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

“A Gathering Momentum: Continuing Impacts of the American Bar Association Call for a Moratorium on Executions.” American Bar Association Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities 2000.

“Ad Features Bundy.” Advertising Age 12 March 1990: 23.

Abramson, Jeffrey. We the Jury. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1993.

Acker, James and Charles S. Lanier. “May God—Or the Governor—Have Mercy: Executive Clemency and Executions in Modern Death-Penalty Systems.” Criminal Law Bulletin 36 (2000): 107–152.

Acker, James R. “Be Careful What You Ask For: Lessons from New York’s Recent Experience with Capital Punishment.” Vermont Law Review 32 (2008): 683–763.

Adger, Jennifer and Christopher Weiss. “Why Place Matters: Exploring County-Level Variations in Death Sentencing in Alabama.” Michigan State Law Review 2011 (2011): 659–704.

Adler, William M. The Man Who Never Died. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2012.

Agozino, Biko. “How Scientific Is Criminal Justice?: A Methodological Crtiique of Research on McCleksey v. Kemp and Other Capital Cases.” National Black Law Journal 17 (2003): 84–97.

Aiuto, Russell. “The Legacy of Sacco and Vanzetti.” Crime Library, n.d., http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/not_guilty/sacco/8.html.

Alavi, Atossa M. “The Government against Two: Ethel and Julius Rosenberg’s Trial.” Case Western Law Review 53 (2003): 1057–1090.

Albanese, Michael. “From Warren McCleskey to Troy Davis, History Repeats.” Huffington Post. 23 September 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-albanese/post_2398_b_958515.html.

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: The New Press, 2010.

Alotta, Robert I. Civil War Justice: Union Army Executions under Lincoln. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane, 1989.

Alschuler, Albert W. “The Changing Purposes of Criminal Punishment: A Retrospective on the Past Century and Some Thoughts about the Next.” University of Chicago Law Review 70 (2003): 1–22.

Alter, Jonathan and Mark Miller. “A Life or Death Gamble.” Newsweek 29 May 2000: 22–28.

American Bar Association Standing Committee on Legal Aid and Indigent Defendants. Gideon’s Broken Promise: America’s Continuing Quest for Equal Justice December 2004, (last visited 1 July 2013), http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administrative/legal_aid_indigent_defendants/ls_sclaid_def_bp_right_to_counsel_in_criminal_proceedings.authcheckdam.pdf.

American Bar Association. Evaluating Fairness and Accuracy in State Death Penalty Systems: The Georgia Death Penalty Assessment Report 2006, http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/moratorium/assessmentproject/georgia/report.authcheckdam.pdf. (p.372)

American Law Institute. Report of the Council to the Membership of the American Law Institute on the Matter of the Death Penalty 19 May 2009, (last visited 1 July 2013), http://www.ali.org/doc/Capital%20Punishment_web.pdf.

Amnesty International. “Death Sentences and Executions in 2013.” London: Amnesty International, 2014, http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/act500012014en.pdf.

Amnesty International. “Death Sentences and Executions in 2010.” London: Amnesty International, 2011, http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ACT50/001/2011/en.

Amnesty International. “The Death Penalty in Georgia: Racist, Arbitrary and Unfair.” AMR 51/025/1996. 1 June 1996, (last visited 8 June 2010), http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR510251996?open&of=ENG-2M4.

Amsterdam, Anthony G. “In Favorem Mortis: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment.” Human Rights (Winter 1987): 14–18.

Amsterdam, Anthony G. “Opening Remarks: Race and the Death Penalty before and after McCleskey.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 39 (2007): 35–58.

Amsterdam, Anthony G. “Selling a Quick Fix for Boot Hill: The Myth of Justice Delayed in Death Cases.” In The Killing State: Capital Punishment in Law, Politics and Culture. Austin Sarat ed. New York: Oxford University, 1999.

Anaya, Governor Toney. “Statement by Governor Toney Anaya on Crime and Capital Punishment.” 26 November 1986.

Applebome, Peter. “Georgia Inmate Is Executed after ‘Chaotic’ Legal Move.” New York Times 26 September 1991, (last visited 15 July 2011), http://www.nytimes.com/1991/09/26/us/georgia-inmate-is-executed-after-chaotic-legal-move.html.

Applebome, Peter. “Inmate Whose Appeals Shook System Faces Execution.” New York Times 24 September 1991: A5.

Armstrong, Ken and Steve Mills. “Ryan ‘Until I Can Be Sure’; Illinois Is First State to Suspend Death Penalty.” Chicago Tribune 1 February 2000, 3.

Associated Press. “5 States Consider Ban on Executions.” The Gazette 1 February 2000, A6.

Associated Press. “Georgia Court Blocks Electric Chair Use.” 5 October 2001, 2 February 2012, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines01/1005-03.htm.

Associated Press. “Humane Death by Gas Has History of Doubters.” Los Angeles Times 20 April 1992, A19.

Associated Press. “Inmate-Chosen Electric Chair Execution Looms.” CBS News 16 January 2013, (last visited 30 January 2013), http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57564227/inmate-chosen-electric-chair-execution-looms/.

Associated Press. “Killer of Two Is Hanged in Delaware as Kin of Victims Watch.” New York Times 26 January 1996, http://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/26/us/killer-of-2-is-hanged-in-delaware-as-kin-of-victims-watch.html.

Associated Press. “Massachusetts Gov. Deval Patrick’s 2nd Inaugural Ceremonies Begin with Prayer Service.” The Republican (Massachusetts) 6 January 2011, http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2011/01/massachusetts_gov_deval_patric_43.html.

Associated Press. “O’Connor Questions Death Penalty.” New York Times 4 July 2001: A9.

Associated Press. “Oklahoma Governor Signs Lethal Injection Legislation.” Tulsa World 18 April 2011, http://www.tulsaworld.com/article.aspx/Oklahoma_governor_signs_lethal_injection_legislation/20110418_336_0_oklaho875935.

Associated Press. “Ohio Catholic Bishops Support State Supreme Court Justice’s Call to End Use of Death Penalty.” Los Angeles Times 5 February 2011, http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/wire/sns-ap-us-death-penalty-ohio,0,7231235.story. (p.373)

Associated Press, “1,788 Await Death: 68 Have Been Executed since ‘72.” Phoenix Gazette 7 February 1987: A-6.

Associated Press. “Robertson Backs Moratorium: Says Death Penalty Used Unfairly.” Chicago Tribune 8 April 2000: N12.

Associated Press. “Willie Ross Will Get New Trial or Freedom.” AP News Archive. 26 May 1988, http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1988/14-Years-After-Conviction-Willie-Ross-Will-Get-New-Trial-Or-Freedom/id-57baf0fb54f12a9e29d6a87ba98c1b1a.

At the Death House Door. Dir. Peter Gilbert and Steve James. IFC, 2008.

Atler, Jonathan. “A Reckoning on Death Row.” Newsweek 3 July 2000, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-63042466.html.

“Authorized Methods of Execution.” Death Penalty Information Center. 6 May 2011, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/methods-execution#wa.

Aynesworth, Hugh. “Spotlight Expected at Texas Execution.” Washington Times 7 May 2000.

Babcock, Sandra. “Human Rights Advocacy in United States Capital Cases.” Bringing Human Rights Home Vol. 3. Cynthia Soohoo, Catherine Albisa, and Martha F. Davis, eds. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008.

Baker, David V. “American Indian Executions in Historical Context.” Criminal Justice Studies 20 (2007): 315–373.

Baldus, David C. and George Woodworth. “Race Discrimination and the Legitimacy of Capital Punishment: Reflections on the Interaction of Fact and Perception.” DePaul Law Review 53 (2004): 1411–1495.

Baldus, David C., George G. Woodworth, and Charles A. Pulaski, Jr. Equal Justice and the Death Penalty. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990.

Baldus, David C., George G. Woodworth, and Charles A. Pulaski, Jr. “Law and Statistics in Conflict: Reflections on McCleskey v. Kemp.” In Capital Punishment and the Judicial Process. Randall Coyne and Lyn Entzeroth eds. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2012.

Baldus, David C. et al. “McCleskey v. Kemp (1987): Denial, Avoidance and the Legitimization of Racial Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty.” In Death Penalty Stories. John H. Blume and Jordan M. Steiker eds. New York: Foundation, 2009.

Baldus, David, George Woodworth, and Catherine M. Grosso, “Race and Proportionality since McCleskey v. Kemp (1987): Different Actors with Mixed Strategies of Denial and Avoidance.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 39 (2007): 143–177.

Ball, Howard. “Thurgood Marshall’s Forlorn Battle against Racial Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty: The McCleskey Cases, 1987, 1991.” Mississippi College Law Review 27 (2008): 335–371.

Banner, Stuart. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Banner, Stuart. “Race and the Death Penalty in Historical Perspective.” From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Banner, Stuart. “Traces of Slavery.” From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State: Race and the Death Penalty in America. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Barbour, Phillip L. “Captain George Kendall: Mutineer or Intelligencer?” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 70 No. 3 (1962): 297:313.

Barnett, Arnold. “How Numbers Can Trick You.” Technology Review October 1994: 38–46.

Barrouquere. “Court Upholds Temporary Ban on Executions.” Kentucky Post 25 March 2011, http://www.kypost.com/dpp/news/state/Kentucky-Executions_02100031.

Bartels, Karen Augé and Lynn. “Nathan Dunlap Granted Temporary Reprieve by Colorado Gov. Hickenlooper.” Denver Post 22 May 2013, (p.374) http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_23299865/nathan-dunlap-temporary-reprieve-from-governor.

Beckett, Katherine and Heather Evans, “The Role of Race in Washington State Capital Sentencing, 1981-2012.” 27 Jan. 2014, (last visited 25 July 2014), http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/WashRaceStudy2014.pdf.

Beard, Kristina E. “Five under the Eighth: Methodology Review and the Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause.” University of Miami Law Review 51 (1997): 445–480.

Beccaria, Cesare. Of Crimes and Punishments. New York: Marsilio Publishers, 1996.

Bedau, Hugh Adam. “The Death Penalty in America. Yesterday and Today.” Dickenson Law Review 95 (1991): 749–772.

Bedau, Hugh Adam. Death Is Different: Studies in the Morality, Law and Politics of Capital Punishment. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1987.

Bedau, Hugo Adam (ed.). The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. John Bowring ed. Edinburgh: William Tait, 1843.

Berman, Mark. “Tennesse Has Long Had the Electric Chair, But Now It’s Going to Be Available for More Executions.” Washington Post 23 May 2014, <http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2014/05/23/tennessee-has-long-had-the-electric-chair-but-now-its-going-to-be-available-for-more-executions/>

Berryhill, Mike. Letter to Georgia Board of Pardons and Parole. 1 June 1991.

Bessler John D. Cruel and Unusual. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2012.

Bisbort, Alan. When You Read This, They Will Have Killed Me. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2006.

Blackmon, Douglas A. “Louisiana Death-Row Inmate Damon Thibodeaux Exonerated with DNA Evidence.” Washington Post 28 September 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/louisiana-death-row-inmate-damon-thibodeaux-is-exonerated-with-dna-evidence/2012/09/28/26e30012-0997-11e2-afff-d6c7f20a83bf_story.html.

Blake, John. “Murphy’s Law: Death Row Activist Keeps the Faith in Her Battle with Rare Cancer.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 14 April 1996: M3.

Bland, Randall W. Justice Thurgood Marshall: Crusader for Liberalism. Bethesda, MD: Academica Press, 2001.

Bluestein, Greg. “Georgia Execution Is Fodder for Challenges to New Drug.” Chattanooga Times Free Press (Tennessee) 28 June 2011, http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2011/jun/29/georgia-execution-fodder-challenges-new-drug/.

Blumenthal, Ralph “A Man Who Knew about the Electric Chair.” New York Times: City Room. 6 November 2011, http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/06/a-man-who-knew-about-the-electric-chair/#.

Boger, John Charles. Telephone Interview. 20 August 2012.

Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.

Bohm, Robert M. “American Death Penalty Opinion: Past, Present and Future.” American’s Experiment with Capital Punishment. James R. Acker, Robert M. Bohm, and Charles S. Lanier eds. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2003.

Bosco, Antoinette. Choosing Mercy: A Mother of Murder Victims Pleads to End the Death Penalty. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2001.

Bousquet, Steve. “Gov. Rick Scott Speeding up Florida Inmate Execution Process.” Tampa Bay Times 19 May 2013, http://www.tampabay.com/news/courts/ criminal/gov-rick-scott-speeding-up-execution-process/2121883.

Bowers, William J. “A Tribute to David Baldus, a Determined and Relentless Champion of Doing Justice.” Iowa Law Review 97 (2012): 1879–1904. (p.375)

Bowers, William J. and Glenn L. Pierce. “Arbitrariness and Discrimination under Post-Furman Capital Statutes.” Crime & Delinquency 26 (1980): 563–632.

Bowers, William J. et al. Legal Homicide: Death as Punishment in America, 1864–1982. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1984.

Bowers, William J. et al. “Death Sentencing in Black and White: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of Jurors’ Race and Jury Racial Composition.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 3 (2001): 171–274.

Bowman, Jeffrey H. “Slow Dance on the Killing Field.” Arizona Attorney July 1996: 20.

Brennan, Jr., William J. “Constitutional Adjudication and the Death Penalty: A View from the Court.” Harvard Law Review 100 (1986): 313–331.

Brennan, Sheila M. “Popular Images of American Women in the 1950s and Their Impact on Ethel Rosenberg’s Trial and Conviction.” Women’s Rights Law Reporter 14 (1992): 43–63.

Breslaver, January “A Troupe Intent on Creating American Operas and a Pair Unafraid of a Topical Subject Team for ‘Dead Man Walking.’” Los Angeles Times 1 October 2000.

Bright, Stephen B. “The Death Penalty and the Society We Want.” Pierce Law Review 6 (2008): 369–385.

Bright, Stephen B. “Death by Lottery—Procedural Bar of Constitutional Claims in Capital Cases due to Inadequate Representation of Indigent Defendants.” West Virginia Law Review 92 (1990): 679–697.

Bright, Stephen B. “Discrimination, Death and Denial.” From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Bright, Stephen B. “The Failure to Achieve Fairness: Race and Poverty Continue to Influence Who Dies.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 11 (December 2008): 23–38.

Bright, Stephen B. and Patrick J. Keenan. “Judges and the Politics of Death: Deciding between the Bill of Rights and the Next Election in Capital Cases.” Boston University Law Review 75 (1995): 759–835.

Brooks, Karen. “Victim’s Son Objects as Texas Sets Execution in Hate Crime Death.” Huffington Post 21 September 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/21/victims-son-objects-as-t_n_973654.html.

Brown, Mary Jane. Eradicating This Evil: Women in the American-Anti-Lynching Movement 1892–1940. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Brown, T.C. “Repeal Death Penalty, Original Sponsor Urges.” Cleveland Plain Dealer 19 February 1999: 1A.

Brozan, Nadine. “Chronicle.” New York Times 22 August 1994: B4.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. “Introduction.” In Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South. W. Fitzhugh Brundage ed. Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina, 1997.

Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois, 1993.

Bryan, Robert R. “The Execution of the Innocent: The Tragedy of the Hauptmann-Lindbergh and Bigelow Cases.” New York Review of Law and Social Change. 18 (1991): 831–873.

Burlingame, Michael. Abraham Lincoln: A Life, Vol. 1. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Burnette, Robert F., Affidavit of Robert F. Burnette, 9 May 1987 [on file with author].

Burr, Richard H., III. “Representing the Client on Death Row: The Politics of Advocacy.” University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review 59 (1990): 1–16.

Cadenhead, Paul et al. Documentation Submitted in Support of Application of Warren McCleskey for a 90 Day Stay of Execution and for Commutation of His Sentence of Death. 1991. [on file with author]

Camus, Albert. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, 1961.

Cannon, Carl M. “The Problem with the Chair: A Conservative Case against Capital Punishment.” National Review 19 June 2000: 28–32. (p.376)

Cantero, Raoul G. and Mark R. Schlakman. “Florida Death Penalty Law Overdue for Review.” The Gainseville Sun (Florida) 29 May 2011, http://www.gainesville.com/article/20110528/OPINION/110529512/.

“Capital Punishment in Britain: The Hangman’s Story.” The Independent 7 April 2006, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/capital-punishment-in-britain-the-hangmans-story-473138.html.

Carelli, Richard. “Lawyers See Shift against Death Penalty: ABA Takes No Position, But Wants to Ensure Safeguards and Legal Support for Defendants.” Star-Ledger 13 February 2000: 43.

Carlsen, William. “Support for Death Penalty—Sometimes.” San Francisco Chronicle 28 March 1990: A9.

Carter, Dan T. Scottsboro: A Tragedy of the American South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

Carter, Jimmy. “Show Death Penalty the Door.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 25 April 2012, http://www.ajc.com/news/news/opinion/show-death-penalty-the-door/nQTLS/.

Carter, Terry. “Lady of the Last Chance: Lawyer Makes Her Mark Getting Convicts off Death Row.” ABA Journal 1 August 2012, http://www.abajournal.com/ magazine/article/lady_of_the_last_chance/.

“The Celebration of the Home Going of Warren McCleskey.” Hanley Shelton Funeral Home. 28 September 1991 [funeral pamphlet].

Certiorari Petition Vote, 26 June 1986, McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811, Basic File. Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Archives. n.p., n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

Chafee, Lincoln D. “My Pleau Stand Affirms Core R.I. Values.” Providence Journal 24 August 2011, http://www.projo.com/opinion/contributors/content/CT_chafee_08-24-11_63PRJF6_v11.53bcc.html.

Chardavoyne, David G. A Hanging in Detroit: Stephen Gifford Simmons and the Last Execution under Michigan Law. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2003.

Christianson, Scott. The Last Gap: The Rise and Fall of the American Gas Chamber. Berkeley: University of California, 2010.

Christoph, James B. Capital Punishment and British Politics. London: Allen and Uwin, 1962.

Chua-Eoan, Howard. “The Top 25 Crimes of the Century.” Time Magazine 8 June 2010, http://www.time.com/time/2007/crimes/14.html.

Claiborne, William. “Philadelphia City Council Backs Halt to Executions.” Washington Post 11 February 2000: A02.

Clark, Lesley and Phil Long. “Florida’s Former Chief Justice Seeks to Bar Executions.” The Record (Bergen County, New Jersey) 24 October 1999: A7.

Clarke, Oscar W. et al. “Physician Participation in Capital Punishment.” Journal of the American Medical Association 1993: 333–352.

Coates, James. “A Governor’s Fit of Conscience Over an Unconscionable Crime.” Chicago Tribune 7 December 1986: 7.

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “Fear of a Black President.” Atlantic September 2012: 76–90.

Cochran, Noreen. “Marker Honors Lemon Street High School.” Marietta Daily Journal (Georgia) 26 October 2012, <http://mdjonline.com/bookmark/20618095-Marker-honors-Lemon-Street-High-School>.

Cohen, G. Ben. “McCleskey’s Omission: The Racial Geography of Retribution.” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 10 (2012): 65–101.

Cole, David. “It’s Time the Law Stopped Executing the Mentally Retarded.” Legal Times 19 May 1997, 27.

Collins, Rob. “A Century Later, the Photograph of an Oklahoma Lynching Still Resonates.” Oklahoma Gazette 24 May 2011, http://www.okgazette.com/oklahoma/print-article-11750-print.html.

Cook, Ronda and Jeanne Cummings. “Pace of Execution Bothers Miller.” Atlanta Constitution 27 September 1991: C4. (p.377)

Cooper, Ada. “Editorial.” Christian Recorder 28 September 1899, http://www.accessible.com/accessible/preLog.

Cooper, Jonathan J. “Ore. Governor Bans Death Penalty for Rest of Term.” Seattle Times 24 November 2011, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/text/2016834596.html.

Cox, Erin. “Martin O’Malley Running for President? Maryland Governor Says He Will Consider White House Run Now That General Assembly Session Is Over.” Baltimore Sun 11 April 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/11/martin-omalley-running-for-president_n_3059043.html.

Coyne, Randall and Lyn Entzeroth. Capital Punishment and the Judicial Process. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2012.

Crain, Craig. “Unfortunate Events: What Was the War of 1812 Even About?” New Yorker 22 October 2012: 77–80.

“Criminal Justice Legal Foundation.” n.p, n.d., (last visited 29 January 2013), http://www.cjlf.org/about/about.htm.

Cromwell, John W. “The Aftermath of Nat Turner’s Insurrection.” Journal of Negro History 5 April 1920: 208–234.

Curriden, Mark. “After McCleskey, Some Expect Leap in Ga. Executions.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 26 September 1991: D3.

Curriden, Mark. “Clemency Denied for McCleskey: Execution Set Tonight for Police Killing.” Atlanta Journal 24 September 1991: A1.

Curriden, Mark. “Congress Passes First Major Law Restricting Immigration,” ABA Journal, May 2013: 72.

Curriden, Mark. “I Deeply Regret That a Life Was Taken.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 21 September 1991: A12

Curriden, Mark. “McCleskey Put to Death after Hours of Delays, Final Apology.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 26 September 1991: D3.

Curriden, Mark. “Ready to Die, but Insisting He’s Innocent.” Atlanta Constitution 21 September 1991: A01

Curry, Bill. “Convicted Murderer Executed by Florida: Three Surges of Electricity, Convicted Killer Is Executed.” Washington Post 26 May 1979: sec. A.

Curry, Bill. “Bishop Granted His Wish: Death without Delay.” Washington Post 23 October 1979: A1.

Cutler, Christopher Q. “Nothing Less than the Dignity of Man: Evolving Standards, Botched Executions and Utah’s Controversial Use of the Firing Squad.” Cleveland State Law Review 50 (2003), 335–424.

Dando, Shigemitsu. “Toward the Abolition of the Death Penalty.” Indiana Law Journal 72 (1996): 7–19.

Dao, James. “DNA Ties Man Executed in ’92 to the Murder He Denied.” New York Times 13 January 2006: A14.

Darmer, Jill, Affidavit of Jill Darmer, 12 May 1987 [on file with author].

Davis, David Brion. “The Movement to Abolish Capital Punishment in America, 1787–1861.” American Historical Review 63 (1957): 23–46.

Davis, Murphy. “Warren McCleskey: A Faith Refined.” Hospitality January 1992: 3.

Davis, Murphy. Telephone Interview. 13 May 2011.

“The Death Penalty in Texas: Due Process and Equal Justice…or Rush to Execution?” Texas Civil Rights Project. September 2000, http://www.texascivilrightsproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/2000-the-death-penalty-in-texas.pdf.

The Death Penalty: Abolition in Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing, May 1999.

Delgado, Richard. “The Law of the Noose: A History of Latino Lynching.” Harvard Civil RightsCivil Liberties Law Review 44 (2009): 297–312.

Denno, Deborah W. “Getting to Death: Are Executions Constitutional?” Iowa Law Review 82 (1997): 319–464.

Denno, Deborah. “Is Electrocution an Unconstitutional Method of Execution? The Engineering of Death over the Century.” William and Mary Law Review 35 (1994): 551–692. (p.378)

Denno, Deborah W. “The Lethal Injection Quandary: How Medicine Has Dismantled the Death Penalty.” Fordham Law Review 76 (2007): 49–124.

Denno, Deborah W. “When Legislatures Delegate Death: The Troubling Paradox behind State Uses of Electrocution and Lethal Injection and What It Says about Us.” Ohio State Law Journal 63 (2002): 63–128.

Denno, Rob Zaleski. “State Culture Mapped Out.” Capital Times 7 November 1996: 1E.

Dieter, Richard C. “Struck by Lightning: The Continuing Arbitrariness of the Death Penalty Thirty-Five Years after Its Re-Instatement in 1976.” Report of the Death Penalty Information Center July 2011, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ documents/StruckByLightning.pdf.

Dillow, Gordon. “Judge McCartin Turns against Death Penalty.” Orange County (California) Register 2 March 2008.

Dolan, Jack and Carol J. Williams. “Jerry Brown Cancels Plan for $356-million Death Row.” Los Angeles Times 29 April 2011, http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-death-row-20110429,0,1177207.story.

Dolan, Maura. “Rose Bird’s Quest for Obscurity.” Los Angeles Times 15 November 1995: A1.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.

Donohue, John J. III. “An Empirical Evaluation of the Connecticut Death Penalty System Since 1973: Are There Unlawful Racial, Gender, and Geographic Disparities?” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 11 (December 2014) (forthcoming): n.p.

Dorin, Dennis D. “Far Right of the Mainstream: Racism, Rights and Remedies from the Perspective of Justice Antonin Scalia’s McCleskey Memorandum.” Mercer Law Review 45 (1994): 1035–1088.

Dow, David R. “Death Penalty, Still Racist and Arbitrary.” New York Times 8 July 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/09/opinion/09dow.html

Dragich, Martha. “Revelations from the Blackmun Papers on the Development of Death Penalty Law.” Missouri Law Review 70 (2005): 1183–1198.

Driggs, Ken. “A Current of Electricity in Intensity to Cause Immediate Death: A Pre-Furman History of Florida’s Electric Chair.” Stetson Law Review 22 (1993): 1169–1211.

Drimmer, Frederick. Until You Are Dead: The Book of Executions in America. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1990.

Drysdale, Jessica Renee. Interview with Felecca Wilson Taylor. Kennesaw State University Oral History Project. 25 September 2009, http://archon.kennesaw.edu/?p=digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=5.

Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: New American Library, 1982.

Dunlop, R.G. “Kentucky’s Troubled Death-Penalty System Lets Cases Languish for Decades.” Louisville Courier-Journal (2009), http://www.courier-journal.com/article/20091107/NEWS01/911080316/.

Earle, Steve. “Billy Austin.” The Hard Way. MCA, 1990. CD.

Eason, Tim. “AG Says Forensic Science Commission Can’t Consider Willingham Case, Others before September 2005.” Austin American-Statesman 29 July 2011, http://www.statesman.com/blogs/content/shared-gen/blogs/austin/politics/entries/2011/07/29/ag_says_forensic_science_commi.html.

Eberhardt, Jennifer L., Paul G. Davies, Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns, and Sheri Lynn Johnson. “Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes.” Psychological Science 17 (2006): 383–386.

Editorial Board. “Maryland’s Broken Death Penalty.” Washington Post 6 March 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/marylands-broken-death-penalty/ 2012/03/06/gIQA7tMhvR_story.html.

Editorial. “Supreme Court v. the Great Writ.” Atlanta Constitution 19 April 1991: A12.

Editorial. “Even in This Case.” Washington Post 12 May 2001: A24.

Editorial. “The New Death Penalty Politics.” New York Times 7 June 2000: A30. (p.379)

Egelko, Bob. “Justice Ginsburg Discusses Equality, Death Penalty.” San Francisco Chronicle 16 September 2011, http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/09/15/BAHD1L5CNN.DTL&tsp=1.

Eisenberg, Theodore. “Death Sentence Rates and County Demographics: An Empirical Study.” Cornell Law Review 90 (2005): 347–370.

Emily, Jennifer. “Dallas Criminal Courts Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional.” Dallas Morning News 24 December 2011, http://www.dallasnews.com/news/crime/headlines/20111224-dallas-criminal-courts- judge-rules-death-penalty-unconstitutional.ece.

Eng, James. “Judge Rules Race Tainted North Carolina Death Penalty Case.” MSNBC.com 20 April 2012, http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/04/20/ 11307519-judge-rules-race-tainted-north-carolina-death-penalty-case- inmate-marcus-robinson-spared-from-death-row.

Entin, Jonathan L. “Using Great Cases to Think about the Criminal Justice System.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 89 (1999): 1141–1156.

Entin, Jonathan L. “Why the Billy Mitchell Case Still Matters.” Journal of Air Law and Commerce 70 (2005): 577–606.

Epler, Patti. “Utter Quits Supreme Court in Protest of Death Penalty.” News Tribune (Tacoma, Washington) 30 March 1995: A1.

Equal Justice Initiative. Illegal Racial Discrimination in Jury Selection: A Continuing Legacy August 2010, http://eji.org/eji/files/EJI%20Race%20and%20Jury%20Report.pdf.

Espy, Watt, and John Ortiz Smykla. “Executions in the U.S. 1608–1987: The Espy File Executions by State.” The Death Penalty Information Center, (last visited 2 February 2013), http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/ESPYstate.pdf.

Estes, Adam Clark. “Thanks to ‘Lincoln,’ Mississippi Has Finally Definitely Ratified the Thirteenth Amendment.” The Atlantic Wire 18 February 2013, (last visited 28 February 2013), http://news.yahoo.com/thanks-lincoln-mississippi-finally- definitely-ratified-thirteenth-amendment-024920825.html.

“Executions by Year.” Death Penalty Information Center (last visited 8 June 2014), http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/executions-year.

“Executions: Dead Man Walking Out.” Economist 10 June 2000, 21–33.

Extraordinary Motion for New Trial, Georgia v. McCleskey. No. A-40553 (Superior Court of Fulton County, GA. October 13, 1978).

Fagan, Jeffrey. “Symposium on Pursuing Racial Fairness in Criminal Justice: Twenty Years after McCleskey v. Kemp.Columbia Human Rights Law Review 39 (2008): 1–33.

Fagan, Kevin. “‘This Was Not a Man Who Went Meekly’: An Eyewitness Account of Stanley Tookie Williams’ Execution.” San Francisco Chronicle 13 December 2005, http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/This-was-not-a-man-who-went-meekly-An-2588939.php.

Faigman, David Laurence. Laboratory of Justice: The Supreme Court’s 200-Year Struggle to Integrate. New York: Times Books, 2004.

Ferrell, Claudine L. Nightmare and Dream; Antilynching in Congress 19171922. New York: Taylor & Francis, Inc., 1986.

Filler, Louis. “Movements to Abolish the Death Penalty in the United States.” In Capital Punishment. Thorsten Sellin ed. New York: J&J Harper, 1969.

Fine, Toni M. “Moratorium 2000: An International Dialogue toward a Ban on Capital Punishment.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 30 (1999): 421–438.

Frady, Marshall. “Death in Arkansas.” New Yorker 22 February 1993: 105–133.

Frankfurter, Felix. The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1962.

Frankfurter, Marion D. and Gardner Jackson (eds.). The Letters of Sacco and Vanzetti. Boston: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1960. (p.380)

Frazier, Angelyn C. “Taking Death off the Table in the Land of Enchantment.” Champion June 2009: 42.

Freedman, Eric. M. “Leo Frank Lives: Untangling the Historical Roots of Meaningful Federal Habeas Corpus Review of State Convictions.” Alabama Law Review 51 2000: 1467–1540.

Friedman, Benjamin M. The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth. New York: Alred A. Knopf, 2005.

Galliher, John F. et al. America without the Death Penalty: States Leading the Way. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2002.

Galliher, John F., Gregory Ray, and Brent Cook. “Abolition and Reinstatement of Capital Punishment during the Progressive Era and Early 20th Century.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83 (1992): 538–572.

Garcetti, Gil. “California’s Death Penalty Doesn’t Serve Justice.” Los Angeles Times 25 March 2011, Opinion.

Garland, David. Peculiar Institution: America’s Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2012.

Garland, David. “Penal Excess and Surplus Meaning: Public Torture Lynchings in Twentieth-Century America.” Law and Sociology Review 39 (2005): 793–833.

Garrett, Brandon L. “After Osama bin Laden’s Death, Imagining a World without DNA Evidence.” Washington Post 13 May 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/after-osama-bin-ladens-death-imagining-a-world-without-dna- evidence/2011/05/03/AFD90W2G_story.html.

Gearan, Anne. “Ginsburg Backs Ending Death Penalty.” AP Online 10 April 2001.

Georgia Bureau of Investigation Division of Forensic Sciences. “Autopsy or Report of Examination of Body: Warren McCleskey.” Case No. B91-4487, 25 September 1991.

Georgia Department of Corrections Website, http://www.dcor.state.ga.us/GDC/OffenderQuery/jsp/OffQryRedirector.jsp.

Georgia Supreme Court Commission on Racial and Ethnic Bias in the Court System. “Let Justice Be Done: Equally, Fairly, and Impartially.” Georgia State University Law Review 12 (1996): 687–843.

Geringer, Joseph. “Karla Faye Tucker: Texas’ Controversial Murdress.” truTV Crime Library. (last visited 25 July 2014), http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/ notorious_murders/women/tucker/1.html.

Gerould, Daniel. Guillotine: Its Legend and Lore. New York: Blast Books, 1992.

Gettleman, Jeffrey. “Prosecutors’ Morbid Neckties Stir Criticism.” New York Times 5 January 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/05/us/prosecutors-morbid-neckties-stir-criticism.html.

Gibeaut, John. “Taking Aim,” A.B.A. Journal November 1996: 50–55.

Gibson, David. “Religions Rethinking the Death Penalty.” Record 8 August 1999: A01.

Gillespie, Mark. “Public Opinion Supports the Death Penalty.” Gallup News Service 24 February 1999, http://www.gallup.com/poll/releases.

Gilmore, Mikal. Shot in the Heart. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Ginzburg, Ralph. 100 Years of Lynching. Baltimore: Black Classic, 1988.

Goldman, John J. “Ex-sheriff Given Life Term for Murder of Rival.” Los Angeles Times 16 August 2002, http://articles.latimes.com/2002/aug/16/nation/na-sheriff16.

“Gone with the Wind Museum: Scarlett on the Square.” Gone with the Wind Museum Website, n.d., (last visited 28 June 2010), http://www.mariettaga.gov/gwtw/.

Goode, Erica. “After a Prolonged Execution in Ohio, Questions Over ‘Cruel and Unusual.’” New York Times 17 January 2014, <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/18/us/prolonged-execution-prompts-debate-over-death- penalty-methods.html>.

Gopnik, Adam. “The Caging of America.” New Yorker 30 January 2012: 72–77.

Graham, Judith. “Study: Nebraska Is Fair in Giving Death Penalty.” Chicago Tribune 2 August 2001: N11. (p.381)

Graham, Ruth Bell. “Afterward.” Woman on Death Row. Velma Barfield ed. Nashville: Oliver-Nelson, 1985.

Graczyk, Michael. “Shortage Forces Texas to Switch Execution Drug.” National Public Radio 16 March 2011, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=134591261.

Gray, Ian and Moira Gray (eds.). A Punishment in Search of a Crime: Americans Speak Out against the Death Penalty. New York: Avon Books, 1989.

Green, Frank. “Bipartisan Group Targets Wrongful Death Sentences.” Richmond Times Dispatch (Virginia) 12 May 2000: A-3.

Green, Frank. “Executions Moratorium Urged.” Richmond Times-Dispatch 2 February 2000: B4.

Green, Frank. “Va. Man Who Killed Two Inmates Is Executed.” Richmond Times-Dispatch 16 January 2013, (last visited 30 January 2013), http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/latest-news/convicted-killer-robert-charles-gleason- jr-dies-in-electric-chair/article_533cc100-6029-11e2-9393-0019bb30f31a.html.

Greenberg, David. “The Unkillable Death Penalty.” Slate Magazine 2 June 2000, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history_lesson/2000/06/the_unkillable_death_penalty.html.

Greenhouse, Linda. Becoming Justice Blackmun. New York: Times Books, 2005.

Greenhouse, Steven. “Examining a Labor Hero’s Death.” New York Times 26 August 2011, (last visited 9 June 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/27/us/27hill.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=Joe%20Hill&st=cse.

Grizzard, Lewis, “Frank Schlatt: Don’t Forget.” Covington News 26 May 2010, (last visited 5 June 2011), http://www.covnews.com/archives/12558/.

Gross, Jane. “Georgia Town Is Still Divided over the 1915 Lynching of a Jew.” New York Times 26 August 2000, (last visited 8 June 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/26/us/georgia-town-is-still-divided-over-the-1915- lynching-of-a-jew.html.

Gross, Samuel R. “David Baldus and the Legacy of McCleskey v. Kemp.” Iowa Law Review 91 (2012): 1905–1924.

Gross, Samuel R. and Barbara O’Brien, Chen Hu, and Edward H. Kennedy. “Rate of False Conviction of Criminal Defendants Who Are Sentenced to Death.” PNAS Early Edition. 25 March 2014, <http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/04/23/1306417111.full.pdf+html>.

Gross, Samuel R. and Josiah Thompson. “NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund Report on Larry Griffin.” Truth in Justice. 24 January 2007, http://www.truthinjustice.org/griffin-report.htm.

Hahn, Brad. “Executions Hit 38-Year High in ’95: Numbers Likely to Rise if Appeals Are Limited.” Chicago Tribune 5 December 1996: 18.

Haines, Herbert H. Against Capital Punishment: The Anti-death Penalty Movement in America, 19721994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. Revolt against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames and the Women’s Campaign against Lynching. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Hallett, Joe. “Death Penalty Isn’t Effective, Law’s Co-Author Now Believes.” Columbus Dispatch 18 February 1999: 01A.

Hallifax, Jackie. “Dead Inmate Cleared by DNA Tests.” Washington Post 15 December 2000: A16

Halloran, Liz. “Pulling Back from the Brink.” U.S. News and World Report 30 April, 2006, (last visited 8 May 2006), http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/060508/8death.htm.

Hamm, Theodore. Rebel and a Cause. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Hammel, P. “Judge Put Execution Views Aside.” Omaha World-Herald 2 February 2009. (p.382)

Hanrahan, Mark. “Ga. High School Students Set Up First Integrated Prom.” Huffington Post 4 April 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/04/segregated-prom-wilcox-county-ga-high-school_n_3013733.html.

Harris, Leslie A. “Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities, Report with Recommendation.” ABA No. 107 (February 1997), http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/legalservices/downloads/sclaid/20110325_aba_107.authcheckdam.pdf.

Harris, Lyle V. and Mark Curriden. “McCleskey Is Executed for ’78 Killing.” Atlanta Constitution 25 September 1991: A1.

Harwood, John. “Bush May Be Hurt by Handling of Death-Penalty Issue.” Wall Street Journal 21 March 2000: A28.

Haven, Paul. “Doubts Arise on Death Penalty.” Boston Globe 31 May 1999: A4.

Hearn, Daniel. Legal Executions in New England. Jefferson, NC: MacFarland, 1999.

Heller, Deborah L. “Death Becomes the State: The Death Penalty in New York—Past, Present and Future.” Pace Law Review 28 (2008): 589–615.

Heller, Nathan. “What She Said.” New Yorker 24 October 2011: 74–80.

Henberg, Marvin. Retribution: Evil for Evil in Ethics, Law and Literature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Hertzberg, Hendrik. “Over There.” New Yorker 1 August 2011.

“High Court Halts Duane Buck’s Texas Execution.” CBS News 15 September 2011, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/09/15/national/main20107049.shtml.

Hilburn, Robert. “Beyond Artistry: Steve Earle’s Inspirational Comeback from the Lost Years of Drug Addiction Yields a Rare Musical Intimacy and a Poetic Legacy.” Los Angeles Times 5 August 2000: F1.

Hirsley, Michael. “Legal Challenge an Indictment of Capital Punishment in U.S.” Chicago Tribune 13 July 1986, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1986-07-13/news/8602190518_1_death-penalty-law-professor-david-baldus-sentences/2.

Hoebel, Edward Adamson. The Law of Primitive Man. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1954.

Hoffman, January “As State after State Resumes Executions, U.S. Death-Penalty Law Is Still in Limbo.” New York Times 10 July 1992, http://www.nytimes.com/1992/07/10/news/as-state-after-state-resumes-executions-us-death-penalty-law-is-still-in-limbo.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.

Hohmann, Leo. “A Pilgrimage for ‘Little Mary.’” Marietta Daily Journal 28 April 2013, <http://www.mdjonline.com/view/full_story/22388225/article-A-pilgrimage-for-%E2%80%98little-Mary%E2%80%99->.

Hollyday, Joyce. “A Gift of Dignity.” Sojourners Magazine 24 January 1992: 24–26.

Holzer, Harold. “An Inescapable Conflict.” ABA Journal 97 (April 2011), http://www.abajournal.com/magazine/article/civil_war_ended_ slavery_an_inescapable_ conflict/

Hood, Roger. The Death Penalty: A World-Wide Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Hook, Donald. D. and Lothar Kahn. Death in the Balance: The Debate over Capital Punishment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.

Hoover, Tim. “Missouri to Stop Executing Retarded.” Kansas City Star 3 July 2001: B1.

Howe, Scott W. “Race, Death and Disproportionality.” Northern Kentucky Law Review 37 (2010): 213–241.

Huie, William Bradford. “The Shocking Story of Approved Killing Mississippi.” Look 24 January 1956, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/sfeature/sf_look_ confession.html.

Hunt, Governor George W.P. “Message of Governor George W.P. Hunt to the First Legislature of Arizona.” Phoenix Arizona Republican 12 September 1993: 3.

Ifill, Gwen. “Md. Woman’s Death Term Commuted.” Washington Post 21 January 1987: B7. (p.383)

“Illinois Governor Signs Bill Ending Death Penalty, Marking the Fewest States with Capital Punishment since 1978.” Death Penalty Information Center 9 March 2011, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/ILRepealPR.pdf.

”The Innocence List.” Death Penalty Information Center, (last visited 25 July 2014), http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/innocence-list-those-freed-death-row.

Inslee, Jay. “Governor Inslee’s Remarks Announcing a Capital Punishment Moratorium.” 11 February 2014, <http://governor.wa.gov/news/speeches/20140211_death_penalty_moratorium.pdf>

“Interview with Justice Harry A. Blackmun by Harold Hongju Koh.” Library of Congress 9 September 1994, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/blackmun-public/page.html?page=25&size=640&SERIESID=D09&FOLDERID=D0901.

Jackson, Joe and William F. Burke Jr. Dead Run: The Shocking Story of Dennis Stockton and Life and Death Row in America. New York: Walker & Company, 2000.

Jacobs, Leslie Gielow “Bench Memorandum from Leslie to Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. of 1 October 1986, McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811, Basic File.” Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. Archives, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

Jacobs, Leslie Gielow. “Memorandum from Leslie to Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. of 14 October 1986. McCleskey v. Kemp, Case File No. 811-6811.” Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Archives. n.p., n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

Jacobsen, Joel. “Remembered Justice: The Background, Early Career and Judicial Appointments of Justice Potter Stewart.” Akron Law Review 35 (2002): 227–250.

Jacoby, Jeff. “Supporters of Capital Punishment Can Cheer Gov. Ryan’s Decision.” Boston Globe 28 February 2000: A15.

James, Erwin. “Dead Man Talking.” Guardian 23 April 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/apr/23/prisonsandprobation.

“Jeb Bush Signs Bill Barring Executing the Retarded.” New York Times 13 June 2001: A30.

Jeffries, John C. “A Change of Mind That Came Too Late.” New York Review of Books 23 December 2010: A23.

Jeffries, John C. Justice Lewis Powell, Jr.: A Biography. New York: Fordham University Press, 1994.

“John Wayne Gacy.” Chicago Tribune 2 February 2012, http://www.chicagotribune.com/topic/crime-law-justice/crimes/murder/john-wayne-gacy-PEHST002275.topic.

Johnson, Dirk. “Utah Execution Hinges on Issue of Racial Bias.” New York Times 19 July 1992: sec: 1, http://www.nytimes.com/1992/07/19/us/utah-execution-hinges-on-issue-of-racial-bias.html.

Johnson, Kirk. “Dish by Dish, Art of Last Meals.” New York Times 25 January 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/arts/design/the-last-supper-by-julie-green-at-arts-center-in-oregon.html>

Johnson, Sheri Lynn, John H. Blume, Theodore Eisenberg, Valerie P. Hans, and Martin T. Wells. “The Delaware Death Penalty: An Empirical Study.” Iowa Law Review 97 (2012): 1925–1964.

Jones, Jeffrey. “U.S. Death Penalty Support Lowest in More than 40 Years.” Gallup Politics 29 October 2013, (last visited 25 July 2014), <http://www.gallup.com/poll/165626/death-penalty-support-lowest-years.aspx>.

Jones, Jeff and Lydia Saad. “Gallup Poll Social Series: Crime.” Gallup News Service Report 9 October 2011, http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.gallup.com/ContentPages/2532685075.pdf.

Jones, Walter C. “Gederal Official Rebuts Claims; Justice Spokewoman Stands Up to Challenge on Lynching Case.” Florida Times-Union. 23 July 2011: B-3. (p.384)

Jouvenal, Justin. “Ex-Virginia Executioner Becomes Opponent of Death Penalty.” Washington Post 10 February 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ local/ex-virginia-executioner-becomes-opponent-of-death-penalty/2013/02/ 10/9e741124-5e89-11e2-9940-6fc488f3fecd_story.html.

Joyce, James Avery. The Right to Life: A World View of Capital Punishment. London: Victor Gollancz, 1962.

Judges, Donald P. “Scared to Death: Capital Punishment as Authoritarian Terror Management.” University of California Davis Law Review 33 (1999): 155–248.

Kant, Immanuel. “The Science of Right.” William Hastie, trans. Great Books of the Western World. Robert M. Hutchins ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952.

Kaplan, David A. and Bob Cohn. “Pardon Me, Governer Wilde.” Newsweek 3 March 1991: 56.

Katz, Ian. “Pictures at an Execution.” Guardian 26 July 1996: T2.

Katz, Joseph L. “Warren McCleskey v. Ralph Kemp: Is the Death Penalty in Georgia Racially Biased?” June 1991, http://www.ourpaws.info/cramer/death/katz.htm.

Kaufman-Osborn, Timothy V. “Capital Punishment as Legal Lynching.” In From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State: Race and the Death Penalty in America. Charles Ogletree Jr. and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Keenan, John F. “The Lindbergh Kidnapping Revisited.” Michigan Law Review 84 (1986): 819–822.

Kennedy, John F. “Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights.” The American Presidency Project. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. n.d., (last visited 9 June 2012), http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9271&st=&st1=.

Kennedy, Randall L. “McCleskey v. Kemp: Race, Capital Punishment and the Supreme Court.” Harvard Law Review 101 (1988): 1388–1443.

Kerns, Jeannie. “After 35 Years in Prison, One Time Death Row Inmate Rebecca Machetti Released.” Guardian 3 July 2010, http://www.examiner.com/article/after-35-years-prison-one-time-death-row-inmate-rebecca-machetti- released.

“Killers in Arkansas. Texas Executed by Lethal Injection.” New York Times 26 June 1990: A2.

Kim, Jessica. “North Carolina Lawmakers Nearly Repeal Racial Justice Act.’” Talking Points Memo 17 June 2011, http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/06/north-carolina-lawmakers-challenge-law-that-attempts- to-restore-racial-justice-to-death-penalty.php.

King, Gilbert. Devil in the Grove. New York: HarperCollins, 2012.

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Advice for Living.” The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project. n.p., n.d., http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/primarydocuments/Vol4/Nov-1957_AdviceForLiving.pdf.

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail” 16 April 1963, http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html.

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter to G.W. Sanders.” The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project. n.p., n.d., http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/primarydocuments/Vol5/15June1959_ToG.W.Sanders.pdf,

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L. “Aggravating and Mitigating Factors: The Paradox of Today’s Arbitrary and Mandatory Capital Punishment Scheme.” William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 6 (1998): 346–459.

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L. “Casting a Wider Net: Another Decade of Legislative Expansion of the Death Penalty in the United States.” Pepperdine Law Review 34 (2006): 1–40.

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L.“Dead Innocent: The Death Penalty Abolitionist Search for a Wrongful Execution.” Tulsa Law Review 42 (2006): 403–435 (p.385)

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L. “Drinks, Drugs and Drowsiness: The Constitutional Right to Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Strickland Prejudice Requirement.” Nebraska Law Review 75 (1996): 425–475.

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L. “Let’s Make a Deal: Waiving the Eighth Amendment by Selecting a Cruel and Unusual Punishment.” Connecticut Law Review 32 (2000): 615-652.

Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L “Our Existential Death Penalty: Judges, Jurors and Terror Management.” Law and Psychology Review 32 (2008): 55–107.

Kittrie, Nicholas N., Elyce H. Zenoff, and Vincent A. Eng. Sentencing, Sanctions and Corrections. New York: Foundation Press 2002.

Koenig, Thomas H. and Michael L. Rustad. “Book Review: Deciding Whether the Death Penalty Should Be Abolished.” Suffolk University Law Review 44 (2011): 193–209.

Koestler, Arthur. Dialogue with Death. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Kosner, Edward. “An Infamous Crime Revisited.” Wall Street Journal 14 June 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303822204577466420187730062.html.

Kozinski, Alex and Sean Gallagher. “Death: The Ultimate Run-On Sentence.” Case Western Reserve Law Review 46 (1995): 1–32.

Lacayo, Richard, Anne Constable, and Daniel S. Levy. “Clearing a Path to the Chair.” Time Magazine 4 May 1987, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964240-1,00.html.

Laccetti, Susan. “McCleskey’s Letters Showed ‘A Deep Faith.’” Atlanta Journal 25 September 1991: A6.

Landsman, Stephen. “Legal History: History’s Stories.” Michigan Law Review 93 (1995): 1739–1767.

Lane, Mary Beth. “Celeste Commutes Eight Death Sentences.” Plain Dealer 11 January 1991: 1-A.

Lassiter, Patrice Shelton. Kennesaw and Marietta, Generations of Black Life in Georgia. Charleston: Arcadia, 1999.

Lazarus, Edward. “Mortal Combat: How the Death Penalty Polarized the Supreme Court.” Washington Monthly 1 June 1998: 2–3.

Lazarus, Edward. Closed Chambers. New York: Random House, 1998.

Lepore, Jill. “Birthright.” New Yorker 14 November 2011: 44–55.

Levy, Ariel. “Prodigal Son.” New Yorker 28 June 2010: 53.

Lewis, Nell Battle (ed.). “Capital Punishment in North Carolina: Special Bulletin Number 10.” Raleigh: The N.C. State Board of Charities and Public Welfare, 1929.

Leyden, John G. “Death in the Hot Seat: A Century of Electrocutions.” Washington Post 5 August 1990: D5.

Liebman, James S. “Slow Dancing with Death: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment, 1963–2006.” Columbia Law Review 107 (2007): 1–130.

Liebman, James S. “The New Death Penalty Debate: What’s DNA Got to Do with It?” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 33 (2002): 527–554.

Liebman, James S. and the Columbia DeLuna Project. The Wrong Carlos: Anatomy of a Wrongful Conviction. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

Liebman, James S. and Lawrence C. Marshall. “Less Is Better: Justice Stevens and the Narrowed Death Penalty.” Fordham Law Review 74 (2006): 1607–1680.

Liebman, James S., Shawn Crowly, Andrew Markquart, Lauren Rosenberg, Lauren Gallo White, and Daniel Zharkovsky. “Los Tocayos Carlos.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 43 (2012): 711–1151.

Liebman, James S., Jeffrey Fagan, and Valerie West. “A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973–1995.” Columbia University 12 June 2000, http://www2.law.columbia.edu/instructionalservices/liebman/.

Lifton, Robert J. and Greg Mitchell. Who Owns Death? Capital Punishment, the American Conscience and the End of Executions. New York: William Morrow & Co., 2000. (p.386)

Lincoln, Abraham. “On the Perpetuation of Our Political Instiutions.” Teaching American History. 27 January 1838, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/the-perpetuation-of-our-political-institutions/.

Lincoln, Judge James H. “The Everlasting Controversy: Michigan and the Death Penalty.” Wayne Law Review 33 (1987): 1765–1791.

Lindsay, Sue. “Judge Resigns over Death Penalty Law: Heydt, on Panel Picked to Rule in 1997 Slaying, Says System Is Flawed, Statute ‘Unworkable.’” Denver Rocky Mountain News 13 April 1999: 19A.

Liptak, Adam. “David Baldus, 75, Dies; Studied Race and the Law.” New York Times 14 June 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/15/us/15baldus.html.

Liptak, Adam. “New Look at Death Sentences and Race.” New York Times, 29 April 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/29/us/29bar.html.

Loring, Ed. “Warren and the Warden.” 11 Hospitality January 1992: 1

Lovett, C.S. Dealing with the Devil. Baldwin Park, CA: Personal Christianity, 1967.

Lowry, Beverly. “The Good Bad Girl.” New Yorker 9 February 1998: 60–70.

Lucas, Greg. “Poll Takes Snapshot of Californians’ Views.” San Francisco Chronicle 14 January 2000: A20.

Lynch, Mona and Craig Haney. “Looking across the Emphatic Divide: Racialized Decision Making on the Capital Jury.” Michigan State Law Review 2011 (2011): 573–607.

“Lynching This Morning in Columbus.” Butler Herald 13 August 1912: 5.

MacLean, Nancy. “Gender, Sexuality, and the Politics of Lynching: The Leo Frank Case Revisited.” Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South. William Fitzhugh Brundage ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. 158–188.

MacQuarrie, Brian. The Ride: A Shocking Murder and a Bereaved Father’s Journey from Rage to Redemption. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2009.

Magzis, Laura, PhD. Report. 8 July 1987 [on file with author].

Mailer, Norman. Executioner’s Song. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1979.

Mandery, Evan J. A Wild Justice: The Death and Resurrection of Capital Punishment in America. New York: W.W. Norton, 2013.

Mann, Dave. “DNA Tests Undermine Evidence in Texas Execution.” Texas Observer 11 November 2010, http://www.texasobserver.org/cover-story/texas-observer-exclusive-dna-tests-undermine-evidence-in-texas-execution.

Manson, Pamela. “New Chief Justice Hopes to Eliminate ‘Unhealty’ Tension.” Arizona Republic (Phoenix) 15 December 1996: B1.

“Marietta Confederate Cemetery.” City of Marietta, GA. n.d., (last visited 8 June 2010), http://www.mariettaga.gov/departments/parks_rec/cemeteries.aspx#3.

“Marietta’s Shame: The Lynching of Leo Frank.” Cobb Online. n.p., n.d., (last visited 8 June 2010), http://www.atlantanation.com/leofrank.html.

Marquart, James W. Sheldon Ekland-Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen, The Rope, the Chair and the Needle. Austin: University of Texas, 1994.

Marsel, Robert S. “Mr. Justice Arthur J. Golberg and the Death Penalty: A Memorandum to the Conference.” Southern Texas Law Review 27 (1986): 467–492.

Marshall, Thurgood. Papers of Thurgood Marshall. n.p., n.d. MS. Library of Congress, Manuscripts Division, Container 530, Folder 5.

Marshall, Thurgood. “Remarks on the Death Penalty Made at the Judicial Conference of the Second Circuit.” Columbia Law Review 86 (1986): 1–24.

Martelle, Scott. “The Faithful Report for Duty to the Boss.” Los Angeles Times 22 May 2000: B3.

Martin, Vicke L. “Who Killed Frank Schlatt?” Atlanta Voice 21 October 1978: 1.

Marzullo, Amanda. “Last Man Out: People v. Taylor and Its Precursors in New York Death Penalty Jurisprudence.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Law and Social Change 11 (2007–2008): 271–272.

Masters, Brooke A. “Pat Robertson Urges Moratorium on U.S. Executions.” Washington Post 8 April 2000: A1. (p.387)

Masters, Brooke A. “Reforms in System of Capital Punishment Are Urged; An Unusual Coalition Joins the Debate Over ‘Many Problems’ in Meting Out the Death Penalty.” Washington Post 12 May 2000: A31.

Masur, Louis P. Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and Transformation of American Culture, 17761865. New York: Oxford University, 2012.

Mayer, Jane. “Attack Dog.” New Yorker 20 February 2012: 42.

Mayer, Jane. “State for Sale.” New Yorker 10 October 2011: 90.

McCartin, Donald A. “Second Thoughts of a ‘Hanging Judge.’” Los Angeles Times 25 March 2011, http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe- mccartin-death-penalty-20110325,0,2340912.story.

McClennen, Crane. “Capital Punishment in Arizona.” Arizona Attorney October 1992: 18.

McCleskey, Warren. Letter to Rev. George Wirth. 29 December 1990.

McCleskey, Warren. Letter to Sister Reginald. 12 May 1982.

McCleskey, Warren. Letter to Sister Reginald. 7 July 1982.

McCleskey, Warren. “Warren McCleskey’s Last Will and Testament.” Jackson State Prison. 24 September 1991.

McEnteer, James. Deep in the Heart: The Texas Tendency in American Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2004.

McEvoy, George. “Too Bad Most Last Meals Aren’t Well Done.” Palm Beach Post 10 April 1995: 13A.

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1991.

McFeely, William S. “A Legacy of Slavery and Lynching: The Death Penalty as a Tool of Social Control.” Champion (November 1997): 30–32.

McKenzie, Judge Sam Phillips, Order of Judge Sam Phillips McKenzie, Georgia v. McCleskey, No. A-40553 (Superior Court of Fulton County, GA. October 13, 1978).

McLaurin, Melton A. Celia, A Slave. Athens: University of Georgia, 1991.

McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Mears, Michael, The Death Penalty in Georgia, A Modern History 19702000. Atlanta: Georgia Indigent Defense Division of Professional Education, 1999.

Mello, Michael. “Ivon Stanley and James Adams’ America: Vectors of Racism in Capital Punishment.” Criminal Law Bulletin 43 No. 5 (2007).

Mello, Michael. “On Metaphors, Mirrors, and Murders: Theodore Bundy and the Rule of Law,” New York University Review of Law & Social Change 18 (1990/1991): 887–938.

Meltsner, Michael. Cruel and Unusual: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment. New York: Random House, 1973.

Merlan, Anna. “Dallas County Judge Who Ruled Death Penalty Unconstitutional Is Forced to Recuse Herself.” Dallas Observer Blogs 3 January 2012, http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/unfairpark/2012/01/judge_who_declared_death_penal.php.

Merlan, Anna. “Teresa Hawthorne: The Decider.” Dallas Observer Blogs 24 June 2012, <http://blogs.dallasobserver.com/unfairpark/2012/06/judge_teresa_hawthorne_people.php>.

Miller, Bill. “The Execution of a Disabled Killer Rekindles the Debate on Capital Punishment.” The Washington Post 2 February 1993: Z10.

Millsap, Jr., Sam D. “Your Turn: Until the System Is Fixed, Executions Must Stop.” Express-News (San Antonio) 29 June 2000: 5B.

Minz, Howard. “Defeat of Proposition 34: California’s Death Penalty Battle Will Continue.” The Herald (Monterey County) 8 November 2012, http://www.montereyherald.com/politics-local/ci_21951068/defeat-proposition- 34-californias-death-penalty-battle-will.

Mitchell, Kirk. “Gov. Bill Ritter Issues 29 Pardons, Commutations.” Denver Post 8 January 2011, http://www.denverpost.com/search/ci_17040359.

Montgomery, Bill. “Both Sides of Debate Agree: Executions Aren’t Pleasent.” Atlanta Journal and Constitution 26 September 1991: D3. (p.388)

Montgomery, Bill. “McCleskey-Case Informant Freed on Execution Eve.” Atlanta Journal and Constitution 28 September 1991: B3.

Montgomery, Robert H. Sacco-Vanzetti: The Murder and the Myth. New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1960.

Moore, William “Billy” Neal. In Memory of Warren McCleskey. 25 September 1991 [on file with author].

Moore, William “Billy” Neal. I Shall Not Die. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2005.

Moore, William “Billy” Neal. “Remembering Warren.” 11 Hospitality January 1992: 5.

Moore, William “Billy” Neal. Telephone Interview. 5 July 2011.

Moran, Richard. Executioner’s Current. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.

Moss, Debra Cassens. “The Statistics of Death.” ABA Journal 1 January 1987: 51–55.

MSNBC.com News Service. “Del Governor Spares Murderer Facing Execution.” MSNBC.com 17 January 2012, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/46026790/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/#.TxYBJYHsbPo.

Mulkey, Bruce. “Time for a Moratorium on Death Penalty?” Asheville Citizen-Times (North Carolina) 8 July 2000: A6.

Musa, Aziza. “Board Approves Report on Willingham.” Texas Tribune 15 April 2011, http://www.texastribune.org/texas-dept-criminal-justice/cameron-todd-willingham/board-approves-report-on-willingham-/.

Mustian, Jim. “Georgia Pardons Board Spares Condemned Killer Daniel Greene.” Ledger-Enquirer 20 April 2012, http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/2012/04/20/2019904/georgia-pardons-board-spares-condemned.html.

Myers, Betty. Affidavit. 18 May 1987 [on file with author].

Nagourney, Adam. “Seeking an End to an Execution Law They Once Championed.” New York Times 6 April 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/07/us/fighting-to-repeal-california-execution-law-they-championed.html.

Nagy, Pamela S. “Hang by the Neck until Dead: The Resurgence of Cruel and Unusual Punishment in the 1990s.” Pace Law Journal 26 (1994): 85–131.

“National Affairs: Capital Punishment: A Fading Practice.” Time Magazine 21 March 1960, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,894775-1,00.html.

“National Briefs: N.H. House Deals blow to Death Penalty.” New Orleans Times-Picayune 11 March 2000: A9.

Nellis, Ashley and Ryan S. King. No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, July 2009.

“New Resolution Approved by the U.N.: The Pro Moratorium Front Grows.” Hands Off Cain 22 December 2010, http://www.handsoffcain.info/news/index.php?iddocumento=13317774.

Newport, Frank. “In U.S., 64% Support Death Penalty in Cases of Murder.” Gallup Politics 8 November 2010, (last visited 20 June 2013), http://www.gallup.com/poll/144284/Support-Death-Penalty-Cases-Murder.aspx.

Newport, Frank. “In U.S., Support for Death Penalty Falls to 39-Year Low.” Gallup Website 13 October 2011, http://www.gallup.com/poll/150089/Support-Death- Penalty-Falls-Year-Low.aspx.

Noah, Timothy. “Bush’s Tookie: Remembering Bush’s Worst Public Moment.” Slate Magazine 2 December 2005, http://www.slate.com/id/2131451/.

Nuckols, Christina. “Gilmore Signs Bill Opening DNA Window.” Virginia-Pilot 3 May 2001: A1.

Nugent, Karen. “Death Penalty Foes Aid Rep.” Telegram & Gazette (Worcester, Massachusetts) 18 December 2000: B1.

Nuss, Jeannie. “Arkansas Turns to Different Lethal injection Drug.” Associated Press 20 April 2013, http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/arkansas-turns-lethal- injection-drug-19001808#.UXmtDKLU-86.

O’Brien, Barbara and Catherine M. Grosso. “Confronting Race: How a Confluence of Social Movements Convinced North Carolina to Go Where the McCleskey Court Wouldn’t.” Michigan State Law Review 2011 (2011): 463–504.

Ochs, Phil. “Iron Lady.” I Ain’t Marching Anymore. Rhino/Elektra, 2006. CD. (p.389)

O’Connor, Justice Sandra Day. “Note from Justice Sandra Day O’Connor to Justice Lewis F. Powell of 13 November 1986, McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811, Basic File.” Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. Archives, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

O’Connor, Justice Sandra Day. “Thurgood Marshall: The Influence of a Raconteur.” Stanford Law Review 44 (1992): 1217–1220.

Office of Planning and Analysis of Georgia Department of Corrections. “A History of the Death Penalty in Georgia.” January 2010, http://www.dcor.state.ga.us/pdf/TheDeathPenaltyinGeorgia.pdf.

“Officer Down Memorial Page.” n.p, n.d., (last visited 4 April 2011), http://www.odmp.org/agency/177-atlanta-police-department-georgia.

Ogletree, Jr., Charles J. “Making Race Matter in Death Matters.” In From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State. Charles J. Ogletree Jr. and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University, 2006.

Ogletree, Jr., Charles J. “Black Man’s Burden: Race and the Death Penalty in America.” Oregon Law Review 81 (2002): 15–38.

O’Hanlon, Kevin. “Bill Abolishing the Death Penalty Could Be in Peril.” Lincoln Journal Star 13 May 2012, http://journalstar.com/legislature/bill-abolishing- the-death-penalty-could-be-in-peril/article_f8a967f5-f239-5486-aebf- 93466fdfd369.html.

“Oklahoma Killer Is Put to Death.” New York Times 11 September 1990: A15.

Olsen, Lise. “The Cantu Case: Death and Doubt.” Houston Chronicle 24 July 2006, http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/3472872.html.

Olsen, Lise and Maro Robbins. “Lawyers Join Chorus for an Outside Cantu Review.” Houston Chronicle 25 July 2006: A1.

Olsen, Lise and Maro Robbins. “Tapes Spur Calls for DA to Relinquish Cantu Case.” San Antonio Express-News 24 July 2006, http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/crime/stories/MYSA072506.1A.CantuFollo.14c6778.html.

Oney, Steve. And the Dead Shall Rise. New York: Vintage, 2004.

“Oral Agrument.” McKleskey v. Zant,, n.p. 16 April 1991, http://www.oyez.org/cases/ 1990-1999/1990/1990_89_7024/.

O’Reilly, Bill. “Commentary: Worse than the Death Penalty.” 2000 APBnews.com Online 8 June 2000.

Oshinsky, David M. Capital Punishment on Trial. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010.

Paden, Rebecca Nash and Joe McTyre. 175 Facts about Marietta Georgia. Marietta: City of Marietta, Georgia, 2009.

Parrish, Michael E. “Revisited: The Rosenberg “Atom Spy” Case.” University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review 68 (2000): 601–621.

Paternoster, Raymond, Robert Brame, Sarah Bacon, and Andrew Ditchfield. “Justice by Geography and Race: The Administration of the Death Penalty in Maryland, 1978–1999.” University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class 4 (2004): 1–99.

Paulus PP. II., Ioannes. Evangelium Vitae 25 March 1995, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031995_ evangelium-vitae_en.html.

Pazniokas, Mark. “At Petit’s Request, Two Senators Stop Repeal of Death Penalty.” Connecticut Mirror 11 May 2011, http://www.ctmirror.org/story/petits- request-two-senators-stop-repeal-death-penalty.

Pearson, Edmund. “A Reporter at Large: Hauptmann and Circumstantial Evidence.” New Yorker 9 March 1935: 37–48.

Pena, Susan L. “A Cantata of Redemption: Warren McCleskey’s Final Statement Set to Music.” Sojourners Magazine May–June 1995: 61.

Persky, Anna Stolley. “Numbers Tell the Tale: North Carolina’s Death Row Inmates Let Statistics Back up Bias Claims.” ABA Journal May 2011: 18. (p.390)

Pertman, Adam. “Judge’s Obscurity after Vote a ‘Tragedy.’” Boston Globe 19 May 1996: 2.

Pfeifer, Paul E. “Retire Ohio’s Death Penalty.” Cleveland Plain Dealer 26 January 2011, http://www.cleveland.com/opinion/index.ssf/2011/01/retire_ohios_death_penalty_pau.html.

Phillips, Scott. “Racial Disparities in the Capital of Capital Punishment.” Houston Law Review 45 (2008): 807–840.

Piazza, Bob. “Opposing the Death Penalty; Relatives of Victims Join Call for Moratorium.” Richmond Times Dispatch 30 April 2000: B–6.

Pikington, Ed. “Georgia Rushes through Executions before Lethal Injection Drugs Expire.” Guardian 21 February 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/21/georgia-executions-lethal-injection-drug-pentobarbital.

Piscopo, Michelle. “Provenzano v. Moore and Bryan v. Moore: How These Two Challenges Finally Forced the Florida Legilature to Pull the Plug on Old Sparky.” Temple Political and Civil Rights Law Review 10 (2000): 245–264.

Pittman, Craig. “‘Dead Man Walking’ Brings Nun’s Crusade to Screen.” Star Tribune (Minneapolis) 19 January 1996: E1.

Podgers, James. “A Break for Executions: New ABA President Calls for Push on Death Penalty Moratorium.” ABA Journal September 2000: 99.

Ponsor, Michael. “Life, Death and Uncertainty.” Boston Globe 8 July 2001: D2.

Poole, Shelia M. “Forgiven,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 30 March 2013, http://www.myajc.com/news/news/forgiven/nW6tj/.

Possley, Maurice. “Fresh Doubts Over a Texas Execution.” Washington Post 3 August 2014, <http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/national/2014/08/03/fresh-doubts-over-a-texas-execution/>.

Possley, Maurice. “Man Executed on Disproven Evidence, Experts Say.” Chicago Tribune 2 May 2006, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chi-060502willingham,0,7161822.story.

Powell, Justice Lewis F. “Memorandum to Conference of 16 October 1986.” McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811. n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

Powell, Jr., Justice Lewis “Memorandum to Leslie from Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. of 16 September 1986, McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811, Basic File.” Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. Archives, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012), http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf.

Powell, Jr., Justice Lewis. “Note from Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. to Chief Justice William Rehnquist of 31 March 1987, McCleskey v. Kemp Case File, No. 811-6811, Basic File.” Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr. Archives, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. n.d., (last visited 28 June 2012). <http://law.wlu.edu/deptimages/powell%20archives/McCleskeyKempBasic.pdf>.

Prejean, Helen. The Death of Innocents: An Eyewitness Account of Wrongful Executions. London: Canterbury Press Norwich, 2006.

Prejean, Helen. Dead Man Walking: An Eyewitness Account of the Death Penalty in the United States. New York: Random House, 1993.

Prettyman, Jr., Barrett. Death and the Supreme Court. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1961.

Prial, Dunstan. “UN Receives Anti-Execution Petition.” AP Online, 18 December 2000, 2000 Westlaw 30834462.

Protess, David. “Two Volunteers for Execution, Two Governors Who Would Not Let Them Die.” Huffington Post 28 November 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-protess/kitzhaber-death-penalty-moratorium-oregon_b_1113616.html.

Pryor, Judge Joel J. “Order by Judge Joel J. Pryor, Chief Judge Superior Court of Atlanta, GA Judicial Circuit.” 25 June 1987. (p.391)

Pusey, Allen. “Truman Escapes Assassination.” ABA Journal November 2012: 72.

Radelet, Michael L. “Post-Furman Botched Executions.” LIFElines 1991: 7.

Radelet, Michael L. “The Role of the Innocence Argument in Contemporary Death Penalty Debates.” Texas Tech Law Review 41 (2008): 199–220.

Radelet, Michael L. and Hugo Adam Bedau. “The Execution of the Innocent.” In America’s Experiment with Capital Punishment: Reflections of the Past, Present and Future of the Ultimate Penal Sanction. James R. Acker et al. eds. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2003.

Radelet, Michael L. and Hugo Adam Bedau. “Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases.” Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21–173.

Radelet, Michael L. and Glenn L. Pierce. “The Role of Victim’s Race and Geography on Death Sentencing.” In From Lynch Mobs to the Killing State. Charles J. Ogletree and Austin Sarat eds. New York: New York University Press, 2006.

Radelet, Michael L., Hugo Adam Bedau, and Constance E. Putnam. In Spite of Innocence. Boston: Northeastern University, 1992.

Rakoff, Vivian. “The Death Penalty and Youth.” Family Practice News. 15 May 2005, http://www.familypracticenews.com/index.php?id=2934&type=98&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=43084&cHash=da03e20e36.

Ramo, Rene. “Ex-convict Works to Rebuild Life after Spending Years on Death Row.” Denver Post 22 May 1998: A-32.

Ramsland, Katherine. “Gary Gilmore.” TruTV Crime Library. n.d., (last visited 25 July 2014), http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/mass/gilmore/index_1.html.

Rankin, Bill, et al. “A Matter of Life or Death.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 22–25 September 2007, http://www.ajc.com/metro/content/metro/stories/deathpenalty/dayone/dpdayone1.html.

Ratcliffe, R.G. “Ex-governor Urges Death Penalty Review.” Houston Chronicle 18 October 2009, http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/6673921.html.

“Recapping the Times’ Election Endorsements.” Los Angeles Times 4 November 2012, http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/endorsements/la-ed-end-recap- 20121104,0,5024503.story.

Redlich, Norman. “Fighting the Death Penalty: A Thirty-Five Year Perspective.” Albany Law Review 54 (1989–1990): 617–624.

Redlich, Norman. “‘Out Damned Spot; Out, I Say.’ The Persistence of Race in American Law.” Vermont Law Review 25 (2001): 475–522.

Redmon, Jeremy and Craig Schneider. “Georgians React to Judge’s Decision to Halt Parts of Anti-illegal Immigration Law.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 28 June 2011, http://www.ajc.com/news/georgia-politics-elections/georgians-react- to-judges-991342.html.

Redmon, Jeremy. “Georgia Lawmakers Pass Illegal Immigration Crackdown.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution 14 April 2011, http://www.ajc.com/news/georgia-lawmakers-pass-illegal-909988.html.

Reid, T.R. “Many Europeans See Bush as Executioner Extraordinaire.” Washington Post 17 December 2000: A36.

“Report of the Circuit Attorney on the Murder of Quintin Moss and Conviction of Larry Griffin.” Death Penalty Information Center. 12 July 2007, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/finalreport_execsum.pdf.

Reske, Henry J. “Behind the Scenes.” ABA Journal August 1993: 28.

Robertson, Gary. “Veto Override Scuttles N.C. Racial Justice Act.” Charlotte Post 3 July 2012, http://www.thecharlottepost.com/index.php?src=news&srctype=detail&category=News&refno=4765.

Robinson, Bill. “Robbery Victim: McCleskey Was ‘Guilty as Sin.’” Atlanta Journal 25 September 1991: A6.

Robinson, Dr. Matthew. “The Death Penalty in North Carolina.” n.d., (last visited 1 March 2011), http://pscj.appstate.edu/ncdeathpenalty/. (p.392)

Robinson, Paul H. and John M. Darley. “The Utility of Desert.” Northwestern University Law Review 91 (1997): 453–499.

Rockefeller, Winthrop. “Executive Clemency and the Death Penalty.” Catholic University Law Review 21 (1971): 94–102.

Rogers, Alan. “‘Success—at Long Last’: The Abolition of the Death Penalty in Massachusetts, 1928–1984.” Boston College Third World Law Journal 22 (2002): 281–353.

Rohatyn, Felix. “The Shadow over America.” Newsweek 29 May 2000: 22.

Roper, Donald M. “Goldberg, Arthur Joseph.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L. Hall ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Rose, David. “Dead Man Stalking.” The Observer 21 April 1996: 8.

Rose, David. “The One Empty Seat in Atlanta.” The Observer 14 July 1996: 3.

Rosen, Jeffrey. The Supreme Court: The Personalities and Rivalries That Defined America. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2007.

Rosenfeld, David. “Ex-member of Clemency Board Alters Death View.” Mesa Tribune 29 October 2000: A5.

Rusche, Georg and Otto Kircheimer. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.

Rush, Benjamin. An Enquiry into the Effects of Public Punishments upon Criminals and upon Society. Philadelphia: Joseph James, 1787.

Rush, Benjamin. “On Punishing Murder by Death.” The Selected Writings of Benjamin Rush. Dragobert D. Runes ed. New York: Philosophical Library, 1947.

Ryan, Jr., Bernard. “Trials of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell: 1951.” American Trials of the 20th Century. Edward W. Knappmann ed. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1995.

Ryan, Cy. “Governor Vetoes Bill Calling for Study of Death Penalty Costs.” Las Vegas Sun News 9 June 2011, http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2011/jun/09/governor-vetoes-bill-calling-study-death-penalty-c/.

Sachdeva, Anjali. “French Leader Says U.S. Should Abolish Death Penalty.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 29 August 2000: D6.

Samuels, David. “American Mozart.” Atlantic Monthly. May 2012: 72–83.

Sanburn, Josh. “Designer of Georgia’s Confederate License Plate Doesn’t Understand Why People Are Upset.” Time Magazine 20 February 2014, http://nation.time.com/2014/02/20/confederate-flag-georgia-license-plate/.

Sanburn, Josh. “Report: Executioner Errors Led to Botched Lethal Injection.” Time Magazine 13 June 2014, <http://time.com/2871154/clayton-lockett-botched- execution-due-to-iv-problems/>.

Sandlin, Erin. Interview with Clara Garrett Jenkins. Kennesaw State University Oral History Project, Cobb NAACP. Civil Rights Series. No. 33, 19 October 2009, (last visited 25 July 2014), http://archon.kennesaw.edu/index.php?p= digitallibrary/digitalcontent&id=36&q=menaboni.

Santos, Fernanda and John Schwartz. “A Prolonged Execution in Arizona Leads to a Temporary Halt.” New York Times 24 July 2014, <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/25/us/a-prolonged-execution-in-arizona-leads-to-a-temporary-halt.html>.

Sarat, Austin. “ABA’s Proposed Moratorium: Recapturing the Spirit of Furman: The American Bar Association and the New Abolitionist Politics.” Law and Contemporary Problems 61 (1998): 5–28.

Sarat, Austin. “The Cultural Life of Capital Punishment: Responsibility and Representation in Dead Man Walking and Last Dance.” In The Killing State: Capital Punishment in Law, Politics, and Culture. Austin Sarat ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Sarokin, H. Lee. “Does a Botched Execution Constitute Double Jeopardy.” Huffington Post 5 October 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/judge-h-lee-sarokin/does-a-botched-execution_b_309751.html. (p.393)

Schabas, William A. The Abolition of the Death Penalty in International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1997.

Schanche, Jr., Don. “Georgia’s Electric Chair Has Grim History.” Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. 8 October 2001, http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-6782784_ITM.

Scheidegger, Kent S. “Capital Punishment in 1987: The Puzzle Nears Completion.” Western State University Law Review 15 (1987): 95–126.

Scheidegger, Kent. “Rebutting the Myths about Race and the Death Penalty.” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 10 (2012): 147–165.

Scherzer, Aaron. “The Abolition of the Death Penalty in New Jersey and Its Impact on Our Nation’s ‘Evolving Standards of Decency.’” Michigan Journal of Race and the Law 15 (2009): 223–263.

Schwartz, Louis. Book Review of Protest: Sacco-Vanzetti and the Intellectuals by Felix, David. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 114 (1966): 1260–1264.

Schwartzman, Rebecca. “ABA Conference Brings Scrutiny to Ga.’s Capital Procedures.” Fulton County Daily Report 17 October 2000: 1.

Scott, Thomas Allen. “Marietta.” Cities and Counties.” 19 December 2011. 8 June 2010, http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-765.

Scott, Thomas Allen. Cobb County, Georgia and the Origins of the Suburban South: A Twentieth-Century History. Marietta: Cobb Landmarks and Historical Society, 2003.

Seabrook, John. “Don’t Shoot.” New Yorker 22 June 2009: 36.

Seelye, Katharine. “Measure to Repeal Death Penalty Fails by a Single Vote in New Hampshire Senate.” New York Times 17 April 2014, <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/us/in-new-hampshire-measure-to-repeal-death-penalty- fails-by-a-single-vote.html>.

Sellin, Thorsten. “Executions in the United States.” In Capital Punishment. Thorsten Sellin ed. New York: J&J Harper, 1969.

Severson, Kim. “North Carolina Repeals Law Allowing Racial Bias Claim in Death Penalty Challenges.” New York Times 5 June 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/06/us/racial-justice-act-repealed-in-north-carolina.html.

Shannon, Brad. “GOP’s Dunn Concedes to Bob Ferguson in AG Race.” Olympian 8 November 2012, http://www.theolympian.com/2012/11/08/2312527/gops-dunn-concedes-to-bob-ferguson.html.

Shapiro, Bruce. “Dead Reckoning: A World Effort to Force an End to the U.S. Death Penalty Is Gaining Strength.” Nation 6 August 2011: 14–18.

Shechter, Patricia A. “Unsettled Business: Ida B. Wells against Lynching, or How Anti-lynching Got Its Gender.” In Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South. W. Fitzhugh Brundage ed. Chapel Hill & London: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Shuster, Fred. “Musicians Join Voices against Death Penalty.” Daily News of Los Angeles 25 March 1998: L5.

Sickinger, Ted. “Coalition Opposes Executions.” Kansas City Star 14 February 2000: B1.

Simon, Jim and Jack Broom. “Utter Quitting Supreme Court—Justice Says He Can’t Be Party to State’s Capital Punishment.” Seattle Times 29 March 1995: A1.

Simon, Stephanie. “Benetton Sued over Death Row Visits.” Los Angeles Times 24 February 2000: A5.

Simpson, Sandra L. “Everyone Else Is Doing It, Why Can’t We? A New Look at the Use of Statistical Data in Death Penalty Cases.” Journal of Gender, Race & Justice 12 (Spring 2009): 509–543.

Socolovsly, Jerome. “Germany Opposes U.S. Death Penalty.” AP Online 13 November 2000, 2000 WL 29040420.

Soteropoulos, Jacqueline. “Ex-state Justice: Innocent Executed.” Tampa Tribune (Florida) 12 February 2000: 1. (p.394)

Spangler, Anthony. “Judge Expresses Concerns about Fairness of Death Penalty.” Fort Worth Star-Telegram 24 July 2001: 4.

Staletovich, Jerry. “Justice Raising Voice to Bury Death Penalty.” Palm Beach Post (Florida) 19 January 1998: 1A.

Stann, Kap. Moon Handbooks: Georgia. Emeryville: Avalon Travel, 2008.

“State by State Database.” Death Penalty Information Center 8 June 2012, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/state_by_state.

“State-by State Strategy Propelled Atkins to Success, Ellis Says.” University of Virginia School of Law 3 March 2005, (last visited 25 June 2013), http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_spr/atkins.htm.

“Statement from Governor Pat Quinn.” Illinois Government New Network 9 March 2011, http://www.illinois.gov/PressReleases/ShowPressRelease.cfm?SubjectID=2&RecNum=9265.

Steiker, Carol S. and Jordan M. Steiker. “Annex B—Report to the ALI concerning Capital Punishment.” Report of the Council to the Membership of the American Law Institute on the Matter of the Death Penalty. American Law Institute, April 15, 2009, (last visited 11 July 2013), http://www.ali.org/doc/capital%20punishment_web.pdf.

Steiker, Carol S. and Jordan M. Steiker. “The Seduction of Innocence: The Attraction and Limitations of the Focus on Innocence in Capital Punishment Law and Advocacy.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 95 (2005): 594–624.

Steiker, Carol S. and Jordan M. Steiker. “Sober Second Thoughts: Reflections on Two Decades of Constitutional Regulation of Capital Punishment.” Harvard Law Review 109 (December 1995): 355–438.

Stein, Rob. “Ohio Executes Inmate Using Single Drug.” Washington Post 10 March 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/10/AR2011031000737.html?hpid=topnews.

Stevens, John Paul. Five Chiefs. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2011.

Stevens, John Paul. “On the Death Sentence.” New York Review of Books 23 December 2010.

Stevens, John Paul. Six Amendments: How and Why We Should Change the Constitution. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2014.

Stewart, Barbara. “Life and Death. It’s a Living.” New York Times 5 May 1996: NJ-4.

Stout, David G. “The Lawyers of Death Row.” New York Times Magazine 14 February 1988, http://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/14/magazine/the-lawyers-of-death-row.html?src=pm.

Stratford, Michael. “Ark. Governor Reverses Course on Death Penalty.” San Francisco Chronicle 21 January 2013, http://www.sfgate.com/default/article/Ark-governor-reverses-course-on-death-penalty-4199466.php.

Streib, Victor. “Death Penalty for Female Offenders.” University of Cincinnati Law Review 58 (1990): 845–880.

Stroup, Robert H. “The Political, Legal and Social Context of the McCleskey Habeas Litigation.” Columbia Human Rights Law Review 39 (2007): 74–96.

Stroup, Robert. Telephone Interview. 31 July 2012.

Strout, George M. A Sketch of the Laws Relating to Slavery in the Several States of the United States of America. Philadelphia: Henry Longstreth, 1856.

“Study: White and Black Children Biased toward Lighter Skin.” CNN U.S. 13 May 2010, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-05-13/us/doll.study_1_black-children- pilot-study-white-doll?_s=PM:US.

Summers, Margaret. “The Death Penalty Gender Gap.” Womensenews.org 21 April 2011, http://www.womensenews.org/story/crime-policylegislation/110424/the-death-penalty-gender-gap.

Sunby, Scott E. “The Loss of Constitutional Faith: McCleskey v. Kemp and the Dark Side of Procedure.” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 10 (2012): 5–35.

Swofford, Stan. “State Law Could Affect McCarver Case.” News and Record 7 August 2001: B3. (p.395)

Tabak, Ronald J. “Capital Punishment.” The State of Criminal Justice 2012. American Bar Association Criminal Justice Section, June 2012.

Tabak, Ronald J. “The Continuing Role of Race in Capital Cases, notwithstanding President Obama’s Election.” Northern Kentucky Law Review 37 (2010): 243–271.

Tabak, Ronald J. “Executing People with Mental Disabilities: How We Can Mitigate an Aggravating Situation.” Saint Louis University Public Law Review 25 (2006): 283–306.

Tabak, Ronald J. “Finality without Fairness: Why We Are Moving towards Moratoria on Executions, and the Potential Abolition of Capital Punishment.” University of Connecticut Law Review 33 (2001): 733–763.

Tang, Terry. “We Delude Ourselves about Barbarity of Death Penalty.” Seattle Times 5 April 1995: B4.

Tarschys, Daniel. “Preface.” The Death Penalty: Abolition in Europe. Council of Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 1999.

Taslitz, Andrew E. and Carol Steiker. “Introduction to the Symposium: The Jena Six, the Prosecutorial Conscience and the Dead Hand of History.” Harvard Civil RightCivil Liberties Law Review 44 (2009): 275–295.

Taylor, Marisa. “Study: Racial Disparities Taint Military’s Use of Death Penalty.” The Kansas City Star 28 August 2011, http://www.kansascity.com/2011/08/ 28/3104989/study-racial-disparities-taint.html.

Taylor, Jr., Stuart. “Glimpses of the Least Pretentious of Men.” Legal Times 8 February 1993, http://stuarttaylorjr.com/content/glimpses-least-pretentious-men/.

Taylor Jr., Stuart. “The Politics of Hanging Judges.” Legal Times 30 October 1995: 25.

Taylor, Stuart. “We Will Kill You Anyway.” The American Lawyer December 1990, http://stuarttaylorjr.com/content/we-will-kill-you-anyway.

Tempesta, Anthony. Book Review. The Lindbergh Case by Fisher, Jim. Military Law Review 147 (1995): 293–296.

Temple, Sarah Blackwell Gober. The First Hundred Years: A Short History of Cobb County, in Georgia. Marietta: Cobb Landmarks and Historical Society, 1997.

Thomas, Jr., Robert M. “Fred Speaker, 66, a Crusader against Capital Punishment.” New York Times 16 September 1996: B9.

Thomas, Evan. “Life of O’Reilly.” Newsweek 12 February 2001: 29.

Thomas-Lester, Avis. “A Senate Apology for History on Lynching.” Washington Post 14 June 2005, <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/ 2005/06/13/AR2005061301720.html>.

Thurston III, George L. “Propers Say Spenkelink Was Denied His Rights before Being Executed.” Washington Post 21 September 1979: sec. A.

Timberg, Craig. “A Death Penalty Change of Heart; Va. Lawmakers to Weigh Legislation to Stop, Stall or Study the System.” Washington Post 28 January 2001: C1.

Timms, Ed. “Terrell Unit Is Renamed.” Dallas Morning News 21 July 2001: 32A.

Tirschwell, Eric A. and Theodore Hertzberg. “Politics and Prosecution: A Historical Perspective on Shifting Federal Standards for Pursuing the Death Penalty in Non-Death Penalty States.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 12 (2009): 57–98.

Tomaso, Bruce and Christy Hoppe. “Tucker Execution Case Expected to Have a Lasting Legacy.” Dallas Morning News 5 February 1998: 12A.

Toobin, Jeffrey. The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court. New York: First Anchor, 2008.

Totenberg, Nina. “Justice Stevens: An Open Mind on a Changed Court.” NPR. 4 October 2010. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=130198344.

Trial Transcript, Georgia v. Warren McCleskey, No. A-40553 (Superior Court of Fulton County, GA October 9, 1978).

Tribune News Services. “Rome Honors Ryan’s Execution Moratorium.” Chicago Tribune 2 February 2000: 12.

Trindal, Elizabeth Steger. Mary Surratt: An American Tragedy. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing, 1996. (p.396)

Trombley, Stephen. The Execution Protocol: Inside America’s Capital Punishment Industry. New York: Crown, 1992.

Tucker, John C. May God Have Mercy: A True Story of Crime and Punishment. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997.

Turner, Karl. “Judge Orders Killer’s Death, Decries Death Penalty.” Plain Dealer (Cleveland) 17 November 2000: 1A.

Tysver, Robynn. “Execution Suspension Approved; Senators Hand Johanns Life-and-Death Decision.” Omaha World-Herald 20 May 1999: 1.

Tysver, Robynn. “Death Penalty Report Author Fires Back.” Omaha World-Herald 8 August 2001: 1.

United Press International. “Charlie Brooks: First Execution by Injection.” Baltimore Afro-American 14 December 1982: 6.

U.S. General Accounting Office. Death Penalty Sentencing: Research Indicates Pattern of Racial Disparities. Washington, DC: February 1990.

Udomoa, Ebong. “Connecticut Abolishes Death Penalty.” Chicago Tribune 25 April 2012, http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/sns-rt-us-usa-deathpenalty-connecticutbre83o1cm-20120425,0,5387703.story.

Utter, Robert F. “Washington State Must Abandon the Death Penalty.” Seattle Times. 11 March 2009, http://seattletimes.com/html/opinion/2008843232_ opinb12utter.htm.

Van Deerlin, Lionel. “History Casts Doubts on Tribunals.” San Diego Union-Tribune 21 Nov. 2001: B7.

Van Deerlin, Lionel. “History Casts Doubts on Tribunals.” Union-Tribune 2001 November 21: B7.

Van Gelder, Lawrence. “Footlights.” New York Times 12 March 1998: E1.

Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Karla Tucker Is Now Gone, but Several Debates Linger.” New York Times 5 February 1998, http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/05/us/karla-tucker-is-now-gone-but-several-debates-linger.html.

Verniero, Peter G. “Appealed to Death.” New York Times 14 January 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/14/opinion/nyregionopinions/14NJverniero.html.

Vila, Bryan and Cynthia Morris (eds.). Capital Punishment in the United States: A Documentary History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing, 1997.

“Violence on Rise Despite Dip in Crime Rate.” Ottawa Sun 20 July 2001: 7.

Vogel, Ed. “Assembly Committee Rejects Two-Year Suspension of Death Penalty.” Las Vegas Review-Journal 17 May 2001: 1A.

Von Drehle, David. Among the Lowest of the Dead. New York: Times Books, 1995.

Von Drehle, David. “Retired Justice Changes Stand on Death Penalty.” Washington Post 10 June 1994: A1.

Waldron, Thomas W. “Rawlings, Schmoke Call for a Moratorium on State Executions; Noting ‘Uncertainties,’ They Appeal to Glendening.” Baltimore Sun 18 May 2000: 2B.

Walker, Peter N. Punishment: An Illustrated History. New York: ARCO Publishing Co., 1973.

Wallsten, Peter. “Chief Justice Criticizes Death Penalty.” Stuart News/Port St. Lucie News (Florida) 2 January 1998: A1.

Walt, Kathy. “Death Penalty Support Plunges to 30-Year Low.” Houston Chronicle 15 March 1998: A1.

Warchol, Glen. “Hi-Fi Torture Victim Dies 28 Years Later.” Salt Lake Tribune 16 July 2002, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/716825/posts.

Warden, Rob. “Reflections on Capital Punishment.” Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy 4 (2009): 329–359.

Warden, Rob. “Uncertainty Principle Is Wrong Theory for the Death Penalty.” Chicago Sun-Times 21 January 2006: Editorials 18.

Watkins, Tom. “Religious Leaders Seek Clemency for Georgia Man on Death Row.” CNN 5 May 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-05-05/justice/georgia.execution_1_religious-leaders-innocence-claim-martina-correia. (p.397)

Weinberg, Arthur (ed.). Attorney for the Damned: Clarence Darrow in the Courtroom. Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press, 1989.

Weinstein, Henry, “Death Penalty Moratorium Attracting Unlikely Adherents.” Los Angeles Times 17 October 2000: A5.

Weinstein, Henry. “Nebraska Governor Vetoes Moratorium on Executions Legislation.” Los Angeles Times 27 May 1999: A4.

Weinstein, Henry. “Support for Death Penalty Drops Sharply in State.” Los Angeles Times 2 November 2000: A1.

Weir, Ed. “A Time to Weep.” Hospitality January 1992.

Weisberg, Jacob. “This Is Your Death.” New Republic 1 July 1991: 23–27.

Wellstone, Senator Paul. Letter to Wayne Snow Jr., Chairman of State Board of Pardons and Paroles. 27 June 1991.

Welsh-Huggins, Andrew. “Ohio Executes Inmate with New Death Penalty Drug.” Huffington Post 10 March 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20110310/us-ohio-execution/.

Wexley, John. The Judgment of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. New York: Balantine Books, 1997.

White, Gayle. “Jailer Testifies He Can’t Recall Who Sought Informant in Cell Adjacent to McCleskey.” Atlanta Constitution 11 August 1987: A34.

White, Josh. “Sniper Trial Took Toll on Attorneys, Muhammed’s Lawyers Shoulder Own Stress, Depression and Guilt.” Washington Post 21 March 2004: C01.

Whitman, James Q. Harsh Justice: Criminal Punishment and the Widening Divide between America and Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Wice, Brian. “Capital Punishment, Texas Style.” Texas Bar Journal April 1992: 386–389.

Will, George F. “Innocent on Death Row.” Washington Post 6 April 2000: A23.

Williams, Carol J. “Death Penalty Costs California $184 Million a Year, Study Says.” Los Angeles Times 20 June 2011, http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-adv-death-penalty-costs-20110620,0,3505671.story.

Williams, Clint. “Paths Paved in Violence: Consequences of Abuse Evident on Death Row.” Arizona Republic 21 November 1993: A25.

Williams, Paige. “Witness to a Botched Execution.” New Yorker 30 April 2014, <http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/witnesses-to-a-botched-execution>.

Wilson, Lawrence. “Declaration of Lawrence Wilson, Former Associate Warden of Custody at Folsom Prison and Former Warden at San Quentin.” 14 April 1992.

Windlesham, Lord. Politics, Punishment, and Populism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Wise, Daniel. “Prosecutors Want Death Penalty; Qualms Voiced about Costs, Time, Training of Lawyers.” New York Law Journal March 1995: 1.

Witham, Larry. “Faiths Vary Widely on Execution.” Washington Times 7 February 1998: B8.

Witt, Howard. “Texas Urged to Probe Claims of Wrongful Executions.” Chicago Tribune 7 July 2006: 6.

Wolfgang, M.E. “Racial Discrimination in the Death Sentence for Rape.” Executions in America. W. Bowers ed. New York: Lexington Books, 1974.

Wolfgang, Marvin E. “Introduction.” Of Crimes and Punishments. Cesare marchese di Beccaria. Marsilio Publishers, 1996.

Wolfgang, Marvin E. and Marc Riedel. “Race, Judicial Discretion and the Death Penalty.” American Academy of Political and Social Sceince 407 (1973): 119–133.

Woodward, Bob and Scott Armstrong. The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979.

Woodworth, George. Email Interview. 25 June 2013.

Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky 18651940: Lynchings, Mob Rule and “Legal Lynchings.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 1990.

Zangrando, Robert L. The NAACP Crusade against Lynching, 19091950. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980. (p.398)

Zimring, Franklin. The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Zimring, Franklin F. “Pulling the Plug on Capital Punishment.” National Law Journal 7 December 2009, http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/legal-scholar- calls-withdrawal-model-penal-code-quiet-blockbuster.

Zimring, Franklin E. and Gordon Hawkins. Capital Punishment and the American Agenda. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1989.

Zorn, Eric. “Prosecutors Deaf to Outcry against Death Penalty.” Chicago Tribune 7 March 2000: 1.

Zorn, Robert. Cemetery John: The Undiscovered Mastermind behind the Lindbergh Kidnapping. New York: The Overlook Press, 2012.