Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Old ChineseA New Reconstruction$

William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199945375

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 27 February 2017

(p.405) References

(p.405) References

Source:
Old Chinese
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Akitani Hiroyuki 秋 谷 裕 幸‎ [Qiūgǔ Yùxìng]. 2003. Wúyǔ Chǔ-Qú fāngyán (xīběi piàn) gǔyīn gòunǐ 吴 语 处 衢 方 言(西 北 片)古 音 构 拟‎. Tōkyō 東 京‎: Kōbun Shuppansha 好 文 出 版 社‎.

Akitani Hiroyuki 秋谷 裕幸‎ [Qiūgǔ Yùxìng]. 2004. Fújiàn Shíbēi fāngyán yīnxì 福 建 石 陂 方 言 音 系‎. Fāngyán 方言‎ 2004.76–91.

Aurousseau, Léonard. 1923. La première conquête chinoise des pays annamites (IIIe siècle avant notre ère). Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 23.136–264.

Bái Yīpíng 白一平‎ [William H. Baxter]. 1983. Shànggǔ Hànyǔ *sr- de fāzhǎn 上古汉语 *sr- 的发展‎ [The development of Old Chinese *sr–]. Yǔyán yánjiū 语言研究‎ 1983.22–26.

Bái Yīpíng 白一平‎ [William H. Baxter]. 2010. “Yì”, “shì”, “shè” děng zì de gòunǐ hé zhōnggǔ sy- (shūmǔ = shěn sān) de láiyuán “埶‎”, “勢‎”, “設‎” 等 字 的 構 擬 和 中 古 sy-(書母 = 審三)的來源‎. Jiǎnbó 簡帛‎ 5.161–178.

Bái Yúlán 白于蓝‎. 2008. Jiǎndú bóshū tōngjiǎ zì zìdiǎn 簡 牘 帛 書 通 假 字 字 典‎. Fúzhōu 福州‎: Fújiàn Rénmín chūbǎnshè 福 建 人 民 出 版 社‎.

Bailey, H. W. 1946. Gāndhārī. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11.764–797.

Barrett, T. H. 1993. Lieh tzu 列子‎. Early Chinese texts: a bibliographical guide, ed. Michael Loewe, 298–308. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Baxter, William H. 1977. Old Chinese origins of the Middle Chinese chóngniǔ doublets: a study using multiple character readings. Ph.D. diss., Cornell University.

Baxter, William H. 1985. Tibeto-Burman cognates of Old Chinese *-ij and *-ɨj. Linguistics of the Sino-Tibetan area: the state of the art—papers presented to Paul K. Benedict for his 71st birthday (Pacific linguistics, series C, no. 87), ed. Graham Thurgood, James A. Matisoff, and David Bradley, 242–263. Canberra: Australian National University.

Baxter, William H. 1992. A handbook of Old Chinese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Baxter, William H. 2002. Where does the “comparative method” come from? The linguist’s linguist: a collection of papers in honour of Alexis Manaster Ramer, ed. Fabrice Cavoto, 33–52. München: LINCOM.

Baxter, William H., and Laurent Sagart. 1998. Word formation in Old Chinese. New approaches to Chinese word formation: morphology, phonology and the lexicon in Modern and Ancient Chinese, ed. Jerome L. Packard, 35–76. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Běijīng dàxué Zhōngguó yǔyán wénxué xì Yǔyánxué jiàoyánshì 北 京 大 学 中 国 語 言 文 学 系 語 言 学 教 硏 室‎. 1995. Hànyǔ fāngyán cíhuì 汉语方言词汇‎. 2nd ed. Běijīng 北京‎: Wénzì gǎigé chūbǎnshè 文 字 改 革 出 版 社‎.

Běijīng dàxué Zhōngguó yǔyán wénxué xì Yǔyánxué jiàoyánshì 北 京 大 学 中 国 語 言 文 学 系 語 言 学 教 硏 室‎. 2003. Hànyǔ fāngyīn zìhuì (dì 2 bǎn chóngpái běn) 汉 语 方 音 字 汇(第 2 版 重 排 本)‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Yǔwén chūbǎnshè 语 文 出 版 社‎.

Benedict, Paul K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan, a conspectus, ed. James A. Matisoff. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (p.406)

Benedict, Paul K. 1976. Sino-Tibetan: another look. Journal of the American Oriental Society 96.167–197.

Benedict, Paul K. 1987. Archaic Chinese initials. Wang Li memorial volumes. English volume, 25–71. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co.

Bhattacharya, Pramod Chandra. 1977. A descriptive analysis of the Boro language. Gauhati: Department of Publication, Gauhati University.

Bivar, A. D. H. 2000. The political history of Iran under the Arsacids. The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods; vol. 3, part 1 of The Cambridge history of Iran, 21–99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bodman, Nicholas C. 1954. A linguistic study of the Shih Ming: initials and consonant clusters. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bodman, Nicholas C. 1980. Proto-Chinese and Sino-Tibetan: data towards establishing the nature of the relationship. Contributions to historical linguistics: issues and materials, ed. Frans van Coetsem and Linda R. Waugh, 34–199. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Boltz, William G. 1984. Textual criticism and the Ma wang tui Lao tzu, review of Chinese classics: Tao te ching, by D. C. Lau. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 44.185–224.

Boltz, William G. 1985. The Lao tzu text that Wang Pi and Ho-shang Kung never saw. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 48.493–501.

Boltz, William G. 1993. Shuo wen chieh tzu 說文解字‎. Early Chinese texts: a bibliographical guide, ed. Michael Loewe, 429–442. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California.

Burling, Robbins. 2004. The language of the Modhupur Mandi (Garo), Vol. 1: Grammar. New Delhi: Promilla.

Cài Jùnmíng 蔡俊明‎ [Choy Chun-ming]. 1976. Cháoyǔ cídiǎn 潮語詞典‎ [A dictionary of the Chau-chou dialect]. Xiānggǎng 香港‎: Zhōu Fǎgāo 周法高‎.

Cáo Zhìyún 曹志耘‎, Akitani Hiroyuki 秋谷 裕幸‎ [Qiūgǔ Yùxìng], Ōta Itsuku 太田斋‎ [Tàitián Zhāi], and Zhào Rìxīn 赵日新‎. 2000. Wúyǔ Chǔ-Qú fāngyán yánjiū 吳 语 处 衢 方 言 硏 究‎. Tōkyō 東京‎: Kōbun Shuppansha 好文出版社‎.

CBETA [Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association]. 2013. Hànwén Dàzàngjīng 漢文大藏經‎. http://tripitaka.cbeta.org.

Chao, Yuen Ren [Zhào Yuánrèn 趙元任‎]. 1941. Distinctions within Ancient Chinese. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 5.203–233.

Chén Chūshēng 陈初生‎. 1987. Jīnwén chángyòng zìdiǎn 金文常用字典‎. Xī’ān 西安‎: Shǎnxī Rénmín chūbǎnshè 陕西人民出版社‎.

Chén Jiàn 陳劍‎. 2007. Shì xī Zhōu jīnwén de “竷 (贛)‎” zì 釋西周金文的 “竷 (贛)” 字‎. Jiǎgǔ jīnwén kǎoshì lùn jí 甲骨金文考釋論集‎, 8–19. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Xiànzhuāng shūjú 綫裝書局‎.

Chén Lǐ 陳澧‎. [1842] 1995. Qièyùn kǎo 切韵考;‎ Qièyùn kǎo wài piān 切韵考外篇‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi gǔjí chūbǎnshè 上海古籍出版社‎.

Chén Xīnxióng 陳新雄‎. 1972. Gǔyīnxué fā wēi 古音學發微‎. Táiběi 臺北‎: Jiāxīn shuǐní gōngsī wénhuà jījīnhuì 嘉新水泥公司文化基金會‎.

Chén Zhāngtài 陈章太‎ and Lǐ Rúlóng 李如龍‎. 1991. Mǐnyǔ yánjiū 闽语硏究‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Yǔwén chūbǎnshè 语文出版社‎.

Coblin, W. South. 1983. A handbook of Eastern Han sound glosses. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press. (p.407)

Coblin, W. South. 2011. Comparative phonology of the Central Xiāng dialects. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.

Coedès, G. 1935. L’origine du cycle des douze animaux au Cambodge. T’oung pao 31.315–329.

Dài Jiāxiáng 戴家祥‎. 1995. Jīnwén dà zìdiǎn 金文大字典‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Xuélín chūbǎnshè 學林出版社‎.

Damrong Tayanin and Kristina Lindell. 1994. The Khmu cycles of 60 days and 60 years. Mon-Khmer Studies 23.103–118.

Dell, François, and Mohamed Elmedlaoui. 1985. Syllabic consonants and syllabification in Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 7.105–130.

Dèng Xiǎngzhāng 邓享璋‎. 2007. Mǐnběi, Mǐnzhōng fāngyán yǔyīn yánjiū 闽北、闽中方言语 音研究‎. Ph.D. diss., Xiàmén dàxué 厦门大学‎.

Dien, Albert E. 1957. A note on Hsien “Zoroastrianism.” Oriens 10.284–288.

Diffloth, Gérard. 1984. The Dvaravati Old Mon language and Nyah Kur. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Printing House.

Dīng Dù 丁度‎. [1039] 1985. Jíyùn 集韻‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Dīng Shēngshù 丁聲樹‎ and Lǐ Róng 李榮‎. 1981. Hànyǔ yīnyùn jiǎngyì 漢語音韻講義‎. Fāngyán 方言‎ 1981.241–274.

Doerfer, Gerhard. 1963–1975. Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen; unter besonderer Berücksichtigung älterer neupersischer Geschichtsquellen, vor allem der Mongolen- und Timuridenzeit. 4 vols. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner.

Dǒng Tónghé 董同龢‎. 1948. Shànggǔ yīnyùn biǎo gǎo 上古音韻表稿‎. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ jíkān 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊‎ [Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica] 18.1–249.

Dǒng Tónghé 董同龢‎. 1960. Sìge Mǐnnán fāngyán 四個閩南方言‎. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ jíkān 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊‎ [Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica] 30. 729–1042.

Douglas, Carstairs. 1899. Chinese-English dictionary of the vernacular or spoken language of Amoy, with the principal variations of the Chang-chew and Chin-chew dialects. New ed., with corrections by the author. London: Presbyterian Church of England.

Downer, Gordon B. 1967. Tone-change and tone-shift in White Miao. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 30.589–599.

Downer, Gordon B. 1973. Strata of Chinese loanwords in the Mien dialect of Yao. Asia Major n.s. 18.1–33.

Duàn Yùcái 段玉裁‎. [1815] 1981. Shuōwén jiězì zhù 説文解字注‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi gǔjí chūbǎnshè 上海古籍出版社‎.

Dyson, F. W., A. S. Eddington, and C. Davidson. 1920. A determination of the deflection of light by the sun’s gravitational field, from observations made at the total eclipse of May 29, 1919. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical or Physical Character 220.291–333.

Edmondson, Jerold A., and Quan Yang. 1988. Word-initial preconsonants and the history of Kam-Sui resonant initials and tones. Comparative Kadai: linguistic studies beyond Tai, ed. Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit, 143–166. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Evans, Jonathan. 2006a. Origins of vowel pharyngealization in Hongyan Qiang. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 29.95–126.

Evans, Jonathan. 2006b. Vowel quality in Hongyan Qiang. Language and Linguistics 7.937–960.

Féng Àizhēn 馮愛珍‎. 1998. Fúzhōu fāngyán cídiǎn 福州方言詞典‎. Nánjīng 南京‎: Jiāngsū jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 江蘇教育出版社‎. (p.408)

Ferlus, Michel. 1976. Du nouveau sur la spirantisation ancienne en vietnamien. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 71.305–312.

Ferlus, Michel. 1982. Spirantisation des obstruantes médiales et formation du système consonantique du vietnamien. Cahiers de linguistique—Asie orientale 11.83–106.

Ferlus, Michel. 1992. Histoire abrégée de l’évolution des consonnes initiales du vietnamien et du sino-vietnamien. Mon-Khmer Studies 20.111–125.

Ferlus, Michel. 1996. Langues et peuples viet-muong. Mon-Khmer Studies 26.7–28.

Ferlus, Michel. 1997. Le maleng brô et le vietnamien. Mon-Khmer Studies 27.55–66.

Ferlus, Michel. 2009a. Lexique de racines Proto Viet-Muong (Proto Vietic). Unpublished manuscript. Adobe Acrobat file. Cited with the author’s permission.

Ferlus, Michel. 2009b. What were the four divisions of Middle Chinese? Diachronica 26.184–213.

Franklin, Karl J. 2001. Kutubuan (Foe and Fasu) and proto Engan. The boy from Bundaberg: studies in Melanesian linguistics in honour of Tom Dutton, ed. Andrew Pawley, Malcolm Ross, and Darryl Tryon, 143–154. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.

Gāo Hēng 高亨‎. 1989. Gǔ zì tōngjiǎ huìdiǎn 古字通假會典‎. Jǐnán 濟南‎: Qí-Lǔ shūshè 齊魯書社‎.

Gāo Míng 高明‎. 1996. Bóshū Lǎozǐ jiào zhù 帛書老子校注‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

GD: Jīngmén shì bówùguǎn 荊門市博物館‎. 1998. Guōdiàn Chǔ mù zhújiǎn 郭店楚墓竹簡‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Wénwù chūbǎnshè 文物出版社‎.

Gernet, Jacques. 1990. Le monde chinois. Paris: Armand Colin.

Gésāng Jūmiǎn 格桑居冕‎ [Skal bzang ’gyur med] and Gésāng Yāngjīng 格桑央京‎ [Skal bzang dbyangs chan]. 2002. Zàngyǔ Fāngyán Gàilùn 藏語方言概論‎ / Bod kyi yul skad rnam- ba shad [An introduction to Tibetan dialects]. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社‎.

GG: Gǔwénzì gǔlín biānzuǎn wěiyuánhuì 古文字詁林編纂委員會‎. 1999. Gǔwénzì gǔlín 古文字詁林‎. 12 vols. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 上海敎育出版社‎.

Graham, A. C. 1960–1961. The date and composition of Liehtzyy 列子‎. Asia Major n.s. 8.139–198.

Graham, A. C. 1989. Disputers of the Tao: philosophical argument in ancient China. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

GSR: Karlgren, Bernhard. 1957. Grammata serica recensa. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 29.1–332.

Guō Jiànróng 郭建荣‎. 1989. Xiàoyì fāngyán zhì 孝义方言志‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Yǔwén chūbǎnshè 语文出版社‎.

Guō Xīliáng 郭錫良‎. 1986. Hànzì gǔyīn shǒucè 漢字古音手冊‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Běijīng dàxué chūbǎnshè 北京大學出版社‎.

Guójiā wénwù jú Gǔ wénxiàn yánjiūshì 国家文物局古文献研究室‎. 1980. Mǎwángduī Hàn mù bóshū (yī) 馬王堆漢墓帛書 (一)‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Wénwù chūbǎnshè 文物出版社‎.

Hànyǔ dà cídiǎn 汉语大词典‎. 2001. 22 vols. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Hànyǔ dà cídiǎn chūbǎnshè 汉语大词典出版社‎.

Hǎo Yìxíng 郝懿行‎, Wáng Niànsūn 王念孫‎, Qián Yì 錢繹‎, and Wáng Xiānqiān 王先謙‎. 1989. Ěr yǎ, Guǎng yǎ, Fāng yán, Shì míng: Qīng shū sì zhǒng hékān; fù suǒyǐn 爾雅·廣雅·方言·釋名:清疏四種合刊; 附索引‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi gǔjí chūbǎnshè 上海古籍出版社‎.

Harrell, Richard Slade. 1966. A dictionary of Moroccan Arabic: Arabic-English. Washington: Georgetown University Press. (p.409)

Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1954a. Comment reconstruire le chinois archaïque. Word 10.351–364.

Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1954b. De l’origine des tons en vietnamien. Journal asiatique 242.68–82.

Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1965. Les mutations consonantiques des occlusives initiales en mon-khmer. Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris 60.160–172.

Hé Línyí 何琳儀‎. 1998. Zhànguó gǔwén zìdiǎn: Zhànguó wénzì shēngxì 戰 國 古 文 字 典: 戰 國 文 字 聲 系‎. 2 vols. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. 1899. The philosophy of history. Trans. John Sibree. Rev. ed. New York: Colonial Press.

Hirata Shōji 平田昌司‎ [Píngtián Chāngsī]. 1988. Mǐnběi fāngyán dìjiǔ diào de xìngzhì 闽 北 方 言 第 九 调 的 性 质‎. Fāngyán 方言‎ 1988.12–24.

Hóu Jīngyī 侯精一‎. 1989. Jìnyǔ yánjiū 晋语研究‎ [Studies of the Jin dialects]. Tōkyō: Tōkyō Gaikokugo Daigaku Ajia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyūjo 東 京 外 国 語 大 学 アジ ア ·アフ リ カ 言 語 文 化 研 究 所‎.

Huáng Bùfán 黄布 v凡‎. 1992. Zàng-Miǎn yǔzú yǔyán cíhuì 藏 缅 语 族 语 言 词 汇‎. Běijīng: Zhōngyāng mínzú xuéyuàn chūbǎnshè 中央民族学院出版社‎.

Huáng Liángróng 黄良荣‎ and Sūn Hóngkāi 孙宏开‎. 2002. Hàn Jiāróng cídiǎn 汉嘉戎词典‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社‎.

Huáng Zhuō 黄焯‎. 1980. Jīngdiǎn shìwén huì jiào 經典釋文彙校‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Jakobson, Roman. [1931] 1971. K xarakteristike evrazijskogo jazykovogo sojuza. Selected writings, 1.144–201. The Hague: Mouton.

Jakobson, Roman. [1957] 1971. Mufaxxama: The “emphatic” phonemes in Arabic. Selected writings, 1:510–522. The Hague: Mouton.

Jaxontov, Sergej Evgen’evič. 1960a. Consonant combinations in Archaic Chinese. Papers presented by the USSR delegation at the 25th International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow, 1–17. Moscow: Oriental Literature Publishing House. [English version of Jaxontov 1963.]

Jaxontov, Sergej Evgen’evič. 1960b. Fonetika kitajskogo jazyka 1 tsysjačeletija do n. e. (labializovannye glasnye). Problemy vostokovedenija 1960.102–115.

Jaxontov, Sergej Evgen’evič. 1963. Sočetanija soglasnyx v drevnekitajskom jazyke [Consonant combinations in Archaic Chinese]. Trudy dvadcat′pjatogo meždunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov, Moskva, 9–16 avgusta 1960 g. Vol. 5: Zasedanija sekcij XVI–XX [Works of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists, Moscow, 9–16 August 1960. Vol. 5: Sessions of sections XVI–XX, 89–95. Moscow: Izdatel′stvo vostočnyj literatury.

JDSW: Lù Démíng 陸德明‎. 1983 Jīngdiǎn shìwén 經典釋文‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Jì Xùshēng 季旭昇‎. 2010. Shuōwén xīn zhèng 說文新證‎. Fúzhōu 福州‎: Fújiàn Rénmín chūbǎnshè 福建人民出版社‎.

Joseph, U. V., and Robbins Burling. 2006. Comparative phonology of the Boro-Garo languages. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1933. Word families in Chinese. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 5.9–120.

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1940. Grammata serica: script and phonetics in Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 12.1–471. (p.410)

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1942–1946. Glosses on the Book of odes. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 14.71–247, 16.25–169, 18.1–198.

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1950. The book of odes. Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities.

Karlgren, Bernhard. 1954. Compendium of phonetics in Ancient and Archaic Chinese. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 26.211–367.

Kennedy, George A. 1939. Metrical “irregularity” in the Shih Ching. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 4.284–296.

L-Thongkum, Therapan. 1992. A preliminary reconstruction of Proto-Lakkja (Cha Shan Yao). Mon-Khmer Studies 20.57–89.

L-Thongkum, Therapan. 1993. A view on Proto-Mjuenic (Yao). Mon-Khmer Studies 22.163–230.

Lau, D. C. 1963. Tao te ching. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Leong, Sow-Theng. 1997. Migration and ethnicity in Chinese history: Hakkas, Pengmin, and their neighbors, ed. Tim Wright; introduction and maps by G. William Skinner. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Li, Fang-kuei [Lǐ Fāngguì 李方桂‎]. 1945. Some Old Chinese loan words in the Tai languages. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 8.333–342.

Li, Fang-kuei [Lǐ Fāngguì 李方桂‎]. 1971. Shànggǔ yīn yánjiū 上古音研究‎. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies n.s. 9.1–61.

Li, Fang-kuei [Lǐ Fāngguì 李方桂‎]. 1977. A handbook of comparative Tai. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.

Lǐ Jiāhào 李家浩‎. 1979. Shì “biàn” 釋 “弁‎.” Gǔwénzì yánjiū 古文字研究‎ 1.391–395.

Lǐ Jiāhào 李家浩‎. 2004. Zhànguó zhújiǎn “Mín zhī fùmǔ” zhōng de “cáibiàn” 战国竹简 《民之父母》 中的 “才辩”‎. Běijīng dàxué xuébào 北京大学学报‎ 41.96–98.

Lǐ Jǐnfāng 李锦芳‎. 1999. Bùyāngyǔ yánjiū 布央语硏究‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Zhōngyāng mínzú dàxué chūbǎnshè 中央民族大学出版社‎.

Lǐ Rúlóng 李如龍‎ and Chén Zhāngtài 陈章太‎. 1991. Lùn Mǐn fāngyán nèibù de zhǔyào chāyì 论闽方言内部的主要差异‎. Mǐnyǔ yánjiū 闽语硏究‎, 58–138. Běijīng 北京‎: Yǔwén chūbǎnshè 语文出版社‎.

Lǐ Rúlóng 李如龍‎ and Pān Wèishuǐ 潘渭水‎. 1998. Jiàn’ōu fāngyán cídiǎn 建甌方言詞典‎. Nánjīng 南京‎: Jiāngsū jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 江蘇教育出版社‎.

Lǐ Rúlóng 李如龍‎ and Zhāng Shuāngqìng 张双庆‎. 1992. Kè Gàn fāngyán diàochá bàogào 客赣方言调查报告‎. Xiàmén 厦门‎: Xiàmén dàxué chūbǎnshè 厦门大学出版社‎.

Lǐ Rúlóng 李如龙‎ et al. 1999. Yuèxī Kèjiā fāngyán diàochá bàogào 粤西客家方言调查报告‎. Guǎngzhōu 广州‎: Jìnán dàxué chūbǎnshè 曁南大学出版社‎.

Liáng Mǐn 梁敏‎. 1980. Máonányǔ jiǎnzhì 毛难语简志‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社‎.

Lín Sùqīng 林素清‎ [Sue-Ching Lin]. 2003. Shì 吝‎ [lìn]—jiān lùn Chǔ jiǎn de yòng zì tèzhēng 釋吝——兼論楚簡的用字特徵‎ [Explanation of 吝‎, with a discussion of the characteristics of the use of graphs in the Chu slips]. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ jíkān 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊‎ [Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica] 74.293–305.

Liú Lúnxīn 刘纶鑫‎. 2001. Jiāngxī Kèjiā fāngyán gàikuàng 江西客家方言概況‎. Nánchāng 南昌‎: Jiāngxī Rénmín chūbǎnshè 江西人民出版社‎.

Liú Qìngzhù 劉慶柱‎, Duàn Zhìhóng 段志洪‎, and Féng Shí 馮時‎. 2004. Jīnwén wénxiàn jíchéng 金文文獻集成‎. Xiānggǎng 香港‎: Xiānggǎng Míngshí wénhuà guójì chūbǎn yǒuxiàn gōngsī 香港明石文化國際出版有限公司‎. (p.411)

Lóng Yǔchún 龍宇純‎. 1968. Táng xiě quánběn Wáng Rénxù Kānmiù bǔquē Qièyùn jiào jiān 唐寫全本王仁昫刊謬補缺切韻校箋‎. Xiānggǎng 香港‎: Xiānggǎng Zhōngwén dàxué 香港中文大學‎.

Lorrain, J. Herbert, and Fred W. Savidge. 1898. A grammar and dictionary of the Lushai language (Dulien dialect). Shillong: Assam Secretariat Printing Office.

Luó Chángpéi 羅常培‎. 1931. Qièyùn 魚‎ Yú 虞‎ Yú zhī yīnzhí jí qí suǒ jù fāngyīn kǎo 切韻魚虞之音值及其所據方音考‎. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ jíkān 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊‎ [Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica] 2.258–385.

Luó Chángpéi 羅常培‎ and Zhōu Zǔmó 周祖謨‎. 1958. Hàn Wèi-Jìn Nán-běi cháo yùnbù yǎnbiàn yánjiū 漢魏晋南北朝韻部演變硏究‎. Vol. 1. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Kēxué chūbǎnshè 科學出版社‎.

Luó Jiéruì 罗杰瑞‎ [Jerry Norman]. 2005. Mǐn fāngyán zhōng de Lái mǔ zì hé zǎoqī Hànyǔ 闽方言中的来母字和早期汉语‎. Mínzú yǔwén 民族语文‎ 2005.1–5.

Mackenzie, D. N. 1983. Khwarazmian language and literature. The Cambridge history of Iran, volume 3, part 2: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, 1244–1249. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maddieson, Ian, and Richard Wright. 1991. The vowels and consonants of Amis: a preliminary phonetic report. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 91.45–63.

Manomaivibool, Prapin. 1975. A study of Sino-Thai lexical correspondences. Ph.D diss., University of Washington.

Maspero, Henri. 1912. Études sur la phonétique historique de la langue annamite: les initiales. Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient 12.1–124.

Mathews, R. H. 1943. Mathews’ Chinese-English dictionary. Revised by Y. R. Chao and M. Y. Wang. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Matisoff, James A. 2003. Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman: system and philosophy of Sino-Tibetan reconstruction. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mayr, Ernst. 1982. The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Mei, Tsu-lin [Méi Zǔlín 梅祖麟‎]. 1989. Shànggǔ Hànyǔ *s- qiánzhuì de gòucí gōngyòng 上古漢語 *s- 前綴的構詞功用‎ [The causative and denominative function of the *s- prefix in Old Chinese]. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Sinology (Section on Linguistics and Paleography), 33–52. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn 中央研究院‎.

Mei, Tsu-lin [Méi Zǔlín 梅祖麟‎]. 2001. Xiàndài Wúyǔ hé “支‎ Zhī 脂‎ Zhī 鱼‎ Yú 虞‎ Yú, gòng wéi bú yùn” 现代吴语和 “支脂鱼虞, 共为不韵.”‎ Zhōngguó yǔwén 中国语文‎ 2001.3–15.

Mei, Tsu-lin [Méi Zǔlín 梅祖麟‎]. 2012. The causative *s- and nominalizing *-s in Old Chinese and related matters in Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Language and Linguistics 13.1–28.

Michaud, Alexis, Guillaume Jacques, and Robert L. Rankin. 2012. Historical transfer of nasality between consonantal onset and vowel: from C to V or from V to C? Diachronica 29.2:201–230.

Nguyễn Phú Phong, Trần Trí Dõi, and Michel Ferlus. 1988. Lexique vietnamien-rục-français: parler d’une minorité ethnique des montagnes de Quảng Bình, Vietnam, avec notes ethnographiques et introduction linguistique. Paris: Université de Paris VII, Sudestasie.

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (ed.). 1829. Ex historia Menandri Protectoris Excerpta de legationibus barbarorum ad Romanos. Corpus scriptorum historiae byzantinae 5:281–437. Bonn: Impensis Ed. Weberi. http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001222061. (p.412)

Norman, Jerry. 1971. A guide to the Chien-yang dialect. Washington, DC: Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Norman, Jerry. 1973. Tonal development in Min. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1.222–238.

Norman, Jerry. 1974a. The initials of Proto-Min. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 2.27–36.

Norman, Jerry. 1974b. The Shaowu dialect. Orbis: Bulletin international de documentation linguistique 23.328–334.

Norman, Jerry. 1979. Chronological strata in the Min dialects. Fāngyán 方言‎ 1979.268–273.

Norman, Jerry. 1981. The Proto-Min finals. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Guójì Hànxué huìyì lùnwén jí: Yǔyán wénzì zǔ 中央研究院國際漢學會議論文集‎: 語言文字組‎, 35–73. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn 中央研究院‎.

Norman, Jerry. 1982. The classification of the Shaowu dialect. Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ jíkān 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊‎ [Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica] 53.543–583.

Norman, Jerry. 1986. The origin of the Proto-Min softened stops. Contributions to Sino-Tibetan studies, ed. John McCoy and Timothy Light, 375–384. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Norman, Jerry. 1988. Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Norman, Jerry. 1989. What is a Kèjiā dialect? Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Sinology: Linguistics, vol. 1, 323–344. Taipei: Academia Sinica.

Norman, Jerry. 1991. Nasals in Old Southern Chinese. Studies in the historical phonology of Asian languages, ed. William G. Boltz and Michael C. Shapiro, 205–214. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Norman, Jerry. 1994. Pharyngealization in Early Chinese. Journal of the American Oriental Society 114.397–408.

Norman, Jerry. 1995. A glossary of the Herpyng dialect. Yuen Ren Society Treasury of Chinese Dialect Data 1.107–126.

Norman, Jerry. 1996. Tonal development in the Jennchyan dialect. Yuen Ren Society Treasury of Chinese Dialect Data 2.7–41.

Norman, Jerry. 2000. Voiced initials in Shyrbei. Yǔyán biànhuà yǔ Hànyǔ fāngyán: Lǐ Fāngguì xiānsheng jìniàn lùnwénjí 語 言 變 化 與 漢 語 方 言‎: 李 方 桂 先 生 紀 念 論 文 集‎ [In memory of Professor Li Fang-Kuei: Essays on linguistic change and the Chinese dialects], ed. Dīng Bāngxīn 丁邦新‎ [Pang-hsin Ting] and Yú Ǎiqín 余靄芹‎ [Anne O. Yue], 271–280. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Yǔyánxué yánjiūsuǒ chóubèichù 中 央 研 究 院 語 言 學 研 究 所 籌 備 處‎.

Norman, Jerry. 2002. A glossary of the Lianduentsuen dialect. Yuen Ren Society Treasury of Chinese Dialect Data 3.339–394.

Norman, Jerry. 2006. Miin animal body parts. Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics 1.133–143.

Norman, Jerry, and W. South Coblin. 1995. A new approach to Chinese historical linguistics. Journal of the American Oriental Society 115.576–584.

Norquest, Peter K. 2007. A phonological reconstruction of Proto-Hlai. Ph.D. diss., University of Arizona.

Ostapirat, Weera. 2000. Proto-Kra. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 23.1–251.

Ostapirat, Weera. 2004. Proto-Hlai sound system and lexicons. Hàn-Zàng yǔ yánjiū: Gōng Huángchéng xiānsheng qī zhì shòu qìng lùnwén jí 漢藏語研究: 龔煌城先生七秩壽慶 論文集‎ [Studies on Sino-Tibetan languages: papers in honor of Professor Hwang-cherng Gong on his seventieth birthday], ed. Lín Yīngjīn 林英津‎ [Lin Ying-chin] et al., 121–175. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Yǔyánxué yánjiūsuǒ 中央研究院語言學研究所‎. (p.413)

Ostapirat, Weera. 2006. Alternation of tonal series and the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui. Shān gāo shuǐ cháng: Dīng Bāngxīn xiānsheng qī zhì shòu qìng lùnwén jí 山高水長:丁邦新先生七秩壽慶論文集‎, ed. Hé Dà’ān 何大安‎ [Ho Dah-an], Zhāng Hóngnián 張洪年‎, Pān Wùyún 潘悟雲‎, and Wú Fúxiáng 吳福祥‎, 1077–1121. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Yǔyánxué yánjiūsuǒ 中央研究院語言學研究所‎.

Ostapirat, Weera. 2011. Linguistic interaction in South China: the case of Chinese, Tai and Miao-Yao. Paper for the symposium “Historical linguistics in the Asia-Pacific region and the position of Japanese,” at the 20th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Osaka, June 30, 2011.

Pān Wèishuǐ 潘渭水‎. 1998. Jiàn’ōu fāngyán cídiǎn 建甌方言詞典‎. Nánjīng 南京‎: Jiāngsū jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 江蘇教育出版社‎.

Pān Wùyún 潘悟云‎. 1997. Hóuyīn kǎo 喉音考‎. Mínzú yǔwén 民族语文‎ 1997.10–24.

Peiros, Ilia, and Sergej Starostin. 1996. A comparative vocabulary of five Sino-Tibetan languages. 6 vols. Melbourne: Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, University of Melbourne.

Pelliot, Paul. 1934. Tokharien et Koutchéen. Journal asiatique 224.23–106.

Pelliot, Paul. 1938. Le nom du χwārizm dans les textes chinois. T’oung pao 34.146–152.

Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2009. The phonology of Proto-Tai. Ph.D. diss., Cornell University.

Plaisier, Heleen. 2007. A Grammar of Lepcha. Tibetan studies library: Languages of the greater Himalayan region 5. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1962–1963. The consonantal system of Old Chinese. Asia Major n.s. 9.58–144, 206–265.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1973. Some new hypotheses concerning word families in Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1.111–125.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1977–1978. The final consonants of Old Chinese. Monumenta Serica 33.180–206.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1983. The Chinese and their neighbors in prehistoric and early historic times. The origins of Chinese civilization, ed. David N. Keightley, 411–466. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1984. Middle Chinese: a study in historical phonology. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫圭‎. 1985. Shì Yīnxū jiǎgǔwén lǐ de “遠‎,” “[坴犬‎]” (邇‎) jí yǒuguān zhū zì 釋殷墟甲骨文的 “遠” “[坴犬]” (邇)及有關諸字‎. Gǔwénzì yánjiū 古文字硏究‎ 11.85–98.

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫圭‎. 1988. Wénzìxué gàiyào 文字学概要‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Shāngwù yìnshūguǎn 商务印书馆‎.

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫圭‎. 1992. “畀‎ [bì]” zì bǔ shì “畀” 字補釋‎. Gǔwénzì lùn jí 古文字論集‎, 90–98. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫圭‎. 1998. Gǔ wénxiàn zhōng dú wéi “設‎ shè” de “埶‎ yì” jí qí yǔ “執‎ zhí” hù é zhī lì 古文獻中讀為 “設” 的 “埶” 及其與 “執” 互訛之例‎. Dōngfāng wénhuà 東方文化‎ 36.39–46. [Dated 1998 but actually published in 2002.]

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫 v圭‎. 2000. Chinese writing. Trans. Gilbert Louis Mattos and Jerry Norman. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California. [Translation of Qiú Xīguī (1988).]

Qiú Xīguī 裘錫圭‎. 2004. Shì Guōdiàn “Zīyī” “Chū yán yǒu ‘丨‎’, límín suǒ ‘𧥞’”: jiān shuō “丨‎” wéi “针‎ [zhēn]” zhī chūwén 释郭店 《缁衣》 「出言有丨, 黎民所𧥞」:兼说「丨」为「针」之初文‎. Zhōngguó chūtǔ gǔwénxiàn shí jiǎng 中国出土古文献十讲‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Fùdàn dàxué chūbǎnshè 复旦大学出版社‎. (p.414)

Ratliff, Martha. 2010. Hmong-Mien language history. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Rhodes, Alexandre de. 1651. Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, ope Sacrae Congregationis de Propaganda Fide. Romae: Typis & sumptibus eiusdem Sacr. Congreg.

Rule, Murray. 1993. The culture and language of the Foe, Lake Kutubu People of the Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Published by the author.

Sagart, Laurent. 1993a. Les dialectes gan. Paris: Langages Croisés.

Sagart, Laurent. 1993b. New views on Old Chinese phonology. [Review of Baxter (1992)]. Diachronica 10.237–260.

Sagart, Laurent. 1999a. The Chinese and Tibeto-Burman words for “blood.” Studies on Chinese historical syntax and morphology: linguistic essays in honor of Mei Tsu-lin, ed. Alain Peyraube and Chaofen Sun, 165–181. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Centre de Recherches Linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale.

Sagart, Laurent. 1999b. The origin of Chinese tones. Proceedings of the symposium Cross-Linguistic Studies of Tonal Phenomena, Tonogenesis, Typology, and Related Topics: December 10–12, 1998, Takinogawa City Hall, Tokyo, ed. Shigeki Kaji, 91–104. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

Sagart, Laurent. 1999c. The roots of Old Chinese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sagart, Laurent. 2003. Sources of Middle Chinese manner types: Old Chinese prenasalized initials in Hmong-Mien and Sino-Tibetan perspective. Language and Linguistics 4.757–768.

Sagart, Laurent. 2004. The Chinese names of the four directions. Journal of the American Oriental Society 124.69–76.

Sagart, Laurent, and William H. Baxter. 2009. Reconstructing Old Chinese uvulars in the Baxter-Sagart system (version 0.99). Cahiers de linguistique Asie orientale 38.221–244.

Sagart, Laurent, and William H. Baxter. 2012. Reconstructing the *s- prefix in Old Chinese. Language and Linguistics 13.29–59.

SB: Mǎ Chéngyuán 馬承源‎ (ed.). 2001–. Shànghǎi bówùguǎn cáng Zhànguó Chǔ zhúshū 上海博物館藏戰國楚竹書‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi gǔjí chūbǎnshè 上海古籍出版社‎.

Schlegel, August Wilhelm von. 1818. Observations sur la langue et la littérature provençales. Paris: Librairie grecque-latine-allemande. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/hvd.hxjg66.

Schuessler, Axel. 2010. The time of emergence of medial yod. Studies in honor of Jerry Norman, ed. Anne O. Yue and W. South Coblin, 305–310. Hong Kong: Ng Tor-tai Chinese Language Research Center, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Shā Jiā’ěr 沙加尔‎ [Laurent Sagart] and Bái Yīpíng 白一平‎ [William H. Baxter]. 2010. Shànggǔ Hànyǔ de N- hé m- qiánzhuì 上古汉语的 N- 和 m- 前缀‎. Hàn-Zàng yǔ xuébào 汉藏语学报‎ [Journal of Sino-Tibetan Linguistics] 4.62–69.

Shar, Saeed, and John Ingram. 2010. Pharyngealization in Assiri Arabic: an acoustic analysis. Proceedings of the 13th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology 2010, 5–8. Adelaide: Causal Productions.

Shǐ jì 史記‎. 1982. 10 vols. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghua shūjú 中華書局‎.

So-Hartmann, Helga. 2009. A descriptive grammar of Daai Chin. Berkeley: Sino-Tibetan Etymological Dictionary and Thesaurus Project.

Solnit, David B. 1988. The position of Lakkia within Kadai. Comparative Kadai: linguistic studies beyond Tai ed. Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit, 219–238. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Starostin, Sergej Anatol’evič. 1989. Rekonstrukcija drevnekitajskoj fonologičeskoj sistemy. Moskva: “Nauka,” Glavnaja redakcija vostočnoj literatury. (p.415)

Starostin, Sergej Anatol’evič. 1995. The historical position of Bai. Moskovskij Lingvističeskij Žurnal 1.174–190.

Sun, Jackson T.-S. 2003. Variegated tonal developments in Tibetan. Language variation: papers on variation and change in the Sinosphere and in the Indosphere in honour of James A. Matisoff, ed. David Bradley, Randy J. LaPolla, Boyd Michailovsky, and Graham Thurgood, 35–51. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.

Suwilai Premsrirat. 2002. Thesaurus of Khmu dialects in Southeast Asia. Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Mahidol University at Salaya.

SWGL: Dīng Fúbǎo 丁福保‎ (ed.). 1931. Shuōwén jiězì gǔlín: jí bǔyí 說文解字詁林: 及補遺‎. 17 vols. Táiběi 臺北‎: Táiwān Shāngwù yìnshūguǎn 台灣商務印書館‎.

Takakusu Junjirō 高楠 順次郎‎ (ed.). 1924–1932. Taishō shinshū Daizōkyō 大正新修大藏經‎. 85 vols. Tōkyō: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai 大正一切經刊行會‎.

Thompson, Laurence C. 1976. Proto-Viet-Muong phonology. Austroasiatic studies, ed. Philip N. Jenner, Laurence C. Thompson, and Stanley Starosta, 1113–1203. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.

Thompson, P. M. 1979. The Shen Tzu fragments. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thurgood, Graham. 1988. Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui. Comparative Kadai: linguistic studies beyond Tai, ed. Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit, 179–218. Arlington: Summer Institute of Linguistics: University of Texas at Arlington.

Ting, Pang-hsin. 1975. Chinese phonology of the Wei-Chin period: reconstruction of the finals as reflected in poetry. Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica.

Ting, Pang-hsin. 1983. Derivation time of colloquial Min from Archaic Chinese. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica 54.1–14.

Unger, Ulrich. 1995. Finger. Hao-ku 46.131–137.

Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66.143–160.

Wáng Fǔshì 王辅世‎. 1979. Miáoyǔ fāngyán shēng- yùnmǔ bǐjiào 苗语方言声韵母比较‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōngguó shèhuì kēxué yuàn Mínzú yánjiūsuǒ 中国社会科学院民族研究所‎.

Wáng Fǔshì 王辅世‎. 1982. Húnán Lúxī Wǎxiāng huà yǔyīn 湖南泸溪瓦乡话语音‎. Yǔyán yánjiū 语言研究‎ 1982.135–147.

Wáng Fǔshì 王辅世‎ and Máo Zōngwǔ 毛宗武‎. 1995. Miáo-Yáo yǔ gǔyīn gòunǐ 苗瑤语古音构拟‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Zhōngguó shèhuì kēxué chūbǎnshè 中国社会科学出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. [1937] 1958. Shànggǔ yùnmǔ xìtǒng yánjiū 上古韻母系統研究‎. Hànyǔ shǐ lùnwén jí 漢語史論文集‎, 77–156. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Kēxué chūbǎnshè 科學出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. 1958. Hànyǔ shǐ gǎo 漢語史稿‎. 3 vols. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Kēxué chūbǎnshè 科學出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. 1980. Shījīng yùn dú 诗经韵读‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi gǔjí chūbǎnshè 上海古籍出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. 1985. Hànyǔ yīnyùnxué 汉语音韵学‎. Vol. 4 of Wáng Lì wénjí 王力文集‎. Jǐnán 济南‎: Shāndōng jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 山东教育出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. 1988. Hànyǔ shǐ gǎo 汉语史稿‎. Vol. 9 of Wáng Lì wénjí 王力文集‎. Jǐnán 济南‎: Shāndōng jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 山东教育出版社‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎. 1999. Gǔdài Hànyǔ (jiàodìng chóngpái běn) 古代漢語‎ (校訂重排本‎). 4 vols. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Wáng Lì 王力‎ et al. 2000. Wáng Lì Gǔ Hànyǔ zìdiǎn 王力古漢語字典‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Wáng Yǐnzhī 王引之‎. [1798] 1956. Jīng zhuàn shì cí: fù Sūn Jīngshì bǔ jí zài bǔ 經傳釋詞:附孫經世補及再補‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎. (p.416)

Wèi Cídé 魏慈德‎. 2009. Cóng chūtǔ wénxiàn de tōngjiǎ xiànxiàng kàn “改‎ gǎi” zì de shēngfú piānpáng 從出土文獻的通假現象看 “改” 字的聲符偏旁‎. Wén yǔ zhé 文與哲‎ 14.1–30.

Weingreen, J. 1959. A practical grammar for classical Hebrew. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Whitney, William Dwight. 1867. Language and the study of language: twelve lectures on the principles of linguistic science. New York: Charles Scribner.

Wú Chāngyíng 吳昌瑩‎. [1873] 1956. Jīng cí yǎn shì 經詞衍釋‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Wǔ Yúnjī 伍云姬‎ and Shěn Ruìqīng 沈瑞清‎. 2010. Xiāng xī Gǔzhàng Wǎxiāng huà diàochá bàogào 湘西古丈瓦乡话调查报告‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 上海教育出版社‎.

Xiàmén dàxué Zhōngguó yǔyán wénxué yánjiūsuǒ Hànyǔ fāngyán yánjiūshì 厦门大学中国语言文学研究所汉语方言研究室‎. 1982. Pǔtōnghuà Mǐnnán fāngyán cídiǎn 普通话闽南方言词典‎. Fúzhōu 福州‎: Fújiàn rénmín chūbǎnshè 福建人民出版社‎.

Xiàng Bólín 向柏霖‎ [Guillaume Jacques]. 2008. Jiāróngyǔ yánjiū 嘉绒语研究‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社‎.

Xǔ Wéiyù 許維遹‎. 2009. Lǚ shì chūnqiū jí shì 呂氏春秋集釋‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Xú Zhōngshū (ed.). 1988. Jiǎgǔwén zìdiǎn 甲骨文字典‎. Chéngdū 成都‎: Sìchuān císhū chūbǎnshè 四川辞书出版社‎.

Yáng Shùdá 楊樹逹‎. 1954. Cí quán 詞詮‎. Bĕijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Yú Mǐn 俞敏‎. 1992. Xū cí gǔ lín 虛詞詁林‎, ed. Xiè Jìfēng 謝紀鋒‎. Hā’ěrbīn 哈爾濱‎: Hēilóngjiāng Rénmín chūbǎnshè 黑龍江人民出版社‎.

Yú Nǎiyǒng 余逎永‎ (ed.). 2000. Xīn jiào hùzhù Sòng běn Guǎngyùn 新校互註宋本廣韻‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi císhū chūbǎnshè 上海辭書出版社‎.

Yú Xǐngwú 于省吾‎. 1941. Shuāng jiàn chí Yīn qì pián zhī xùbiān 雙劍誃殷栔駢枝續編‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Dàyè yìnshuājú 大業印刷局‎.

Yú Xǐngwú 于省吾‎. 1979. Jiǎgǔ wénzì shì lín 甲骨文字釋林‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Yú Xǐngwú 于省吾‎ and Yáo Xiàosuì 姚孝遂‎. 1996. Jiǎgǔ wénzì gǔlín 甲骨文字诂林‎. 4 vols. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Zēng Yùnqián 曾運乾‎. [1927] 1972. Yùmǔ gǔ dú kǎo 喻母古讀考‎. Reprinted in Chén Xīnxióng (1972:674–700).

Zhāng Zhènxīng 张振兴‎. 1992. Zhāngpíng fāngyán yánjiū 漳平方言研究‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōngguó shèhuì kēxué chūbǎnshè 中国社会科学出版社‎.

Zhào Chéng 趙誠‎. 1988. Jiǎgǔwén jiǎnmíng cídiǎn: bǔcí fēnlèi dúběn 甲骨文簡明詞典:卜辭分類讀本‎. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Zhèngzhāng Shàngfāng 郑张尚芳‎. 1987. Shànggǔ yùnmǔ xìtǒng hé sìděng, jièyīn, shēngdiào de fāyuán wèntí 上古韵母系统和四等、介音、声调的发源问题‎. Wēnzhōu shīyuàn xuébào (Shèhuì kēxué bǎn) 溫州师院学报 (社会科学版)‎ 4.67–90.

Zhèngzhāng Shàngfāng 郑张尚芳‎. 1995. Shànggǔ Hànyǔ shēngmǔ xìtǒng 上古汉语声母系统‎. Unpublished manuscript.

Zhèngzhāng Shàngfāng 郑张尚芳‎. 2003. Shànggǔ yīnxì 上古音系‎. Shànghǎi 上海‎: Shànghǎi jiàoyù chūbǎnshè 上海教育出版社‎.

Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ 中央研究院歷史語言研究所‎. 2013. Hàn jí diànzǐ wénxiàn zīliàokù 漢籍電子文獻資料庫‎. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ 中央研究院歷史語言研究所‎. http://hanji.sinica.edu.tw. (p.417)

Zhōu Fǎgāo 周法高‎. 1962. Xuányìng Yīqiè jīng yīnyì 玄應一切經音義‎. Táiběi 臺北‎: Zhōngyāng yánjiūyuàn Lìshǐ yǔyán yánjiūsuǒ 中央研究院歷史語言研究所‎.

Zhōu Zǔmó 周祖謨‎. [1943] 1966. Yán shì jiā yīncí piān zhù bǔ 顏氏家訓音辭篇注補‎. Wèn xué jí 問學集‎, 405–433. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Zhōu Zǔmó 周祖謨‎. 1966. Qièyùn de xìngzhì hé tāde yīnxì jīchǔ 切韻的性質和它的音系基礎‎. Wèn xué jí 問學集‎, 434–473. Běijīng 北京‎: Zhōnghuá shūjú 中華書局‎.

Zhōu Zǔmó 周祖謨‎. 1968. Chou Tsu-mo on the Ch’ieh-yün. Trans. Göran Malmqvist. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 40.33–78. [Translation of Zhōu Zǔmó 1966.]

Zürcher, E. 2007. The Buddhist conquest of China: the spread and adaptation of Buddhism in early medieval China. 3rd ed., with a foreword by Stephen F. Teiser. Leiden: E. J. Brill. (p.418)