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The Dynamics of RadicalizationA Relational and Comparative Perspective$

Eitan Y. Alimi, Lorenzo Bosi, and Chares Demetriou

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199937707

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199937707.001.0001

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(p.287) Appendix: List of Sub-Mechanisms: Types and Definitions

(p.287) Appendix: List of Sub-Mechanisms: Types and Definitions

Source:
The Dynamics of Radicalization
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Sub-Mechanism

Definition

Type

Attribution of Similarity

Identification of another political actor as falling within the same category as your own

Cognitive

Boundary Activation

Increase in the salience of “us–them” distinction separating two political actors

Cognitive

Boundary Control

Defending from encroachment by outsiders

Environmental

Boundary Formation

Creation of “us–them” distinctions between two political actors

Relational

Brokerage (in-group)

Connection of factions and groups on each side of an “us–them” boundary without establishing new connections across the boundary

Relational

Brokerage (out-group)

The production of a new connection between previously unconnected or weakly connected sites

Relational

Category Formation

Creation of a set of sites sharing a boundary distinguishing all of them and relating all of them to at least one set of sites visibly excluded by the boundary

Cognitive

Certification

An external authority’s signal of its readiness to recognize and support the existence and claims of a political actor

Relational

Decertification

Lack or withdrawal of validation and recognition of actors, their performances, and their claims by external authority

Relational

De-legitimization

Decrease in positive and popularly resonating representations of actors and their actions

Cognitive

Diffusion

The spread of a contentious performance, issue, or interpretive frame from one site to another

Relational

Disillusionment

A decline in the commitment of individuals or political actors to previously sustaining beliefs

Cognitive

Emulation

Deliberate repetition within a given setting of a performance observed in another setting

Relational

Encapsulation

An actor enclosing itself from society

Relational

Evolution

A shift of social movement toward increasing demands of moral conduct regarding what is right and wrong on its constituency

Relational

Internalization

Migration of international pressures and conflicts into domestic politics

Relational

Legitimization

Increase of positive and popularly resonating representations of actors and their actions

Cognitive

Marginalization

Exclusion or distancing of an actor from decision-making

Relational

Opportunity Attribution

The construction of a shared definition concerning the likely positive consequences of possible actions, or failure to act, undertaken by some political actor

Cognitive

Polarization

Increase of ideological distance between political actors or coalitions

Cognitive

Provocation

Acts initiated by one actor with the intention of inciting the response of another actor

Relational

Repression by Proxy

Informal outsourcing by state actors to non-state actors of law-and-order activities

Relational

Resentment

Disapproval of social movements’ agenda, perceived as unfair and offensive on the part of its constituents

Cognitive

Resource Depletion

Decrease in the capacity of people to engage in contention

Environmental

Retaliation

Reprisal by an actor of wrongs experienced by the actor or members of its constituency

Relational

Social Appropriation

Conversion or incorporation of previously existing non-political groups and networks into political actors

Relational

Threat Attribution

The construction of a shared definition concerning the likely negative consequences of possible actions, or failure to act, undertaken by some political actor

Cognitive

Uprooting

Displacement of a person or a group from native or habitual surroundings against their will

Environmental

Vigilantism

Initiation of provisional law-and-order activities by a non-state actor outside the control of its government and security forces

Relational

Withdrawal

Decline in the support of individuals or groups toward movement activities and goals

Relational

(p.288) (p.289) (p.290)