The chapter examines the Mongol case. Mongols in China have quite substantial external cultural ties with Mongolia as the external kin state. Mongolia, as an independent country, became a democracy following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Economically, Mongolia has lagged far behind the PRC, particularly during recent decades. Comparatively speaking, therefore, the Mongols in China perceive better political and cultural life in Mongolia but not economic well-being. Despite the existence of a small diaspora community that aims to push for Inner Mongolia self-determination, the Mongols in China have not received substantial external support in recent history. Contemporarily, the Mongols in China do not exhibit strong independent spirit but rather aim to keep a certain cultural autonomy within the Chinese national framework.
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