This chapter examines the Uyghur case as one of national identity contestation. It looks at the Uyghurs’ cultural ties, such as language and religion, to the Turkic world in Central Asia and beyond. Turkey and Soviet Central Asia historically have offered a better alternative for the Uyghurs in political, economic, and cultural fields than China. In addition, Uyghur's self-determination movements have also received significant external support from various sources throughout the years, such as the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and the contemporary Uyghur diaspora in the West and their host countries. As a result, the Uyghurs in Xinjiang have been politically active and consistently resisted China's rule, contesting the national identity imposed on the group by Beijing.
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