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Roger Sherman and the Creation of the American Republic$

Mark David Hall

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199929849

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199929849.001.0001

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(p.213) Appendix By The Honorable Jonathan Trumbull, Esq.;

(p.213) Appendix By The Honorable Jonathan Trumbull, Esq.;

Governor and Commander in Chief of the English Colony of Connecticut in New-England.

Roger Sherman and the Creation of the American Republic
Oxford University Press

(p.213) Appendix

By The Honorable

Jonathan Trumbull, Esq.;

Governor and Commander in Chief of the English Colony of Connecticut in New-England.

A Proclamation

The race of Mankind was made in a State of Innocence and Freedom, subjected only to the laws of GOD the CREATOR, and through his rich Goodness, designed for virtuous Liberty and Happiness here and forever; and when moral evil was introduced into the World, and Man had corrupted his Ways before GOD, Vice and Iniquity came in like a Flood, and Mankind became exposed, and a prey to the Violence, Injustice and Oppression of one another. GOD, in great Mercy, inclined his People to form themselves into Society, and to set up and establish civil Government for the Protection and Security of their Lives and Properties from the Invasion of wicked Men: But through Pride and Ambition, the King's and Princes of the World, appointed by the People the Guardians of their Lives and Liberties, early and almost universally, degenerated into Tyrants, and by Fraud or Force betrayed and wrested out of their Hands the very Rights and Properties they were appointed to protect and defend. But a small Part of the Human Race maintained and enjoyed any tolerable Degree of Freedom. Among those happy few the Nation of Great-Britain was distinguished, by a Constitution of Government wisely framed and modeled, to support the Dignity and Power of the Prince, for the Protection of the Rights of the People; and under which, that Country in long Succession, enjoyed great Tranquility and Peace, though not unattended with repeated and powerful Efforts, by many of it's haughty Kings, to destroy the constitutional Rights of the People, and establish arbitrary Power and Dominion. In one of those convulsive Struggles, our Forefathers having suffered in that, their native Country, great and variety of Injustice and (p.214) Oppression, left their dear Connections and Enjoyments, and fled to this then inhospitable Land, to secure a lasting Retreat from civil and religious Tyranny.

The GOD of Heaven favored and prospered their Undertaking—made Room for their Settlement—increased and multiplied them to a very numerous People, and inclined succeeding King's to indulge them and their Children for many Years, the unmolested Enjoyment of the Freedom and Liberty they fled to inherit: But, an unnatural King has risen up—violated his sacred Obligations, and by the Advice of evil Counsellors, attempted to wrest from us, their Children, the sacred Rights we justly claim, and which have been ratified and established by solemn Compact with, and recognized by, his Predecessors and Fathers, King's of Great-Britain—laid upon us Burdens too heavy and grievous to be born, and issued many cruel and oppressive Edicts, depriving us of our natural, lawful, and most important Rights, and subjecting us to the absolute Power and Controul of himself, and the British Legislature; against which we have sought Relief by humble, earnest and dutiful Complaints and Petitions: But, instead of obtaining Redress, our Petitions have been treated with Scorn and Contempt, and fresh Injuries heaped upon us, while hostile Armies and Ships are sent to destroy and lay waste our Country. In this distressing Dilemma, having no Alternative but absolute Slavery, or successful Resistance; this, and the United American Colonies, have been constrained by the over-ruling Laws of Self-Preservation, to take up Arms for the Defence of all that is sacred and dear to Freemen, and make their solemn Appeal to Heaven for the Justice of their Cause, and resist Force by Force.

GOD ALMIGHTY has been pleased, of his infinite Mercy, to succeed our Attempts, and give us many Instances of signal Success and Deliverance; but the Wrath of the King is still increasing, and not content with before employing all the Force which can be sent from his own Kingdom to execute his cruel Purposes, has procured, and is sending all the Mercenaries he can obtain from foreign Countries, to assist in extirpating the Rights of America, and with their's, almost all the Liberty remaining among Mankind.

IN this most critical and alarming Situation, this, and all the Colonies, are called upon, and earnestly pressed, by the honorable CONGRESS of the American Colonies, united for mutual Defence, to raise a large additional Number of their Militia and able Men, to be furnished and equipped with all possible Expedition, for Defence against the soon expected Attack and Invasion of those who are our Enemies without a Cause. In chearful Compliance with which Request, and urged by Motives the most cogent and important that can affect the human Mind, the General Assembly of this Colony have freely and unanimously agreed and resolved, that upwards of Seven Thousand able and effective Men be immediately raised, furnished and equipped, for the great and interesting Purposes aforesaid. And not Desirous that any should go to a Warfare at their own Charges, (though equally interested in others) for Defence of the great and all-important Cause in which we are engaged, have granted large and liberal Pay and Encouragements, to all who (p.215) shall voluntarily undertake for the Defence of themselves and their Country, as by their Acts may appear.

I DO THEREFORE, by and with the Advice of the Council, and at the Desire of the Representatives in General Court assembled, issue this PROCLAMATION, and make the solemn Appeal of said Assembly to the Virtue and public Spirit of the good People of this Colony. Affairs are hastening fast to a Crisis, and the approaching Campaign will, in all Probability, determine forever the Fate of America. If this should be successful on our Side, there is little to fear on Account of any other. Be exhorted to rise, therefore, to superior Exertions on this great Occasion; and let all that are able and necessary, shew themselves ready in Behalf of their injured and oppressed Country, and come forth to Help of the LORD against the Mighty, and convince the unrelenting Tyrant of Britain that they are resolved to be FREE. Let them step forth to defend their Wives, their little Ones, their Liberty, and every thing they hold sacred and dear, to defend the Cause of their Country, their Religion and their GOD. Let every one to the utmost of their Power, lend a helping Hand to promote and forward a Design on which the Salvation of America now evidently depends. Nor need any be dismayed: the Cause is certainly a just and a glorious one: God is able to save us in such Way and Manner as he pleases, and to humble our proud Oppressors. The Cause is that of Truth and Justice: he has already shewn his Power in our Behalf, and for the Destruction of many of our Enemies. Our Fathers trusted in him and were delivered. Let us all repent, and thoroughly amend our Ways, and turn to him, put all our Trust and Confidence in him—in his Name go forth, and in his Name set up our Banners, and he will save us with temporal and eternal Salvation. And while our Armies are Abroad, jeopardizing their Lives in the high Places of the Field, let all who remain at Home, cry mightily to GOD for the Protection of his Providence, to shield and defend their Lives from Death, and to crown them with Victory and Success. And in the Name of the said General Assembly, I do hereby earnestly recommend it to all, both Ministers and People, frequently to meet together for social Prayer to ALMIGHTY GOD, for the out-pouring of his blessed Spirit upon this guilty Land—That he would awaken his People to Righteousness and Repentance—bless our Councils—prosper our Arms, and succeed the Measures using for our necessary Self-Defence—disappoint the evil and cruel Devices of our Enemies—preserve our precious Rights and Liberties—lengthen out our Tranquility, and make us a People of his Praise, and the blessed of the LORD, as long as the Sun and Moon shall endure.

AND all the Ministers of the Gospel in this Colony, are directed and desired to publish this Proclamation in their several Churches and Congregations, and to enforce the Exhortations thereof by their own pious Example and public Instructions.

GIVEN under my Hand, at the Council Chamber in Hartford, the 18th Day of June, Anno Domini 1776.


(p.216) select committee report draft bill of rights

In the Handwriting of Roger Sherman

Draft Bill of Rights

Report as their Opinion, That the following articles be proposed by Congress to the legislatures of the Several States to be adopted by them as amendments of the Constitution of the united States, and when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths (at least) of Said States in the union, to become a part of the Constitution of the united States, pursuant to the fifth Article of said Constitution.


The powers of government being derived from the people, ought to be exercised for their benefit, and they have an inherent and unalienable right to change or amend their political Constitution, when ever they judge such change will advance their interest & happiness.


The people have certain natural rights which are retained by them when they enter into Society, Such are the rights of Conscience in matters of religion; of acquiring property and of pursuing happiness & Safety; of Speaking, writing and publishing their Sentiments with Decency and Freedom; of peaceably assembling to consult their common good, and of applying to Government by petition or remonstrance for redress of grievances. Of these rights therefore they Shall not be deprived by the Government of the united States.


No person Shall be tried for any crime whereby he may incur loss of life or any infamous punishment, without Indictment by a grand Jury, nor be convicted but by the unanimous verdict of a Petit Jury of good and lawful men freeholders of the vicinage or district where the trial Shall be had.


After a census Shall be taken, each State Shall be allowed one representative for every thirty thousand Inhabitants of the description in the Second Section of the first Article of the Constitution, until the whole number of representatives shall amount to but never to exceed.

(p.217) (5)

The militia shall be under the government of the laws of the respective States, when not in the actual Service of the united States, but such rules as may be prescribed by Congress for their uniform organization & discipline shall be observed in officering and training them, but military Service shall not be required of persons religiously scrupulous of bearing arms.


No soldier shall be quartered in any private house in time of Peace, nor at any time, but by authority of law.


Excessive bail shall not be required, not excessive fines imposed, nor cruel & unusual punishments inflicted in any case.


Congress Shall not have power to grant any monopoly or exclusive advantages of commerce to any person or Company; nor to restrain the liberty of the Press.


In suits at common law in courts acting under the authority of the united States, issues of fact shall be tried by a Jury if either party request it.


No law Shall be passed for fixing a compensation for the members of Congress except the first Shall take effect until after the next election of representatives posterior to the passing such law.


The legislative, executive and judiciary powers vested by the Constitution in the respective branches of the Government of the united States, shall be exercised according to the distribution therein made, so that neither of said branches shall assume or exercise any of the powers peculiar to either of the other branches.

And the powers not delegated to the Government of the united States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the particular States, are retained by the States respectively, nor shall the exercise of power by the Government of the united States particular instances here in enumerated by way of caution be construed to imply the contrary. (p.218)