Reference to newspaper articles throughout the book come from a variety of sources in various archives. Many clippings were collected by Richard Rodgers in his scrapbooks, now housed at the New York Public Library (NYPL-RRS).
Alvah Sulloway Sheet Music and Theater Program Collection, University of New Hampshire
Lord Chamberlain’s Collection, British Library, London
Varsity Show Records, University Archives, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University Library, New York
Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Richard Rodgers Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Flo Ziegfeld–Billie Burke Papers, 1907–1984, Theatre Division, Billy Rose Theatre Collection, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, New York
Richard Rodgers Papers, Billy Rose Theatre Collection, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, New York
Richard Rodgers Scrapbooks, Music Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Center, New York
Rodgers and Hammerstein Organization, New York
Ronald Jeans Scrapbooks, Theatre Museum Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Beinecke Manuscripts Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT
musical scores by richard rodgers
Rodgers, Richard. A Connecticut Yankee (1927). Reconstructed piano-conductor score by Wayne A. Blood and Bruce Pomahac. RHO.
Rodgers, Richard. Dearest Enemy (1925). Reconstructed piano-conductor score. Edited by Larry Moore. RHO.
Rodgers, Richard. The Girl Friend (1926). Reconstructed piano-conductor score by James Stenborg. RHO.
Rodgers, Richard. Peggy-Ann (1926). Piano-vocal score. RHO.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. “Lady Raffles Behave.” From Poor Little Ritz Girl. Published sheet music. New York: Jerome H. Remick, 1920.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. “On with the Dance.” From the Garrick Gaieties. Published sheet music. New York: Edward B. Marks Music Co., 1925.
(p.308) librettos and scripts
Caesar, Irving, and David Freedman. Betsy. Libretto. NYPL–FZ T-Mss 1987-010. Series 1, Box 1, Folder 5, 1926.
Caesar, Irving, and David Freedman. Buy Buy Betty. Libretto. NYPL–FZ T-Mss 1987-010. Series 1, Box 1, Folder 6, 1926.
Davis, Owen. Spring Is Here. Libretto. LOC–Man D87693, 1929.
Fields, Herbert. A Connecticut Yankee. Libretto. RHO, 1927.
Fields, Herbert. Dearest Enemy. Libretto. RHO, 1925.
Fields, Herbert. Peggy-Ann. Libretto. LOC–Man D78188, 1926.
Fields, Herbert. Peggy-Ann. Libretto. RHO, 1926.
Fields, Herbert. Present Arms. Libretto. LOC–Man D82957, 1928.
Fields, Herbert. Sweet Rebel. Libretto. LOC–Man D69211, 1924.
Jeans, Ronald. Lido Lady. Libretto. BL–LCP 1926/39, no.7155, 1926.
Jeans, Ronald. One Dam Thing after Another. Libretto. BL–LCP 1927/19, no.7641, 1927.
Kroopf, Milton, and Phillip Leavitt. Fly with Me. Libretto. The Columbia Varsity Show of 1920. Adapted by Michael Numark under the supervision of Andrew B. Harris for The Columbia Varsity Show of 1980. With music and lyrics by Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, and Oscar Hammerstein II. LOC ML50.R67 F7, 1982.
Levy, Benn W. (unattributed). Ever Green. Libretto. BL–LCP 1930/43, no.9944, 1930.
McGowan, John, and Paul Gerard Smith. Heads Up! Libretto. LOC–Man D3974, 1930.
Rodgers, Richard C., Lorenz M. Hart, and Herbert Fields. The Jazz King. Libretto. LOC–Man D64166, 1923.
Wynn, Ed. Simple Simon. Libretto. LOC–Man D4544, 1930.
America’s Sweetheart. Broadhurst Theatre (1931). NYPL–RRS JPH 85-5, Book 5.
Chee-Chee. Mansfield Theatre (1928). AS.
Connecticut Yankee, A. Vanderbilt Theatre (1927). NYPL T-PRG.
Ever Green. Adelphi Theatre (1930). Ever Green production file. VA.
Fifth Avenue Follies, The. Fifth Avenue Club (1926). NYPL–RRS JPH 85-5, Book 2.
Fly with Me. The Columbia University Varsity Show (1920). CU–VSR Box 10, Folder 2.
Fly with Me. The Columbia University Varsity Show (1980). CU–VSR Box 16, Folder 17.
Garrick Gaieties. Garrick Theatre (1925). NYPL–RRS JPH 85-5, Book 2.
Garrick Gaieties. Guild Theatre (1926). NYPL–MWEZ+nc 7745.
Girl Friend, The. Vanderbilt Theatre (1926). NYPL T-PRG.
Heads Up! Alvin Theatre (1929). NYPL T-PRG.
Lido Lady. Gaiety Theatre, London. (1926). VA–RJ, Scrapbook 16, File 9.
Me for You. Shubert Detroit Opera House (1929). NYPL–MWEZ+nc 21333.
Melody Man, The. 49th Street Theatre (1924). NYPL T-PRG.
One Dam Thing after Another. Pavilion Theatre, London. 1927. VA–RJ, Scrapbook 17 S.186-1988.
(p.309) Peggy-Ann. Vanderbilt Theatre (1926). NYPL–MWEZ+nc 5990.
Poor Little Ritz Girl, The. Wilbur Theatre, Boston (1920). NYPL–RRS JPH 85-5, Book 1.
Present Arms. Mansfield Theatre (1928). NYPL T-PRG.
She’s My Baby. Globe Theatre (1928). NYPL–MWEZ+nc 29092.
Simple Simon. Ziegfeld Theatre (1930). NYPL–RRS JPH 85-5, Book 5.
Spring Is Here. Alvin Theatre (1929). NYPL T-PRG.
books and articles
Aronson, Arnold. Architect of Dreams: The Theatrical Vision of Joseph Urban. Online catalogue for “Joseph Urban and the Great American Revue” exhibition. Columbia University Library, July 2–August 27, 2012. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/eresources/archives/rbml/urban/architectOfDreams/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Axelrod, Alan. The Real History of the American Revolution: A New Look at the Past. New York: Sterling, 2007.
Banfield, Stephen. Jerome Kern. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.
Banfield, Stephen. Sondheim’s Broadway Musicals. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994.
Bargainnier, Earl F. “W. S. Gilbert and American Musical Theatre.” Journal of Popular Culture 12, no. 3 (1978): 446–58.
Barnett, Lincoln. Writing on Life: Sixteen Close-Ups. New York: William Sloane Associates, 1951.
Bennett, Robert Russell. The Broadway Sound. Edited by George Ferencz. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1999.
Bergreen, Laurence. As Thousands Cheer: The Life of Irving Berlin. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990.
Block, Geoffrey. The Richard Rodgers Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Block, Geoffrey. Richard Rodgers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003.
Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Comedy: From Adonis to Dreamgirls. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Revue: From The Passing Show to Sugar Babies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Bordman, Gerald. American Musical Theatre: A Chronicle (third edition). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Bordman, Gerald. Jerome Kern: His Life and Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Brooks, Mona Rebecca. “The Development of American Theatre Management Practices between 1830 and 1896.” PhD diss., Texas Tech University, 1981.
Brooks, Van Wyck. America’s Coming of Age. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1915.
Brown, Phil. Catskill Culture: A Mountain Rat’s Memories of the Great Jewish Resort Area. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.
Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
(p.310) Cochran, Charles B. Cock-a-doodle-do. London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1941.
Couch, J. R. “Are These Queer Times? Gay Male Representation on the American Stage in the 1920’s and 1990’s.” MA diss., University of Kentucky, 2003.
Cox, Felix. “‘A Faltering Step in a Basically Right Direction’: Richard Rodgers and All Points West.” American Music 23, no. 3 (Autumn 2005): 355–76.
Davis, Lee. Bolton and Wodehouse and Kern: The Men Who Made Musical Comedy. New York: James H. Heineman, 1993.
Davis, Owen. I’d Like to Do It Again. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1931.
Dynes, Wayne R. The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1990.
Everett, William A. Sigmund Romberg. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
Fields, Armond, and L. Marc Fields. From the Bowery to Broadway: Lew Fields and the Roots of American Popular Theatre. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Fitzgerald, Jason. “ ‘I Had a Dream’: ‘Rose’s Turn,’ Musical Theatre and the Star Effigy.” Studies in Musical Theatre 3, no. 3 (December 2009): 285–91.
Forte, Allen. The American Popular Ballad of the Golden Era: 1924–1950. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Frommer, Myrna Katz, and Harvey Frommer. It Happened in the Catskills: An Oral History in the Words of Busboys, Bellhops, Guests, Proprietors, Comedians, Agents and Others Who Lived it. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Gelinas, Paul. The Varsity Show: A Celebration. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Gibson, H. W. Camping for Boys. New York: Association Press, 1911.
Gilbert, W. S., and Arthur Sullivan. The Complete Works of Gilbert and Sullivan. New York: W. W. Norton, 1976.
Green, Stanley. Rodgers and Hammerstein Fact Book: A Record of Their Work Together and with Other Collaborators. New York: Lynn Farnol Group, 1980.
Greenspan, Charlotte. Pick Yourself Up: Dorothy Fields and the American Musical. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Guernsey, Otis L. Jr., ed. Playwrights, Lyricists, Composers on Theatre. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1974.
Hamilton, Marybeth. “Mae West Live: ‘Sex, the Drag, and 1920s Broadway.’ ” Drama Review 36, no. 4 (Winter, 1992): 82–100.
Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.
Hamm, Charles, Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.
Hart, Dorothy, ed. Thou Swell, Thou Witty: The Life and Lyrics of Lorenz Hart. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.
Hart, Dorothy, and Robert Kimball, eds. The Complete Lyrics of Lorenz Hart. New York: Da Capo Press, 1995.
Harty, Kevin J. Cinema Arthuriana: Twenty Essays. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002.
Helburn, Theresa. A Wayward Quest. Toronto: Little, Brown, 1960.
Hirsch, Foster. The Boys from Syracuse: The Shuberts’ Theatrical Empire. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
Holbrook, Morris B. Music, Movies, Meanings and Markets: Cinemajazzamatazz. London: Routledge, 2012.
(p.311) Houchin, John H. Censorship of the American Theatre in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hulbert, Jack. The Little Woman’s Always Right. London: W. H. Allen, 1975.
Hyland, William G. Richard Rodgers. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998.
Johnston, Henry P. The Campaign of 1776 around New York and Brooklyn. Brooklyn, NY: Long Island Historical Society, 1878.
Kammen, Michael. The Lively Arts: Gilbert Seldes and the Transformation of Cultural Criticism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Kaye, Joseph. Victor Herbert: The Biography of America’s Greatest Composer of Romantic Music. New York: Crown, 1931.
Kennedy, Matthew. Marie Dressler: A Biography. New York: McFarland, 1999.
Kirle, Bruce. Unfinished Show Business: Broadway Musicals as Works-in-Process. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2005.
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Knapp, Raymond, Mitchell Morris, and Stacy Wolf, eds. The Oxford Handbook to the American Musical. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Koenig, Karl. Jazz in Print (1856–1929): An Anthology of Selected Early Readings in Jazz History. Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2002.
Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City’s Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl? Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century to the End of the Gilded Age. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2009.
Kracauer, Siegfried. The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays. Edited by Thomas Y. Levin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
MacDonald, Laurence E. The Invisible Art of Film Music: A Comprehensive History (second edition). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2013.
Magee, Jeffrey. Irving Berlin’s American Musical Theater. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Marmorstein, Gary. A Ship without a Sail. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2012.
Marsh, J. B. T. The Jubilee Singers and Their Songs. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2003.
Marx, Samuel, and Jan Clayton. Rodgers and Hart: Bewitched, Bothered and Bedevilled. London: W. H. Allen, 1977.
Mason, Jeffrey D., and J. Ellen Gainor. Performing America: Cultural Nationalism in American Theater. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.
Melnick, Jeffrey. A Right to Sing the Blues: African Americans, Jews, and American Popular Song. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Miller, D. A. Place for Us: Essay on the Broadway Musical. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Mordden, Ethan. Broadway Babies: The People Who Made the American Musical. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Mordden, Ethan. Make Believe: The Broadway Musical in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Mordden, Ethan. Ziegfeld: The Man Who Invented Show Business. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008.
(p.312) Morley, Sheridan. Spread a Little Happiness: The First Hundred Years of the British Musical. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.
Morrissey, Will. On a Shoestring: The Autobiography to End All Theatrical Biographies. New York: W. Paul, 1955.
Moruzzi, Peter. Havana before Castro: When Cuba Was a Tropical Playground. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2008.
Nolan, Frederick. Lorenz Hart: A Poet on Broadway. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Norton, Richard C. A Chronology of American Musical Theater, Volume 2: 1912–1952. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Oja, Carol. Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Ommen van der Merwe, Ann. The Ziegfeld Follies: A History in Song. New York: Scarecrow Press, 2009.
Peretti, Burton W. Nightclub City: Politics and Amusement in Manhattan. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
Peyser, Joan. The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin. New York: Billboard Books, 1998.
Pollack, Howard. George Gershwin: His Life and Work. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Rapée, Erno. Motion Picture Moods for Pianists and Organists, a Rapid Reference Collection of Selected Pieces Adapted to Fifty-two Moods and Situations. New York: Schirmer, 1924.
Rathbone, Basil. In and Out of Character. New York: Doubleday, 1956.
Robbins, Allison. “Busby Berkeley, Broken Rhythms, and Dance Direction on the Stage and Screen.” Studies in Musical Theatre 7, no.1 (2013): 75–93.
Rodgers, Richard. Letters to Dorothy (1926–1937). Edited by William W. Appleton. New York: New York Public Library, 1988.
Rodgers, Richard. Musical Stages: An Autobiography. New York: Da Capo Press, 2002.
Rodgers, Richard, ed. The Rodgers and Hart Song Book. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1951.
Rodgers, Richard, and Oscar Hammerstein II. Six Plays by Rodgers and Hammerstein. New York: Modern Library, n.d.
Rowe, John Carlos. Literary Culture and US Imperialism: From the Revolution to World War II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Rubin, Jason. “Lew Fields and the Development of the Broadway Musical.” PhD diss., New York University, 1991.
Rusinko, Susan. The Plays of Benn Levy: Between Shaw and Coward. London: Associated University Presses, 1994.
Savran, David. Highbrow/Lowdown: Theater, Jazz, and the Making of the New Middle Class. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.
Sears, Benjamin, ed. The Irving Berlin Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Secrest, Meryle. Shoot the Widow: Adventures of a Biographer in Search of Her Subject. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007.
(p.313) Secrest, Meryle. Somewhere for Me: A Biography of Richard Rodgers. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.
Seldes, Gilbert. “Jazz and Ballad.” New Republic 43 (August 5, 1925): 293–94.
Seldes, Gilbert. The Seven Lively Arts. New York: Sagamore Press, 1957.
Sheed, Wilfrid. The House That George Built. New York: Random House, 2007.
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Spivak, Jeffrey. Buzz: The Life and Art of Busby Berkeley. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Tawa, Nicholas. The Way to Tin Pan Alley: American Popular Song, 1866–1910. London: Schirmer Books, 1990.
Taylor, William R., ed. Inventing Times Square: Commerce and Culture at the Crossroads of the World. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Valgemae, Mardi. Accelerated Grimace: Expressionism in the American Drama of the 1920s. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1972.
Walton, John K. Fish and Chips and the British Working Class, 1870–1940. London: Leicester University Press, 1992.
Watts, Jill. Mae West: An Icon in Black and White. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Wilder, Alec. American Popular Song: The Great Innovators 1900–1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Wilk, Max. They’re Playing Our Song: Conversations with America’s Classic Songwriters. New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.
Wood, Graham. “The Development of Song Forms in the Broadway and Hollywood Musicals of Richard Rodgers, 1919–1943.” PhD diss., University of Minnesota, 2000.
Woollcott, Alexander. The Story of Irving Berlin. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1925.
Wyatt, Robert, and John A. Johnson, eds. The George Gershwin Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Comden, Betty, and Richard Lewine. Remember These: Songs from “Treasure Girl” and “Chee Chee.” Ava Records A-26, 1963.
Crosby, Bing. The Complete United Artists Sessions. EMI 7243 8 59808 2 4, 1997.
Gershwin, George, and Ira Gershwin. Lady, Be Good!, Elektra Nonesuch 7559-79308-2, 1992.
Rodgers, Richard. Richard Rodgers: Command Performance. Harbinger Records HCD2501, 2008.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Ben Bagley’s Rodgers and Hart Revisited III. Painted Smiles Records PSCD-106, 1989.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Ben Bagley’s Rodgers and Hart Revisited IV. Painted Smiles Records PSCD-126, 1991.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Ben Bagley’s Rodgers and Hart Revisited II. Painted Smiles Records PSCD-139, 1992.
(p.314) Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Ben Bagley’s Rodgers and Hart Revisited V. Painted Smiles Records PSCD-140, 1992.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Rodgers and Hart’s Ever Green. Bygone Records CD BG-1002, 2004.
Rodgers, Richard, and Lorenz Hart. Rodgers and Hart Revisited. Painted Smiles Records PSCD-116, 1990.
Various. Gems from Nobody Home. Matrix C-16055, 1915.
Various. Gems from Very Good Eddie. Matrix C-17126, 1916.
Various. Selection from Very Good Eddie. Matrix B-19604, 1917.
Whyte, Ronnie, and Travis Hudson. The Songs of Rodgers and Hart. Audiophile ACD-57, 1998.
Max Liebman Presents Rodgers and Hart: A Connecticut Yankee. Video Artists International DVD Video 4541, 2011.
Max Liebman Presents Rodgers and Hart: Dearest Enemy. Video Artists International DVD Video 4550, 2012.