Abbott Andrew. 1998. “Transcending general linear reality.” Sociological Theory 6 : 169–186.
Acemoglu Daron, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. 2004. “Institutions as the fundamental cause of long-run growth.” Working Paper 10481. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
Aguirre Adalberto, and Jonathan H. Turner. 2007. American ethnicity: The dynamics and consequences of discrimination. New York : McGraw-Hill.
Aguirre Beltrán Gonzalo. 1967. Regiones de refugio. Mexico City : Instituto National Indigenista.
Alba Richard D.1985. “The twilight of ethnicity among Americans of European ancestry: The case of Italians.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 8 : 134–158.
Alba Richard D.2005. “Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 28 (1): 20–49.
Alba Richard D., and John R. Logan. 1993. “Minority proximity to whites in suburbs: An individual-level analysis of segregation.” American Journal of Sociology 98 (6): 1388–1427.
Alba Richard D., and Victor Nee. 1997. “Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration.” International Migration Review 31 (4): 826–874.
Alba Richard D., and Victor Nee. 2003. Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Alba Richard, and Reid M. Golden. 1986. “Patterns of ethnic marriage in the United States.” Social Forces 65 (1): 202–223.
Alba Richard, and John R. Logan. 1992. “Assimilation and stratification in homeownership patterns of racial and ethnic groups.” International Migration Review 26 (4): 1314–1341.
Alesina Alberto, Reza Baqir, and William Easterley. 1999. “Public goods and ethnic divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 : 1243–1284.
(p.238) Alesina Alberto, and Eliana La Ferrara. 2005. “Ethnic diversity and economic performance.” Journal of Economic Literature 63 : 762–800.
Ali Syed. 2002. “Collective and elective ethnicity: Caste among urban Muslims in India.” Sociological Forum 17 (4): 593–620.
Almaguer Tomás, and Moon-Kie Jung. 1999. “The enduring ambiguitites of race in the United States.” In Sociology for the twenty-first century. Edited by Lila Abu-Lughod, 213–239. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Alonso William, and Paul Starr. 1987. The politics of numbers. New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
Alter Peter T.1996. “The creation of multi-ethnic peoplehood: The Wolkeson, Washington experience.” Journal of American Ethnic History 15 (3): 3–21.
Ålund Aleksandra. 1992. “Immigrantenkultur als Barriere der Kooperation.” Rassismus und Migration in Europa. Edited by Institut für Migrations- und Rassismusforschung, 174–189. Hamburg : Argument-Verlag.
Alwin D. F.1986. “Religion and parental child-rearing orientations: Evidence of a Catholic-Protestant convergence.” American Journal of Sociology 92 : 412–440.
Anderson Benedict. 1991. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London : Verso.
Anderson Perry. 1976. “The antinomies of Antonio Gramsci.” New Left Review I/ 100 : 5–65.
Anonymous. 1989. “Ethnicity and pseudo-ethnicity in the Ciskei.” In The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa. Edited by Leroy Vail, 395–412. London : James Currey.
Anthias Floya. 1992. “Connecting “race” and ethnic phenomena.” Sociology 26 : 421–438.
Anthias Floya. 2006. “Belonging in a globalising and unequal world: Rethinking translocation.” In Situated politics of belonging. Edited by Nira Yuval-Davis, 17–31. London : SAGE.
Anthias Floya, and Nira Yuval-Davis. 1992. Racialized boundaries: Race, nation, gender, colour and class and the antiracist struggle. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Antonio Anthony Lising. 2001. “Diversity and the influence of friendship groups in college.” Review of Higher Education 25 (1): 63–89.
Antweiler Christoph. 2001. “Interkulturalität und Kosmopolitanismus in Indonesien? Ethnische Grenzen und ethnienübergreifende Identität in Makassar.” Anthropos 96 (2): 433–474.
Appadurai Arjun. 1996. Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis : Univ. of Minnesota Press.
Appadurai Arjun. 1998. “Dead certainty: Ethnic violence in an era of globalization.” Public Culture 10 (2): 225–247.
Arel Dominique. 2002. Census and identity: The politics of race, ethnicity, and language in national censuses. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Arendt Hannah. 1951. The origins of totalitarianism. New York : Harcourt Brace.
Arzheimer Kai. 2008. “Protest, neo-liberalism or anti-immigrant sentiment: What motivates the voters of the extreme right in western Europe?” Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft 2 : 173–197.
Arzheimer Kai, and Elizabeth Carter. 2009. “Christian religiosity and voting for west European radical right parties.” West European Politics 32 (5): 985–1011.
(p.239) Asakawa K., and M. Csikszentmihalyi. 2000. “Feelings of connectedness and internalization of values in Asian American adolescents.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 29 : 121–145.
Astuti Rita. 1995. ““The Vezo are not a kind of people’: Identity, difference and “ethnicity” among a fishing people of western Madagascar.” American Ethnologist 22 (3): 464–482.
Back Les. 1996. New ethnicities and urban culture: Racism and multiculture in young lives. London : Routledge.
Baerveldt Chris, Marijtje A. J. van Duijn, Lotte Vermeij, and Dianne A. van Hemert. 2004. “Ethnic boundaries and personal choice: Assessing the influence of individual inclinations to choose intra-ethnic relationships on pupil’s networks.” Social Networks 26 : 55–77.
Bagchi Ann D.2001. “Migrant networks and the immigrant professional: An analysis of the role of weak ties.” Population Research and Policy Review 20 : 9–31.
Bahm Karl F.1999. “The inconvenience of nationality: German Bohemians, the disintegration of the Habsburg monarchy, and the attempt to create a ‘Sudeten German’ identity.” Nationalities Papers 27 (3): 375–405.
Bail Christopher. 2008. “The configuration of symbolic boundaries against immigrants in Europe.” American Sociological Review 73 (1): 37–59.
Bailey Benjamin. 2000. “Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial identity among Dominican Americans.” Language in Society 29 : 555–582.
Bailey Fredrik G.1969. Strategems and spoils: A social anthropology of politics. London : Basil Blackwell.
Bailey Kenneth D.1994. Typologies and taxonomies: An introduction to classification techniques. Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE.
Bailey Stefanie, and Peter V. Marsden. 1999. “Interpretation and interview context: Examining the General Social Survey name generator using cognitive methods.” Social Networks 21 : 287–309.
Baltzell E. Digby. 1958. Philadelphia gentlemen: The making of a national upper class. New York : Free Press.
Banton Michael P.1983. Racial and ethnic competition. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Banton Michael P.2003. “Teaching ethnic and racial studies.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 26 (3): 488–502.
Banton Michael P.2012. “The colour line and the colour scale in the twentieth century.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (7): 1109–1131.
Barreto Amilcar Antonio. 2001. “Constructing identities: Ethnic boundaries and elite preferences in Puerto Rico.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 7 (1): 21–40.
Barth Fredrik. 1994. “Enduring and emerging issues in the analysis of ethnicity.” In The anthropology of ethnicity: Beyond “ethnic groups and boundaries.” Edited by Hans Vermeulen and Cora Govers, 11–32. Amsterdam : Het Spinhuis.
Barth Fredrik. 1969a. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. London : Allen & Unwin.
Barth Fredrik. 1969b. “Introduction.” In Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. By Fredrik Barth, 1–38. London : Allen & Unwin.
(p.240) Baslevent Cem, and Hasan Kirmanoglu. N.D. The role of basic personal values in the voting behavior of Turkish people. Istanbul : Department of Economics, Bilgi University.
Bates Douglass, and Martin Maechler. 2010. lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. R package version 0.999375–33. R Foundation for Statistical Computing , Vienna Austria.
Bauböck Rainer. 1998. “The crossing and blurring of boundaries in international migation: Challenges for social and political theory.” In Blurred boundaries: Migration, ethnicity, citizenship. Edited by Rainer Baub öck and John Rundell, 17–52. Aldershot, UK : Ashgate.
Baumann Gerd. 1996. Contesting culture: Discourses of identity in multi-ethnic London. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Baumann Gerd. 2006. “Grammars of identity/alterity: A structural approach.” In Grammars of identity/alterity: A structural approach. Edited by Gerd Baumann and Andre Gingrich, 18–52. New York : Berghahn.
Bearman Peter. 1993. Relations into rhetorics: Local elite social structure in Norfolk, England, 1540–1640. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers Univ. Press.
Bélanger Sarah, and Maurice Pinard. 1991. “Ethnic movements and the competition model: Some missing links.” American Sociological Review 56 : 446–457.
Belote Linda, and Jim Belote. 1984. “Drain from the bottom: Individual ethnic identity change in southern Ecuador.” Social Forces 63 (1): 24–50.
Bentley Carter. 1987. “Ethnicity and practice.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 29 (1): 24–55.
Berberoglu Berch. 1995. The national question: Nationalism, ethnic conflict, and self-determination in the 20th century. Philadelphia : Temple University Press.
Berg Eberhard. 1990. “Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803).” In Klassiker der Kulturanthropologie: Von Montaigne bis Margaret Mead. Edited by Wolfgang Marschall, 51–68. Munich : C. H. Beck.
Berreman Gerald D.1972. “Social categories and social interaction in urban India.” American Anthropologist 74 : 567–586.
Berry Brent. 2006. “Friends for better or for worse: Interracial friendship in the United States as seen through wedding party photos.” Demography 43 (3): 491–510.
Berry John W.1980. “Acculturation as varieties of adaptation.” In Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings. Edited by A. M. Padilla, 9–25. Boulder. CO : Westview Press.
Berry John W.1997. “Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation.” Applied Psychology 46 (1): 5–68.
Berthoud Richard. 2000. “Ethnic employment penalties in Britain.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 26 (3): 389–416.
Bertrand Marianne, and Mullainathan Sendhil. 2003. “Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labour market discrimination.” Working Paper No. 03-22. Cambridge, MA: MIT Department of Economics.
Betz Hans-Georg. 1994. Radical right-wing populism in western Europe. New York : St. Martin’s Press.
(p.241) Bhabha Homi K.2007. “Boundaries, differences, passages.” In Grenzen, Differenzen, Uebergänge: Spannungsfelder inter- und transkultureller Kommunikation. Edited by Antje Gunsenheimer, 1–16. Bielefeld, Germany : Transcript.
Billig Michael. 1995. Banal nationalism. London : SAGE.
Blau Peter. 1977. Inequality and heterogeneity: A primitive theory of social structure. New York : Free Press.
Blekesaune Morten, and Jill Quadagno. 2003. “Public attitudes toward welfare state policies: A comparative analysis of 24 nations.” European Sociological Review 19 (5): 415–427.
Boas Franz. 1928. “Nationalism.” In Anthropology and modern life. By Franz Boas, 81–105. New York : Norton.
Boissevain Jeremy, Jochen Blaschke, Hanneke Grotenberg, Isaak Joseph, Ivan Light, Marlene Sway, Roger Waldinger and Pnina Werbner. 1990. “Ethnic entrepreneurs and ethnic strategies.” In Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies. Edited by Roger Waldinger, et al., 131–156. Newbury Park, CA : SAGE.
Bolzmann Claudio, Rosita Fibbi, Marie Vial, El-Sonbati Jasmin, and Esaki Elisabeth. 2000. “Adultes issus de la migration : Le processus d’insertion d’une g én ération à l’autre : Rapport de recherche au PNR39.” Geneva, Switzerland : Institut d’études sociales.
Bommes Michael. 1999. Migration und nationaler Wohlfahrtsstaat. Opladen, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
Bommes Michael. 2004. “Über die Aussichtslosigkeit ethnischer Konflikte in Deutschland.” In Friedens- und Konfliktforschung in Deutschland: Eine Bestandesaufnahme. Edited by Ulrich Eckern, et al., 155–184. Wiesbaden : VS-Verlag.
Bonacich Edna. 1974. “A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor market.” American Sociological Review 37 : 547–559.
Bonilla-Silva Eduardo. 1996. “Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation.” American Sociological Review 62 (3): 465–480.
Bonilla-Silva Eduardo. 1999. “The essential social fact of race.” American Sociological Review 64 : 899–906.
Bonilla-Silva Eduardo. 2004. “From bi-racial to tri-racial: Towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 27 (6): 931–950.
Bonnett Alastair. 2006. “The Americanization of anti-racism? Global power and hegemony in ethnic equity.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32 (7): 1083–1103.
Bouchard Michel. 1994. “Ethnic strategies: Integration, accomodation, and militantism: The case of the Francophones in Peace River.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 26 (2): 124–140.
Bourdieu Pierre. 1982. La distinction : Critique social du jugement. Paris : Éditions de Minuit.
Bourdieu Pierre. 1984. Distinction : A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Bourdieu Pierre. 1991. “Identity and representation: Elements for a critical reflection on the idea of region.” In Language and symbolic power. By Pierre Bourdieu, 220–228. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
(p.242) Bourdieu Pierre. 2000. Pascalian meditations. Stanford, CA : Stanford Univ. Press.
Bourdieu Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. 1990. Reproduction in education, society, and culture. Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE.
Bourdieu Pierre, and Loïc Wacquant. 1999. “On the cunning of imperialist reasons.” Theory and Society 16 (1): 41–58.
Bowen William G., and Derek Bok. 2000. The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Boyd D. M., and N. B. Ellison. 2007. “Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13. Accessed at http://jcmc.indiana.edu/.
Boyd Robert, and Peter J. Richerson. 2007. “Culture, adaptaton, and innateness.” In The innate mind: Culture and cognition. Edited by Peter Carruthers, Stephen Stich, and Stephen Laurence, 23–38. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Branscombe Nyla R., Michael T. Schmitt, and Richard D. Hervey. 1999. “Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 : 135–149.
Brass Paul. 1979. “Elite groups, symbol manipulation and ethnic identity among the Muslims of South Asia.” In Political identity in South Asia. Edited by David Taylor and Malcom Yapp, 35–77. London : Curzon Press.
Brass Paul. 1985. “Ethnic groups and the state.” In Ethnic groups and the state. By Paul Brass, 1–58. London : Croom Helm.
Brass Paul. 1996. Riots and pogroms. New York : New York Univ. Press.
Bratsberg Bernt, and James F. Ragan. 2002. “The impact of host-country schooling on earnings: A study of male immigrants in the United States.” Journal of Human Resources 37 (1): 63–105.
Braude Benjamin, and Bernard Lewis. 1982. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. New York : Holmes & Meier.
Braukämper Ulrich. 2005. “Controversy over local tradition and national ethiopian context: Case study of the Hadiyya.” In Afrikas Horn: Akten der Ersten Internationalen Littmann-Konferenz 2. bis 5. März in München. Edited by Walter Raunig and Steffan Wenig, 363–376. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz.
Breckenridge Carol A., Sheldon Pollock, Homi Bhabha, and Dipesh Chakrabarty. 2001. Special Issue: Cosmopolitanism. Public Culture 12 (3).
Brubaker Rogers. 1992a. Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA :: Harvard Univ. Press.
Brubaker Rogers. 1992b. “Citizenship struggles in Soviet successor states.” International Migration Review 26 (2): 269–291.
Brubaker Rogers. 1996. Nationalism reframed: Nationhood and the national question in the new Europe.Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Brubaker Rogers. 1999. “The manichean myth: Rethinking the distinction between ‘civic’ and ‘ethnic’ nationalism.” In Nation and national identity: Collective identities and national consciousness at the end of the 20th century. Edited by Hans-Peter Kriesi, 55–71. Chur, Switzerland : Rüegger.
Brubaker Rogers. 2002. “Ethnicity without groups.” Archives européennes de sociologie 43 (2): 163–189.
(p.243) Brubaker Rogers. 2004. Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Brubaker Rogers. 2009. “Ethnicity, race, and nationalism.” Annual Review of Sociology 35 : 21–42.
Brubaker Rogers, Margit Feinschmidt, Jon Fox, and Liana Grancea. 2007. Nationalist politics and everyday ethnicity in a Transylvanian town. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Brysk Allison. 1995. “Acting globally: Indian rights and international politics in Latin America.” In Indigenous peoples and democracy in Latin America. Edited by Donna van Cott, 29–51. New York : St. Martin’s Press.
Bukow Wolf-Dietrich. 1992. “Ethnisierung und nationale Identit ät.” In Rassismus und Migration in Europa. By Institut für Migrations- und Rassismusforschung, 133–146. Hamburg : Argument-Verlag.
Bukow Wolf-Dietrich. 1993. Leben in der multi-kulturellen Gesellschaft: Die Entstehung kleiner Unternehmer und der Umgang mit ethnischen Minderheiten. Opladen, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
Bunge Mario. 1997. “Mechanism and explanation.” Philosophy of Social Sciences 27 : 410–465.
Burgess M. Elaine. 1983. “Ethnic scale and intensity: The Zimbabwean experience.” Social Forces 59 (3): 601–626.
Burton Frank. 1978. The politics of legitimacy: Struggles in a Belfast community. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Calhoun Craig. 2002. “The class consciousness of frequent travellers: Towards a critique of actually existing cosmopolitanism.” In Conceiving cosmopolitanism: Theory, context, and practice. Edited by Steven Vertovec and Ronald Cohen, 86–109. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Campbell Cameron, James Z. Lee, and Mark Elliott. 2002. “Identity construction and reconstruction: Naming and Manchu ethnicity in northeast China, 1749–1909.” Historical Methods 35 (3): 101–115.
Caprara Gian Vittorio, Shalom H. Schwartz, Cristina Capanna, Michele Vecchione, and Claudio Barbaranelli. 2006. “Personality and politics: Values, traits, and political choice.” Political Psychology 27 (1): 1–28.
Carley Kathleen. 1991. “A theory of group stability.” American Sociological Review 56 (3): 331–354.
Carter Bob, M. Green, and R. Halpern. 1996. “Immigration policy and the racialization of migrant labour: The construction of national identities in the USA and Britain” Ethnic and Racial Studies 19 (1): 135–157.
Castaldi Carolina, and Giovanni Dosi. 2006. “The grip of history and the scope for novelty: Some results and open questions for path dependence in economic processes.” In Understanding change: Models, methodologies, and metaphors. Edited by Andreas Wimmer and Reinhart K össler, 99–128. Basingstoke, UK : Palgrave.
Castles Stephen. 1988. Mistaken identity: Multiculturalism and the demise of nationalism in Australia. Sydney : Pluto Press.
Castles Stephen. 1994. “La sociologie et la peur de ‘cultures incompatibles’: Commentaires sur le rapport Hoffmann-Nowotny.” In Europe: Montrez patte blanche: Les nouvelles frontières du “laboratoire Schengen.” Edited by Marie-Claire (p.244) Caloz-Tschopp and Micheline Fontolliet Honore, 370–384. Geneva, Switzerland : Centre Europe-Tiers Monde.
Castles Stephen, and Godula Kosack. 1973. Immigrant workers and class structure in western Europe. London : Oxford Univ. Press.
Cederman Lars-Erik. 1996. Emergent actors in world politics: How states and nations develop and dissolve. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Cederman Lars-Erik. 2004. Articulating the geo-cultural logic of nationalist insurgency. Zurich : Center for Comparative and International Studies , Swiss Federal Institute of Technology:
Cederman Lars-Erik. 2005. “Computational models of social forms: Advancing generative process theory.” American Journal of Sociology 110 (4): 864–893.
Chai Sun-Ki. 1996. “A theory of ethnic group boundaries.” Nations and Nationalism 2 (2): 281–307.
Chai Sun-Ki. 2005. “Predicting ethnic boundaries.” European Sociological Review 21 (4): 375–391.
Chua Amy. 2004. World on fire: How exporting free market democracy breeds ethnic hatred and global instability. New York : Anchor Books.
Citrin Jack, Amy Lerman, Michael Murakami, and Kathryn Pearson. 2007. “Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic immigration a threat to American identity?” Perspectives on Politics 5 (1): 31–48.
Cohen Abner. 1974. “Introduction: The lesson of ethnicity.” Urban ethnicity. By Abner Cohen, ix–xxiv. London : Tavistock.
Cohen Abner. 1981. “Variables in ethnicity.” In Ethnic change. Edited by Charles Keyes, 306–331. Seattle : Univ. of Washington Press.
Cohen Gary B.1981. The politics of ethnic survival: Germans in Prague, 1861–1914. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Cohen Ronald. 1978. “Ethnicity: Problem and focus in anthropology.” Annual Review of Anthropology 7 : 397–403.
Cohn Bernard S.1987. “The census, social structure and objectification in South Asia.” In An anthropologist among the historians and other essays. By Bernard S. Cohn, 224–255. Delhi : Oxford Univ. Press.
Colby Benjamin N., and Pierre L. van den Berghe. 1969. Ixil country: A plural society in highland Guatemala. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Coleman James S.1990. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA : Belknap Press.
Comaroff Jean and John Comaroff. 1991. Of revelation and revolution. Vol. 1, Christianity, colonialism, and consciousness in South Africa. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Congleton Roger D.1995. “Ethnic clubs, ethnic conflict, and the rise of ethnic nationalism.” In Nationalism and rationality. Edited by Albert Breton, et al., 71–97. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Conklin Beth, and Laura Graham. 1995. “The shifting middle ground: Amazonian Indians and eco-politics.” American Anthropologist 97 (4): 695–710.
Connerton Paul. 1989. How societies remember. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Connor Phillip. 2010. “Context of immigrant receptivity and immigrant religious outcomes: The case of Muslims in western Europe.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 33 (3): 376–403.
(p.245) Conzen Kathleen N.1996. “Thomas and Znaniecki and the historiography of American immigration.” Journal of American Ethnic History 16 (1): 16–26.
Cookson Peter W., Jr., and Caroline Hodges Persell. 1985. Preparing for power: America’s elite boarding schools. New York : Basic Books.
Coon H. M., and M. Kemmelmeier. 2001. “Cultural orientations in the United States: (Re)examining the differences among ethnic groups.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32 : 348–364.
Corbitt Duvon Clough. 1971. A study of the Chinese in Cuba, 1847–1947. Wilmore, KY : Asbury College.
Cornell Stephen. 1996. “The variable ties that bind: Content and circumstance in ethnic processes.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 19 (2): 265–289.
Cornell Stephen, and Douglas Hartman. 1998. Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks, CA : Pine Forge Press.
Cotterell J.1996. Social networks and social influence in adolescence. London : Routledge.
Cottrell Lesley, Shuli Yu, Hongjie Liu, Lynette Deveaux, Sonja Lunn, Rosa Mae Bain, and Bonita Stanton. 2007. “Gender-based model comparisons of maternal values, monitoring, communication, and early adolescent risk.” Journal of Adolescent Health 41 : 371–379.
Crul Maurice, and Hans Vermeulen. 2003. “The second generation in Europe.” International Migration Review 37 (4): 965–985.
Dailey Jane. 2000. Before Jim Crow: The politics of race in postemancipation Virginia. Chapel Hill : Univ. of North Carolina Press.
Darden Keith. 2012. Resisting occupation: Mass schooling and the creation of durable national loyalties. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Davidov Eldad, Peter Schmidt, and Shalom H. Schwartz. 2008. “Bringing values back in: The adequacy of the European Social Survey to measure values in 20 countries.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77 (3): 420–445.
Dávila Arlene M.2001. Latinos, Inc.: The marketing and making of a people. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Davis J. A.1963. “Structural balance, mechanical solidarity, and interpersonal relations.” American Journal of Sociology 68 : 444–462.
Davis James F.1991. Who is black? One nation’s definition. University Park : Pennsylvania State Univ. Press.
Day Dennis. 1998. “Being ascribed, and resisting, membership of an ethnic group.” In Identities in talk. Edited by Charles Antaki and Sue Widdicombe, 151–170. London : SAGE.
D’Azevedo Warren. 1970 –1971. “A tribal reaction to nationalism(Part 4).” Liberian Studies Journal 3 (1): 1–22.
de Vries Marlene. 1999. “Why ethnicity? The ethnicity of Dutch Eurasians in the Netherlands.” In Culture, structure and beyond: Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children. Edited by Maurice Crul, et al., 28–48. Amsterdam : Het Spinhuis.
de Waal Alex. 2005. “Who are the Darfurians? Arab and African identities, violence and external engagement.” African Affairs 104 (415): 181–205.
Despres Leo. 1975. Ethnicity and resource competition in plural societies. The Hague : Mouton.
(p.246) Deutsch Karl W.1953. Nationalism and social communication: An inquiry into the foundations of nationality. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
Deverre Christian. 1980. Indiens ou paysans. Paris : Le Sycomore.
Diehl Claudia, Matthias Koenig, and Kerstin Ruckdeschel. 2009. “Religiosity and gender equality: Comparing natives and Muslim migrants in Germany.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 32 (2): 278–301.
DiMaggio Paul, Eszter Hargittai, W. Russell Neuman, and John P. Robinson. 2001. “Social implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 : 307–336.
Dittrich Eckhard, and Frank-Olaf Radtke. 1990. Ethnizität: Wissenschaft und Minderheiten. Opladen, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
Donham Donald. 2001. “Thinking temporally or modernizing anthropology.” American Anthropologist 103 (1): 134–149.
Dormon James H.1984. “Louisana’s Cajuns: A case study of ethnic group revitalization.” Social Science Quarterly 65 (4): 1043–1057.
Dovidio John F., Peter Samuel Glick, and Laurie A. Rudman. 2005. On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport. Oxford : Blackwell.
Dribe Martin, and Christer Lundh. 2011. “Cultural dissimilarity and intermarriage: A longitudinal study of immigrants in Sweden, 1990–2005.” International Migration Review 45 (2): 297–324.
Driedger Leo. 1979. “Maintenance of urban ethnic boundaries: The French in St. Boniface.” The Sociological Quarterly 20 (1): 89–108.
Dunphy D. C.1963. “The social structure of urban adolescent peer groups.” Sociometry 26 : 230–246.
Easterly William, and Ross Levine. 1997. “Africa’s growth tragedy: Policies and ethnic divisions.” in Quarterly Journal of Economics (November): 1203–1250.
Easthope Gary. 1976. “Religious war in Northern Ireland.” Sociology 10 (3): 427–450.
Edensor Tim. 2002. National identity, popular culture and everyday life. Oxford : Berg.
Eder Klaus, Bernd Giesen, Oliver Schmidke, and Damian Tambini. 2002. Collective identities in action: A sociological approach to ethnicity. Aldershot, UK : Ashgate.
Edgell Penny, Joseph Gerteis, and Douglas Hartman. 2006. “Atheists as ‘other’: Moral boundaries and cultural membership in American society.” American Sociological Review 71 (2): 211–234.
Eggan Fred. 1954. “Social anthropology and the method of controlled comparison.” American Anthropologist 56 : 743–763.
Elias Norbert, and James L. Scotson. 1965. The established and the outsiders: A sociological enquiry into community problems. London : Cass.
Ellison Nicole B., Charles Steinfield, and Cliff Lampe. 2007. “The benefits of Facebook ‘friends’: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12 : 1143–1168.
Elman Colin. 2005. “Explanatory typologies in qualitative studies of international politics.” International Organization 59 : 293–326.
Elwert Georg. 1989. Ethnizität und Nationalismus: Über die Bildung von Wir-Gruppen. Berlin : Das Arabische Buch.
Ely Robin J., and David A. Thomas. 2001. “Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes.” Administrative Science Quarterly 46 : 229–273.
(p.247) Emerson Michael O., and Rodney M. Woo. 2006. People of the dream: Multiracial congregations in the United States. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Emirbayer Mustafa. 1997. “Manifesto for a relational sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 103 (2): 281–317.
Emirbayer Mustafa, and Ann Mische. 1998. “What is agency?” American Journal of Sociology 103 (4): 962–1023.
Emirbayer Mustafa, and Jeff Goodwin. 1994. “Network analysis, culture, and the problem of agency.” American Journal of Sociology 99 (6): 1411–1454.
Epstein Joyce L.1985. “After the bus arrives: Resegregation in desegregated schools.” Journal of Social Issues 41 : 23–43.
Erickson Bonnie H.1996. “Culture, class, and connections,” in American Journal of Sociology 102 (1): 217–251.
Erikson Thomas H.1993. Ethnicity and nationalism: Anthropological perspectives. London : Pluto Press.
Esman Milton J.1977. “Perspectives on ethnic conflict in industrialized societies.” In Ethnic conflict in the western world. By Milton J. Esman, 371–390. Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press.
Espelage Dorothy, Harold Green, and Stanley Wasserman. 2008. “Statistical analysis of friendship patterns and bullying behaviors among youth.” Paper given at the International Sunbelt Social Networks Conference, St. Pete Beach, Florida, January 22–27.
Espiritu Yen Le. 1992. Asian American panethnicity: Bridging institutions and identities. Philadelphia : Temple Univ. Press.
Espiritu Yen Le. 1999. “Disciplines unbound: Notes on sociology and ethnic studies.” Contemporary Sociology 28 (5): 510–514.
Essed Philomena. 1992. “Multikulturalismus und kultureller Rassismus in den Niederlanden.” In Rassismus und Migration in Europa. Hamburg : Argument-Verlag.
Esser Hartmut. 1980. Aspekte der Wanderungssoziologie: Assimilation und Integration von Wanderern, ethnischen Gruppen und Minderheiten: Eine handlungstheoretische Analyse. Darmstadt, Germany : Luchterhand.
Esser Hartmut. 1990. “Interethnische Freundschaften.” In Generation und Identität: Theoretische und empirische Beiträge zur Migrationssoziologie. Edited by Hartmut Esser and Jürgen Friedrichs, 185–205. Opladen, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
Esser Hartmut. 2002. Soziologie: Spezielle Grundlagen, Band 6: Sinn und Kultur. Frankfurt : Campus.
Esser Hartmut. 2006. Sprache und Integration: Die sozialen Bedingungen und Folgen des Spracherwerbs von Migranten. Frankfurt : Campus.
Fàbos Anita. 2012. “Resisting blackness, embracing rightness: How Muslim Muslim Arab Sudanese women negotiate their identities in the diaspora.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (2): 218–237.
Faist Thomas. 1993. “From school to work: Public policy and underclass formation among young Turks in Germany during the 1980s.” International Migration Review 27 (2): 306–331.
Fassin Didier. 2009. De la question sociale à la question raciale? Représenter la société française. Paris : Édition la Découverte.
(p.248) Favell Adrian. 2003. “Integration nations: The nation-state and research on immigrants in Western Europe.” Comparative Social Research 22 : 13–42.
Favell Adrian. 2005. “Nowhere men: Cosmopolitanism’s lost moment.” Innovation 18 (1): 99–103.
Favell Adrian. 2007. “Rebooting migration theory: Interdisciplinarity, globality, and postdisciplinarity in migration studies.” In Migration theory: Talking across disciplines. Edited by Caroline Bretell and James Hollifield, 259–278. New York : Routledge.
Feagin Joe R., and Clairence Booher Feagin. 1993. Racial and ethnic relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall.
Fearon James D.2003. “Ethnic and cultural diversity by country.” Journal of Economic Growth 8 (2): 195–222.
Feather N.T.1979. “Assimilation of values in migrant groups.” In Understanding human values: Individual and societal. Edited by M. Rokeach, 97–128. New York : Free Press.
Feld Scott L.1981. “The focused organization of social ties.” American Journal of Sociology 86 (5): 1015–1035.
Fernandez James W.1966. “Folklore as an agent of nationalism.” In Social change and the colonial situation. Edited by Immanuel Wallerstein, 585–591. New York : Wiley.
Festinger Leon, Stanley Schachter, and Kurt Back. 1963. Social pressures in informal groups: A study of human factors in housing. Stanford, CA : Stanford Univ. Press.
Finnäs Fjalar, and Richard O’Leary. 2003. “Choosing for the children: The affiliation of the children of minority-majority group intermarriages.” European Journal of Sociological Review 19 (5): 483–499.
Fischer Claude S.1982. “What do we mean by ‘friend’? An inductive study.” Social Networks 3 : 287–306.
Fligstein Neil. 1996. “Markets as politics: A political-cultural approach to market institutions.” American Sociological Review 61 : 656–673.
Fordham Signithia, and John U. Ogbu. 1986. “Black students’ school success: Coping with the burden of ‘acting white.’” The Urban Review 18 (3): 176–206.
Freeman Gary P.1986. “Migration and the political economy of the welfare state.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 485 : 51–63.
Friedberg Rachel M.2000. “You can’t take it with you? Immigrant assimilation and the portability of human capital.” Journal of Labor Economics 18 : 221–251.
Friedkin Noah E.1990. “A Guttman scale for the strength of an interpersonal tie.” Social Networks 12 : 239–252.
Friedlander Judith. 1975. Being an Indian in Hueyapán: A study of forced identity in contemporary Mexico. New York : St. Martin’s Press.
Friedrich Paul. 1970. Agrarian revolt in a Mexican village. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice Hall.
Friedrichs Jürgen. 1998. “Social inequality, segregation and urban conflict.” In Urban segregation and the welfare state: Inequality and exclusion in western cities. Edited by Sako Musterd and Wim Osterdorf, 168–190. London : Routledge.
Fryer Roland Gerhard, and M. Jackson. 2003. “Categorical cognition: A psychological model of categories and identification in decision making.” Working Paper No. 9579. Cambridge. MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
(p.249) Gaines S. O. J., W. D. Marelich, K. L. Bledsoe, and W. N. Steers. 1997. “Links between race/ethnicity and cultural values as mediated by racial/ethnic identity and moderated by gender.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 : 1460–1476.
Galaty John G.1982. “Being “Maasai,” being ‘people-of-cattle’: Ethnic shifters in East Africa.” American Ethnologist 9 (1): 1–20.
Gans Herbert. 1979. “Symbolic ethnicity: The future of ethnic groups and culture in America.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 2 : 1–20.
Gans Herbert. 1997. “Toward a reconciliation of ‘assimilation’ and ‘pluralism’: The interplay of acculturation and ethnic retention.” International Migration Review 31 (4): 875–892.
Garner Steve. 2007. “The European Union and the racialization of immigration, 1985–2006.” Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts 1 (1): 61–87.
Geertz Clifford. 1963. “The integrative revolution: Primordial sentiments and civil politics in the new states.” In Old societies and new states: The quest for modernity in Asia and Africa. By Clifford Geertz, 105–157. New York : Free Press.
Gellner David. 2001. “How should one study ethnicity and nationalism?” Contributions to Nepalese Studies 28 (1): 1–10.
Gellner Ernest. 1983. Nations and nationalism. Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press.
Geyer Charles J., and Elizabeth A. Thompson. 1992. “Constrained Monte Carlo maximum likelihood for dependent data.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B 54 (3): 657–699.
Gianettoni Lavinia, and Patricia Roux. 2010. “Interconnecting race and gender relations: Racism, sexism and the attribution of sexism to the racialized other.” Sex Roles 62 : 374–386.
Gieryn Thomas F.1983. “Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists.” American Sociological Review 48 (6): 781–795.
Gil-White Francisco. 1999. “How thick is blood? The plot thickens…: If ethnic actors are primordialists, what remains of the circumstantialist/primordialist controversy?” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (5): 789–820.
Gil-White Francisco. 2001. “Are ethnic groups biological ‘species’ to the human brain?” Current Anthropology 42 (4): 515–554.
Gilroy Paul. 2000. Against race: Imagining political culture beyond the color line. Cambridge. MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Givens Terri E.2004. “The radical right gender gap.” Comparative Political Studies 37 (1): 30–54.
Glaeser Andreas. 1999. Divided in unity: Identity, Germany and the Berlin police. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Glazer Nathan, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan. 1975. “Introduction.” In Ethnicity: Theory and experience. By Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, 1–11. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Glick Clarence E.1938. The Chinese migrant in Hawaii: A study in accommodation. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Glick Schiller Nina, Ayse Caglar, and Thaddeus C. Guldbrandsen. 2006. “Beyond the ethnic lens: Locality, globality, and born-again incorporation.” American Ethnologist 33 (4): 612–633.
(p.250) Goldberg Andreas, Dora Mourinho, and Ursula Kulke. 1996. Labour market discrimination against foreign workers in Germany. Geneva, Switzerland : International Labor Organization.
Golder Scott A., Dennis Wilkinson, and Bernardo A. Huberman. 2007. “Rhythms of social interaction: Messaging within a massive online network.” Paper given at the Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Communities and Technologies, London.
Goldthorpe John H.2000. On sociology: Numbers, narratives, and the integration of research and theory. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Goodreau Steven M.2007. “Advances in exponential random graph (p*) models applied to a large social network.” Social Networks 29 : 231–248.
Goodreau Steven M., James A. Kitts, and Martina Morris. 2009. “Birds of a feather or friend of a friend? Using exponential random graph models to investigate adolescent social networks.” Demography 46 (1): 103–125.
Goodwin Jeff, James M. Jasper, and Francesca Polletta. 2004. “Emotional dimensions of social movements.” In The Blackwell companion to social movements. Edited by David A. Snow, et al., 413–432. Oxford : Blackwell.
Goodwyn Lawrence. 1978. The Populist moment: A short history of the agrarian revolt in America. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Gordon Milton M.1964. Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion and national origin. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Gorenburg Dmitry. 1999. “Identity change in Bashkorostan: Tatars into Bashkirs and back.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 22 (3): 554–580.
Gorenburg Dmitry. 2000. “Not with one voice: An explanation of intragroup variation in nationalist sentiment.” World Politics 53 : 115–142.
Gould Roger V.1995. Insurgent identities: Class, community, and protest in Paris from 1848 to the Commune. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Graham Otis. 2000. Our kind of people: Inside America’s black upper class. New York : HarperCollins.
Gramsci Antonio. 2001. Selections from the prison notebooks. London : Electric Book.
Grandin Greg. 2000. The blood of Guatemala: A history of race and nation. Durham, NC : Duke Univ. Press.
Granovetter Mark S.1973. “The strength of weak ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380.
Green Eva G. T., Jean-Claude Deschamps, and Dario Paez. 2005. “Variation of individualism and collectivism within and between 20 countries.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36 ( 3 ): 321–339.
Greenfeld Liah. 1992. Nationalism: Five roads to modernity. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Gregory James R.1976. “The modification of an interethnic boundary in Belize.” American Ethnologist 3 (4): 683–708.
Greif Avner, and David Laitin. 2004. “A theory of endogenous institutional change.” American Political Science Review 98 : 633–652.
Grillo Ralph. 1998. Pluralism and the politics of difference: State, culture, and ethnicity in comparative perspective. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
(p.251) Grodeland Ase B., William L. Miller, and Tatyana Y. Koshechkina. 2000. “The ethnic dimension to bureaucratic encounters in postcommunist Europe: Perceptions and experience.” Nations and Nationalism 6 (1): 43–66.
Gross Ralph, and Alessandro Acquisti. 2005. “Information revelation and privacy in online social networks.” Paper given at the Proceedings of WPES’05, Alexandria, Virginia.
Guglielmo Thomas. 2003. “‘No color barriers’: Italians, race, and power in the United States.” In Are Italians white? Edited by Jennifer Guglielmo and Salvatore Salerno, 29–43. New York : Routledge.
Gurr Ted R.1993. Minorities at risk: A global view of ethnopolitical conflict. Washington, DC : United States Institute of Peace Press.
Gwaltney John Langston. 1993. Drylongso: A self-portrait of black America. New York : New Press.
Haaland Gunnar. 1969. “Economic determinants in ethnic processes.” In Ethnic groups and boundaries. Edited by Fredrik Barth, 58–74. Olso : Norwegian Univ. Press.
Habyarimana James, Macartan Humphreys, Daniel N. Posner, and Jeremy M. Weinstein. 2007. “Why does ethnic diversity undermine public goods provision?” American Political Science Review 101 (4): 709–725.
Hagan William T.1976. United States–Comanche relations: The reservation years. New Haven, CT : Yale Univ. Press.
Hale Henry E.2004. “Explaining ethnicity.” Comparative Political Studies 37 (4): 458–485.
Hall Stuart. 1996 (1989). “New ethnicities.” In Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies. Edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, 441–449. London : Routledge.
Haller William, Alejandro Portes, and Scott M. Lynch. 2011. “Dreams fulfilled, dreams shattered: Determinants of segmented assimilation in the second generation.” Social Forces 89 (3): 733–762.
Hallinan Maureen T.1978 –1979. “The process of friendship formation.” Social Networks 1 : 193–210.
Hallinan Maureen T., and Steven S. Smith. 1985. “The effects of classroom racial composition on students’ interracial friendliness.” Social Psychology Quarterly 48 (1): 3–16.
Hallinan Maureen T., and Richard A. Williams. 1989. “Interracial friendship choices in secondary schools.” American Sociological Review 54 (1): 67–78.
Hancock Ange-Marie. 2007. “When multiplication doesn’t equal quick addition: Examining intersectionality as a research paradigm.” Perspectives on Politics 5 (1): 63–79.
Handcock Mark S.2003a. Assessing degeneracy in statistical models of social networks. Seattle : Univ. of Washington Center for Statistics and the Social Sciences.
Handcock Mark S.2003b. “Statistical models for social networks: Degeneracy and inference.” In Dynamic social network modeling and analysis. Edited by R. Breiger et al., 229–240. Washington, DC : National Academies Press.
Hannan Michael T.1979. “The dynamics of ethnic boundaries in modern states.” In National development and the world system. Edited by John W. Meyer and Michael T. Hannan, 253–275. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
(p.252) Hannerz Ulf. 1994. “Sophiatown: The view from afar.” Journal of Southern African Studies 20 (2): 181–193.
Hansell Stephen, and Robert E. Slavin. 1981. “Cooperative learning and the structure of interracial friendships.” Sociology of Education 54 (April): 98–106.
Harff Barbara. 2003. “No lessons learned from the Holocaust? Assessing the risks of genocide and political mass murder since 1955.” American Political Science Review 97 (1): 57–73.
Harff Barbara, and Ted R. Gurr. 1989. “Victims of the state: Genocide, politicide and group repression since 1945.” International Review of Victimology 1 (1): 23–41.
Harries Patrick. 1989. “Exclusion, classification and internal colonialism: The emergence of ethnicity among the Tsonga-speakers of South Africa.” In The creation of tribalism in southern Africa. Edited by Leroy Vail, 82–117. London : James Currey.
Harris Marvin. 1964. “Racial identity in Brazil.” Luso-Brazilian Review 1 : 21–28.
Harris Marvin. 1980. Patterns of race in the Americas. Westport, CT : Greenwood Press.
Harris Rosmary. 1972. Prejudice and tolerance in Ulster: A study of neighbours and “strangers” in a border community. Manchester, UK : Manchester University Press.
Harrison Simon. 2002. “The politics of resemblence: Ethnicity, trademarks, head-hunting.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 8 (2): 211–232.
Hartmann Douglas, Paul R. Croll, and Katja Guenther. 2003. “The race relations ‘problematic’ in American sociology: Revisiting Niemonen’s case study and critique.” The American Sociologist 34 (3): 20–55.
Heath Anthony. 2007. “Cross-national patterns and processes of ethnic disadvantage.” Anthony Heath and Si-Yi Cheung, Unequal chances: Ethnic minorities in western abour markets: Proceedings of the British Academy, 137. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Hechter Michael. 2000. Containing nationalism. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Hechter Michael. 2004. “From class to culture.” American Journal of Sociology 110 (2): 400–445.
Hechter Michael, and Margaret Levi. 1979. “The comparative analysis of ethnoregional movements.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 2 (3): 260–274.
Hedström Peter. 2005. Dissecting the social: On the principles of analytical sociology. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Hedström Peter, and Peter Bearman. 2009. The Oxford handbook of analytical sociology. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Heider Fritz. 1946. “Attitudes and cognitive organization.” Journal of Psychology 21 : 107–112.
Heisler Martin O.1991. “Ethnicity and ethnic relations in the modern West.” In Conflict and peacemaking in multiethnic societies. Edited by Joseph V. Montville, 21–52. New York : Lexington.
Helg Aline. 1995. Our rightful share: The Afro-Cuban struggle for equality, 1886–1912. Chapel Hill : Univ. of North Carolina Press.
Herder Johann Gottfried. 1968 (1784 –1791). Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit: Sämtliche Werke. Vol. 13. Edited by Bernhard Suphan. Hildesheim, Germany : Olms.
Hicks John D. 1961 (1931). The populist revolt: A history of the Farmers’ Alliance and the People’s Party. Lincoln : Univ. of Nebraska Press.
(p.253) Hirschfeld Lawrence A.1996. Race in the making: Cognition, culture and the child’s construction of human kinds. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
Hitlin Steven, and Jane Allyn Piliavin. 2004. “Values: Reviving a dormant concept.” Annual Review of Sociology 30 : 359–393.
Hoadley Mason C.1988. “Javanese, Peranakan, and Chinese elites in Cirebon: Changing ethnic boundaries.” Journal of Asian Studies 47 (3): 503–518.
Hobsbawm Eric, and Terence Ranger. 1983. The invention of tradition. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Hochschild Jennifer. 2003. “‘Who cares who killed Roger Ackroyd?’ Narrowing the enduring divisions of race.” In The fractious nation? Unity and division in contemporary American life. Edited by Jonathan Rieder, 155–169. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Hochschild Jennifer L., and Vesla Weaver. 2007. “The skin color paradox and the American racial order.” Social Forces 86 (2): 643–670.
Hoddie Mathew. 2002. “Preferential policies and the blurring of ethnic boundaries: The case of Aboriginal Australians in the 1980s.” Political Studies 50 (2): 293–312.
Hoetink Harry. 1967. The two variants in Caribbean race relations: A contribution to the sociology of segmented societies. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Hoffmann-Nowotny, Hans-Joachim. 1992. Chancen und Risiken multikultureller Einwanderungsgesellschaften. Bern, Switzerland : Swiss Council on the Sciences.
Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik Jürgen H. P.2003. “How to measure race and ethnicity.” In Advances in cross-national comparison: A European working book for demographic and socio-economic variables. Edited by Jürgen H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik and Christof Wolf, 267–278. New York : Kluwer.
Hollinger David A.2003. “Amalgamation and hypodescent: The question of ethnoracial mixture in the history of the United States.” American Historical Review 108 (5): 1363–1390.
Horowitz Donald L.1971. “Three dimensions of ethnic politics.” World Politics 23 (2): 232–244.
Horowitz Donald L.1975. “Ethnic identity.” In Ethnicity: Theory and experience. Edited by Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, 111–140. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Horowitz Donald L.1977. “Cultural movements and ethnic change.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 433 : 6–18.
Horowitz Donald L.1985. Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Horowitz Donald L.2001. The deadly ethnic riot. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Hunt Chester, and Lewis Walker. 1979. Ethnic dynamics: Patterns of intergroup relations in various societies. Holmes Beach, FL : Learning Publications.
Hunter David R.2007. “Curved exponential family models for social networks.” Social Networks 29 : 216–230.
Hunter David R., Steven M. Goodreau, and Mark S. Handcock. 2008. “Goodness of fit of social network models.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 103 (481): 248–258.
(p.254) Hunter David R., and Mark S. Handcock. 2006. “Inference in curved exponential family models for networks.” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 15 (3): 565–583.
Huntington Samuel. 2004. “The Hispanic challenge.” Foreign Policy, March–April
Hyden Goran, and Donald C. Williams. 1994. “A community model of African politics: Illustrations from Nigeria and Tanzania.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 26 (1): 68–96.
Ignatiev Noel. 1995. How the Irish became white. New York : Routledge.
Inglehart R., and W. E. Baker. 2000. “Modernization, cultural change, and the persistance of traditional values.” American Sociological Review 65 : 19–51.
Ingold Tim. 1993. “The art of translation in a continuous world.” In Beyond boundaries: Understanding, translation and anthropological discourse. Edited by Gisli P álsson, 210–230. London : Berg.
Ireland Patrick. 1994. The policy challenge of ethnic diversity: Immigrant politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Isaac Harold R.1967. “Group identity and political change: The role of color and physical characteristics.” Daedalus 96 : 353–375.
Ito-Adler James. 1980. The Portuguese in Cambridge and Sommerville. Cambridge, MA : Department of Planning and Development.
Ivarsflaten Elisabeth. 2005. “The vulnerable populist right parties: No economic realignment fuelling their electoral success.” European Journal of Political Research 44 : 465–492.
Ivarsflaten Elisabeth. 2008. “What unites right-wing populists in western Europe? Re-examining grievance mobilization models in seven succesful cases.” Comparative Political Studies 41 (3): 3–23.
Iwanska Alicja. 1971. Purgatory and Utopia: A Mazahua Indian village of Mexico. Cambridge, MA : Schenkman.
Iwasawa Yuji. 1986. “The legal treatment of Koreans in Japan: The impact of international human rights law.” Human Rights Quarterly 8 (2): 131–179.
Jackson Preece Jennifer. 1998. “Ethnic cleansing as an instrument of nation-state creation: Changing state practices and evolving legal norms.” Human Rights Quarterly 20 (4): 817–842.
Jacobson Jessica. 1997. “Religion and ethnicity: Dual and alternative sources of identity among young British Pakistanis.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 20 (2): 238–256.
Jacoby William G.2006. “Value choices and American public opinion.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (3): 706–723.
Jasper James M.2004. “A strategic approach to collective action: Looking for agency in social-movement choices.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 9 (1): 1–16.
Jenkins Richard. 1994. “Rethinking ethnicity: Identity, categorization and power.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 17 (2): 197–223.
Jenkins Richard. 1997. Rethinking ethnicity: Arguments and explorations. London : SAGE.
Jiménez Tomàs R.2004. “Negotiating ethnic boundaries: Multiethnic Americans and ethnic identity in the United States.” Ethnicities 4 (2): 75–97.
Joppke Christian. 2005. Selecting by origin: Ethnic migration in the liberal state. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
(p.255) Jordan Winthrop D.1968. White over black: American attitudes toward the Negro, 1550–1812. Chapel Hill : Univ. of North Carolina Press.
Joyner Kara, and Grace Kao. 2000. “School racial composition and adolescent racial homophily.” Social Science Quarterly 81 (3): 810–825.
Juteau Danielle. 1979. “La sociologie des fronti ères ethnique en devenir.” In Frontières ethniques en devenir. By Danielle Juteau-Lee, 3–18. Ottawa, ON : Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa.
Kalmijn Matthijs. 1998. “Intermarriage and homogamy: Causes, patterns and trends.” Annual Review of Sociology 24 : 395–421.
Kalter Frank. 2006. “Auf der Suche nach einer Erklärung für die spezfischen Arbeitsmarktnachteile von jugendlichen türkischer Herkunft.” Zeitschrift für Soziologie 35 (2): 144–160.
Kalter Frank, Nadia Granato, and Cornelia Kristen. 2007. “Disentangling recent trends of second generation’s structural assimilation in Germany.” In From origin to destination: Trends and mechanisms in social stratification research. Edited by Stefani Scherer, Reinhardt Pollak, Gunnar Otte, and Marcus Gangl, 214–245. Frankfurt : Campus.
Kandel Denise B.1978. “Homophily, selection, and socialization in adolescent friendships.” American Journal of Sociology 84 (2): 427–436.
Kao Grace, and Kara Joyner. 2004. “Do race and ethnicity matter among friends? Activities among interracial, interethnic, and intraethnic adolescent friends.” The Sociological Quarterly 45 (3): 557–573.
Kao Grace, and Kara Joyner. 2006. “Do Hispanic and Asian adolescents practice panethnicity in friendship choices?” Social Science Quarterly 87 (5): 972–992.
Karlen Marie-Therese. 1998. “Somos los valesanos, somos los gringos”: Die Wiederentdecktung einer (fast) vergessenen ‘Walliserkolonie’ in der argentinischen Pampa. Zurich : University of Zurich.
Karpat Kemal. 1973. An inquiry into the social foundations of nationalism in the Ottoman state: From social estates to classes, from millets to nations. Princeton, NJ : Center of International Studies.
Karrer Dieter. 2002. Der Kampf um Integration: Zur Logik ethnischer Beziehungen in einem sozial benachteiligten Stadtteil. Opladen, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
Kasfir Nelson. 1976. The shrinking political arena: Participation and ethnicity in African politics with a case study of Uganda. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Kasfir Nelson. 1979. “Explaining ethnic political participation.” World Politics 31 : 365–388.
Kaufmann Eric. 2004. The rise and fall of Anglo-America. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Kaw Eugenia. 1991. “Medicalization of racial features: Asian American women and cosmetic surgery.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 7 (1): 74–89.
Kearney Michael. 1996. “Die Auswirkung globaler Kultur, Wirtschaft und Migration auf die mixtekische Identit ät in Oaxacalifornia.” In Integration und Transformation: Ethnische Minderheiten, Staat und Weltwirtschaft in Lateinamerika seit ca. 1850. Edited by Stefan Karlen and Andreas Wimmer, 329–349. Stuttgart : Heim.
Kefalas Maria. 2003. Working-class heroes: Protecting home, community, and nation in a Chicago neighborhood. Sacramento : Univ. of California Press.
(p.256) Kertzer David I.1988. Ritual, politics and power. New Haven, CT : Yale Univ. Press.
Kessler Alan E., and Gary P. Freeman. 2005. “Support for extreme right-wing parties in western Europe: Individual attributes, political attitudes, and national context.” Comparative European Politics 3 : 261–288.
Keyes Charles. 1976. “Towards a new formulation of the concept of ethnic group.” Ethnicity 3 (3): 202–213.
Keyes Charles. 1979. “Introduction.” In Ethnic adaptation and identity: The Karen on the Thai frontier with Burma. By Charles Keyes, 1–23. Philadelphia : Institute for the Study of Human Issues.
Keyes Charles. 1981. “The dialectics of ethnic change.” In Ethnic change. By Charles Keyes, 4–52. Seattle : Univ. of Washington Press.
Kibria Nazli. 2002. Becoming Asian American: Second-generation Chinese and Korean American identities. Baltimore : The John Hopkins Univ. Press.
Kissler Mechtilde, and Josef Eckert. 1990. “Multikulturelle Gesellschaft und Urbanität: Die soziale Konstruktion eines innerstädtischen Wohnviertels aus figurationssoziologischer Sicht.” Migration 8 : 43–82.
Kivisto Peter. 2003. “The view from America: Comments on Banton.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 26 (3): 528–536.
Klessman Christoph. 1978. Polnische Bergarbeiter im Ruhrgebiet, 1870–1945: Soziale Integration und nationale Subkultur einer Minderheit in der deutschen Industriegesellschaft. Göttingen, Germany : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Kloosterman Robert. 2000. “Immigrant entrepreneurship and the institutional context: A theoretical exploration.” In Immigrant businesses: The Economic, Political and Social Environment. Edited by Jan Rath, 90–106. Basingstoke, UK : Macmillan.
Knafo A., and S. H. Schartz. 2001. “Value socialization in families of Israeli-born and Soviet-born adolescents in Israel.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 32 : 213–228.
Knafo Ariel, Ella Daniel, and Mona Khoury-Kassabri. 2008. “Values as protective factors against violent behavior in Jewish and Arab high schools in Israel.” Child Development 79 (3): 652–667.
Kogan Irena. 2006. “Labor markets and economic incorporation among recent immigrants in Europe.” Social Forces 85 (2): 697–721.
Köhler Ulrich. 1990. “Kosmologie und Religion.” In Altamerikanistik: Eine Einführung in die Hochkulturen Mittel- und Südamerikas. By Ulrich K öhler, Berlin : Reimer.
Koopmans Ruud, Paul Statham, Marco Giugni, and Florence Passy. 2005. Contested citizenship: Immigration and cultural diversity in Europe. Minneapolis : Univ. of Minnesota Press.
Kopytoff Igor. 1988. “The cultural context of African abolition.” In The end of slavery in Africa. Edited by Suzanne Miers and Richard Roberts, 485–503. Madison : Univ. of Wisconsin Press.
Kornrich Sabino. 2009. “Combining preferences and processes: An integrated approach to black-white labor market inequality.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (1): 1–38.
Kriesi Hanspeter, Romain Lachat, Peter Selb, Simon Bornschier, and Marc Helbling. 2005. Der Aufstieg der SVP: Acht Kantone im Vergleich. Zurich : Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung.
(p.257) Kristen Cornelia, and Nadia Granato. 2007. “The educational attainment of the second generation in Germany.” Ethnicities 7 (3): 343–366.
Kroneberg Clemens. 2005. “Die Definition der Situation und die variable Rationalität der Akteure: Ein allgemeines Modell des Handelns.” Zeitschrift für Soziologie 34 (5): 344–363.
Kroneberg Clemens, and Andreas Wimmer. 2012. “Struggling over the boundaries of belonging: A formal model of nation-building, ethnic closure, and populism.” American Journal of Sociology 118 (1): forthcoming.
Kuran Timur. 1998. “Ethnic norms and their transformation through reputational cascades.” Journal of Legal Studies 27 : 623–659.
Kymlicka Will. 1989. “Liberal individualism and liberal neutrality.” Ethics 99 (4): 883–905.
Kymlicka Will. 1995. Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Kymlicka Will. 2007. Multicultural odysseys: Navigating the new international politics of diversity. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Labelle Micheline. 1987. Ideologie du couleur et classes sociales en Haiti. Montreal : Univ. of Montreal Press.
Laely Thomas. 1994. “Ethnien à la burundaise.” In Ethnische Dynamik in der aussereuropäischen Welt. Edited by Hans-Peter M üller, 207–247. Zurich : Argonaut-Verlag.
Lagrange Hugues. 2010. Le déni des cultures. Paris : Seuil.
Laitin David. 1995a. “Marginality. A microperspective.” Rationality and Society 7 (1): 31–57.
Laitin David. 1995b. “National revivals and violence.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 36 (1): 3–43.
Lamont Michèle. 1992. Money, morals, manners: The culture of the French and American upper class. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Lamont Michèle. 2000. The dignity of working man: Morality and the boundaries of race, class, and immigration. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Lamont Michèle, and Christopher A. Bail. 2005. “Sur les frontières de la reconnaissance: Les catégories internes et externes de l’identité collective.” Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales 21 : 61–90.
Lamont Michèle, and Crystal Fleming. 2005. “Everyday antiracism: Competence and religion in the cultural repertoire of the African American elite.” Du Bois Review 2 (1): 29–43.
Lamont Michèle, and Virág Moln ár. 2001. “How blacks use consumption to shape their collective identity: Evidence from African-American marketing specialist.” Journal of Consumer Culture 1 (1): 31–45.
Lamont Michèle, and Virág Moln ár. 2002. “The study of boundaries in the social sciences.” Annual Review of Sociology 28 : 167–195.
Lamont Michèle, Ann Morning, and Margarita Mooney. 2002. “North African immigrants respond to French racism: Demonstrating equivalence through universalism.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 25 (3): 390–414.
Lancester Roger N.1991. “Skin color, race, and racism in Nicaragua.” Ethnology 34 : 339–352.
(p.258) Landa Janet T.1981. “A theory of the ethnically homogenous middleman group: An institutional alternative to contract law.” Journal of Legal Studies 10 : 349–362.
Landale Nancy F., and R. S. Oropesa. 2002. “White, black, or Puerto Rican? Racial self-identification among mainland and island Puerto Ricans.” Social Forces 81 : 231–254.
Lanoue Guy. 1992. Brothers: The politics of violence among the Sekani of northern British Columbia.Oxford : Berg.
Lapidus Ira M.2001. “Between universalism and particularism: The historical bases of Muslim communal, national, and global identities.” Global Networks 1 (1): 37–55.
Laumann Edward O., Peter V. Marsden, and David Prensky. 1983. “The boundary specification problem in network analysis.” In Applied network analysis: A methodological introduction. Edited by Ronald S. Burt and Michael J. Minor, 18–34. Beverly Hills, CA : SAGE.
Lauwagie Beverly Nagel. 1979. “Ethnic boundaries in modern states: The Romano Lavo-Lil revisited.” American Journal of Sociology 85 (2): 310–337.
Leach Edmund R.1954. Political systems of highland Burma: A study of Kachin social structure. London : Athlone Press.
Le Bras Hervé. 1998. Le démon des origins. Paris : Édition de l’aube.
Lee Sharon M.1993. “Racial classifications in the US census, 1890–1990.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 16 : 75–94.
Lelyveld Joseph. 1985. Move your shadow: South Africa, black and white. New York : Penguin.
Lemarchand René. 1966. “Power and stratification in Rwanda: A reconsideration.” Cahiers d’Études africaines 6 : 602–605.
Lemarchand René. 2004. “Exclusion, marginalization, and political mobilization: The road to hell in the Great Lakes region.” In Facing ethnic conflicts: Toward a new realism. Edited by Andreas Wimmer, Richard J. Goldstone, Daniel L. Horowitz, and Ulrike Joras, 61–78. Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield.
Levine Hal B., and Marlene Wolfzahn Levine. 1979. Urbanization in Papua New Guinea: A study of ambivalent townsmen. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Levine Nancy E.1987. “Caste, state, and ethnic boundaries in Nepal.” Journal of Asian Studies 46 (1): 71–88.
Le Vine Robert, and Donald Campbell. 1972. Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes and group behaviour. New York : John Wiley.
Levitt Peggy. 2001. Transnational villagers. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Lewis Kevin, Jason Kaufman, Marco Gonzalez, Andreas Wimmer, and Nicholas Christakis. 2008. “Tastes, ties, and time: A new social network dataset using Facebook.com.” Social Networks 30 (4): 330–342.
Lewis Kevin, Jason Kaufman, and Nicholas Christakis. 2008. “The taste for privacy: An analysis of college student privacy settings in an online social network.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 14 (1): 79–100.
Lieberman Evan S., and Gwyneth C. H. McClendon. 2013. “The ethnicity-policy preference link in sub-Saharan Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 46 (5): forthcoming.
Lieberson Stanley. 1980. A piece of the pie: Blacks and white immigrants since 1880. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
(p.259) Lieberson Stanley. 1992. “Small n’s and big conclusions: An examination of the reasoning in comparative studies based on a small number of cases.” In What is a case? Edited by Charles Ragin and H. S. Becker, 105–118. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Lieberson Stanley, and Freda B. Lynn. 2002. “Barking up the wrong branch: Scientific alternatives to the current model of sociological science.” Annual Review of Anthropology 28 : 1–19.
Lin Nan. 1999. “Social networks and status attainment.” Annual Review of Sociology 25 : 467–487.
Lizardo Omar. 2006. “How cultural tastes shape personal networks.” American Sociological Review 71 : 778–807.
Loewen James W.1971. The Mississippi Chinese: Between black and white. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Longman Timothy. 2001. “Identity cards, ethnic self-perception, and genocide in Rwanda.” In Documenting individual identity: The development of state practices in the modern world. Edited by Jane Caplan and John Torpey, 345–357. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press.
Lopez David, and Yen Espiritu. 1990. “Panethnicity in the United States: A theoretical framework.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 : 198–224.
Louch Hugh. 2000. “Personal network integration: Transitivity and homophily in strong-tie relations.” Social Networks 22 : 45–64.
Loveman Mara. 1997. “Is “race” essential?” American Sociological Review 64 (4): 891–898.
Loveman Mara, and Jeronimo Muniz. 2006. “How Puerto Rico became white: Boundary dynamics and inter-census racial classification.” American Sociological Review 72 (6): 915–939.
Lowethal David. 1971. “Post-emancipation race relations: Some Caribbean and American perspectives.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 13 (3–4): 367–377.
Lustick Ian. 2000. “Agent-based modelling of collective identity: Testing constructivist theory.” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 3 (1).
Lyman Stanford M., and William A. Douglass. 1973. “Ethnicity: Strategies of collective and individual impression management.” Social Research 40 (2): 344–365.
Mackert Jürgen. 2004. Die Theorie sozialer Schließung: Tradition, Analysen, Perspektiven. Wiesbaden : VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Macmillan Hugh. 1989. “A nation divided? The Swazi in Swaziland and the Transvaal, 1865–1986.” In The creation of tribalism in southern Africa. Edited by Leroy Vail, 289–323. London : James Currey.
Mahoney James. 2000. “Path dependency in historical sociology.” Theory and Society 29 : 507–548.
Mallon Florencia. 1995. Peasant and nation: The making of postcolonial Mexico and Peru. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Manatschal Anita. 2012. “Path-dependent and dynamic? Cantonal integration policies between regional citizenship traditions and right populist party politics.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (2): 281–297.
Mann Michael. 2005. The dark side of democracy: Explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
(p.260) Mansfield Edward D., and Jack Snyder. 2005. Electing to fight: Why emerging democracies go to war. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
Marmaros David, and Bruce Sacerdote. 2006. “How do friendships form?” Quarterly Journal of Economics 121 (1): 79–119.
Marradi Alberto. 1990. “Classification, typology, taxonomy.” Quality and Quantity 24 : 129–157.
Marsden Peter V.1987. “Core discussion networks of Americans.” American Sociological Review 52 : 122–131.
Marsden Peter V.1988. “Homogeneity in confiding relations.” Social Networks 10 : 57–76.
Marsden Peter V., and Karen E. Campbell. 1984. “Measuring tie strength.” Social Forces 63 : 482–501.
Martin John Levi, and King-To Yeung. 2003. “The use of the conceptual category of race in American sociology, 1937–99.” Sociological Forum 18 (4): 521–543.
Martin Terry D.2001. An affirmative action empire: Nations and nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press.
Marx Anthony W.1999. Making race and nation: A comparision of the United States, South Africa, and Brazil.Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Massey Douglas S., and Nancy A Denton. 1994. American Apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Mayer Adalbert, and Steven L. Puller. 2008. “The old boy (and girl) network: Social network formation on university campuses.” Journal of Public Economics 92 : 329–347.
Mayer Philip. 1962. “Migrancy and the study of Africans in towns.” American Anthropologist 64 : 576–592.
McCall Leslie. 2009. “The complexity of intersectionality.” In Intersectionality and beyond: Law, power, and the politics of location. Edited by Emily Grabham, et al., 49–76. New York : Routledge-Cavendish.
McCranie Ann, Stanley Wasserman, and Bernice Pescosolido. 2008. “Race, gender, and status stratification in work networks: An ERG/p* approach.” Paper given at the International Sunbelt Social Network Conference, St. Pete Beach, Florida, January 22–27.
McDowall David. 1996. A modern history of the Kurds. London : Tauris.
McElreath Richard, Robert Boyd, and Peter J. Richerson. 2003. “Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers.” Current Anthropology 44 (1): 122–129.
McGarry John and Brendan O’Leary. 1993. “Introduction: The macro-political regulation of ethnic conflict.” In The politics of ethnic conflict regulation: Case studies in protracted ethnic conflicts. By John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary, 1–40. London : Routledge.
McKay James, and Frank Lewis. 1978. “Ethnicity and ethnic group: A conceptual analysis and reformulation.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 1 (4): 412–427.
McKay Jay. 1982. “An explanatory synthesis of primordial and mobilizationist approaches to ethnic phenomena.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 5 (4): 395–420.
McPherson Miller, and Lynn Smith-Lovin. 1987. “Homophily in voluntary organizations: Status distance and the composition of face-to-face groups.” American Sociological Review 52 (3): 370–379.
(p.261) McPherson Miller, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and James M. Cook. 2001. “Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 : 415–444.
Meillassoux Claude. 1980. “Gegen eine Ethnologie der Arbeitsmigration.” In Dritte Welt in Europa. Edited by Jochen Blaschke and Kurt Greussing, 53–59. Frankfurt : Syndikat.
Mendelsohn Oliver, and Marika Vicziany. 1998. The untouchables: Subordination, poverty and the state in modern India. New York : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Merry Sally Engle. 2003. “Hegemony and culture in historical anthropology: A review essay on Jean and John Comaroff’s Of Revelation and Revolution.” American Historical Review 108 (2): 460–470.
Meyer John, John Boli, George M. Thomas, and Francisco O. Ramirez. 1997. “World society and the nation-state.” American Journal of Sociology 103 (1): 144–181.
Meyer Melissa. 1999. “American Indian blood quantum requirements: Blood is thicker than family.” In Over the edge: Remapping the American West. Edited by Valerie Matsumoto and Blake Allmendinger, 231–252. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Michel Noémi, and Manuela Honegger. 2010. “Thinking whiteness in French and Swiss cyberspaces.” Social Politics 17 (4): 423–449.
Miles Robert. 1989. Racism. London : Routledge.
Miles Robert. 1993. Racism after “Race Relations.” London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Milikowski Marisca. 2000. “Exploring a model of de-ethnicization: The case of Turkish television in the Netherlands.” European Journal of Communication 15 (4): 443–468.
Millsap Roger E., and Jenn Yun-Tein. 2004. “Assessing factorial invariane in ordered-categorical measures.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 39 (3): 479–515.
Min Brian, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Andreas Wimmer. 2010. “Ethnic exclusion, economic growth, and civil war.” Manuscript, Univ. of California at Los Angeles.
Mislevy Robert J.1991. “Randomization-based inference about latent variables from complex samples.” Psychometrica 56 (2): 177–196.
Mitchell J. Clyde. 1974. “Perceptions of ethnicity and ethnic behaviour: An empirical exploration.” In Urban ethnicity. Edited by Abner Cohen, 1–35. London : Tavistock.
Moerman Michael. 1965. “Ethnic identification in a complex civilization: Who are the Lue?” American Anthropologist 67 (5): 1215–1230.
Moffat Michael. 1979. An Untouchable community in south India: Structure and consensus.Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Moody James. 2001. “Race, school integration, and friendship segregation in America.” American Journal of Sociology 107 (3): 679–716.
Mora Cristina G.2010. “The institutionalization of Latino panethnicity in the United States: Relay effects and interdependent organizational change.” Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Univ. of California at Berkeley.
Moravcsik Andrew. 1994. “Why the European Union strengthens the state: Domestic politics and international cooperation.” Center for European Studies, Working Paper No. 52, Department of Government, Harvard Univ.
(p.262) Morawska Ewa. 1994. “In defense of the assimilation model.” Journal of American Ethnic History 13 (2): 76–87.
Morning Ann. 2009. “Toward a sociology of racial conceptualization for the 21st century.” Social Forces 87 (3): 1167–1192.
Mouw Ted, and Barbara Entwisle. 2006. “Residential segregation and interracial friendship in schools.” American Journal of Sociology 112 (2): 394–441.
Mugny Gabriel, Margarita Sanchez-Mazas, Patricia Roux, and Juan A. P érez. 1991. “Independence and interdependence of group jugments: Xenophobia and minority influence.” European Journal of Social Psychology 21 : 213–223.
Mujahid Abdul Malik. 1989. Conversion to Islam: Untouchables’ strategy for protest in India. Chambersburg, PA : Anima Publications.
Mulcahy F. David. 1979. “Studies in Gitano social ecology: Linguistic performance and ethnicity.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 19 : 11–28.
Mummendey Amelie, Thomas Kessler, Andreas Klink, and Rosemarie Mielke. 1999. “Strategies to cope with negative social identity: Predictions by social identity theory and relative deprivation theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76 : 229–245.
Musterd Sako, Alan Murie, and Christian Kesteloot. 2006. Neighborhoods of poverty: Urban social exclusion and integration in comparison. Basingstoke, UK : Palgrave Macmillan.
Muthén Linda K., and Bengt O. Muth én. 2007. Mplus user’s guide. 5th ed. Los Angeles : Muthén & Muthén.
Nagata Judith. 1974. “What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society.” American Ethnologist 1 (2): 331–350.
Nagata Judith. 1981. “In defense of ethnic boundaries: The changing myths and charters of Malay identity.” In Ethnic change. Edited by Charles Keyes, 88–116. Seattle : Univ. of Washington Press.
Nagel Joane. 1994. “Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture.” Social Problems 41 (1): 152–176.
Nagel Joane. 1995. “American Indian ethnic revival: Politics and the resurgence of identity.” American Sociological Review 60 : 947–965.
Nagel Joane. 2001. “Racial, ethnic, and national boundaries: Sexual intersections and symbolic interactions.” Symbolic Interaction 24 (2): 123–139.
Nagel Joane. 2003. Race, ethnicity, and sexuality: Intimate intersections, forbidden frontiers. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Nauck Berhard, and Annette Kohlmann. 1999. “Kinship as social capital: Network relationships in Turkish migrant families.” In New qualities in the lifecourse: Intercultural aspects. Edited by Rudolf Richter and Sylvia Supper, 199–218. Würzburg, Germany : Ergon Verlag.
Nave Ari. 2000. “Marriage and the maintenance of ethnic group boundaries: The case of Mauritius.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 23 (2): 329–352.
Nee Victor and, Jimy Sanders. 2001. “Understanding the diversity of immigrant incorporation: A forms-of capital model.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24 (3): 386–411.
Nee Victor, Jimy Sanders, and Scott Sernau. 1994. “Job transitions in an immigrant metropolis: Ethnic boundaries in the mixed economy.” American Sociological Review 59 (6): 849–872.
(p.263) Nielson François. 1985. “Toward a theory of ethnic solidarity in modern societies.” American Sociological Review 50 (2): 133–149.
Niemonen Jack. 1997. “The race relations problematic in American sociology: A case study and critique.” The American Sociologist 28 : 15–54.
Niezen Ronald. 2003. The origins of indigenism: Human rights and the politics of identity. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Nobles Melissa. 2000. Shades of citizenship: Race and the census in modern politics. Stanford, CA : Stanford University Press.
Nohl Arnd-Michael, Karin Schittenhelm, Oliver Schmidtke, and Anja Weiss. 2006. “Cultural capital during migration: A multi-level approach to the empirical analysis of labor market integration amongst highly skilled migrants.” Forum: Qualitative Social Research 7 (3): article 14.
Nyden Philip, Mihael Maly, and John Lukehart. 1997. “The emergence of stable racially and ethnically diverse urban communities: A case study of nine U.S. cities.” Housing Policy Debate 8 (2): 491–534.
Oboler Suzanne. 1997. “‘So far from God, so close to the United States’: The roots of Hispanic homogenization.” In Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. Edited by Mary Romero, et al., 31–50. New York : Routledge.
O’Connor Mary I.1989. Descendants of Totoliguoqui: Ethnicity and economics in the Mayo valley. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Oesch Daniel. 2008. “Explaining workers’ support for right-wing populist parties in western Europe: Evidence from Austria, Belgium, France, Norway, and Switzerland.” International Political Science Review 39 (3): 349–373.
Oesch Daniel, and Line Rennwald. 2010. “The class basis of Switzerland’s cleavage between the New Left and the populist right.” Swiss Political Science Review 16 (3): 343–371.
Okamoto Dina G.2003. “Toward a theory of panethnicity: Explaining Asian American collective action.” American Sociological Review 68 (6): 811–842.
Okamoto Dina G.2006. “Institutional panethnicity: Boundary formation in Asian-American organizing.” Social Forces 85 (1): 1–25.
Okamura Jonathan. 1981. “Situational ethnicity.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 4 (4): 452–465.
O’Leary Brendan. 1998. “Ernest Gellner’s diagnoses of nationalism: A critical overview, or, what is living and what is dead in Ernest Gellner’s philosophy of nationalism?” In The state of the nation: Ernest Geller and the theory of nationalism. Edited by John Hall, 40–90. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Olzak Susan. 1993. The dynamics of ethnic competition and conflict. Stanford, CA : Stanford Univ. Press.
Olzak Susan, and Joane Nagel. 1986. Competitive ethnic relations. New York : Academic Press.
Omi Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Orsi Robert. 1992. “The religious boundaries of an inbetween people: Street Festeand the problem of the dark-skinned other in Italian Harlem, 1920–1990.” American Quarterly 44 (3): 313–347.
(p.264) O’Sullivan Katherine. 1986. First world nationalisms: Class and ethnic politics in Northern Ireland and Quebec. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Oyserman D., H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier. 2002. “Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses.” Psychological Bulletin 128 (1): 3–72.
Pacini Hernández Deborah. 2003. “Amalgamating musics: Popular music and cultural hybridity in the Americas.” In Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hbridity in Latin/O America. Edited by Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida Frances J áquez, 13–32. Basingstoke, UK : Palgrave Macmillan.
Padilla Felix. 1986. “Ladino ethnicity in the city of Chicago.” In Competitive ethnic relations. Edited by Susan Olzak and Joane Nagel, 153–171. New York : Academic Press.
Pagden Anthony. 2009. Worlds at war: The 2500 year struggle between east and west. New York : Random House.
Page S. E.2008. The difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, schools, and societies.
Pager Devah, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. 2009. “Discrimination in a low wage labor market: A field experiment.” American Sociological Review 74 : 777–799.
Passy Florence. 1999. “Supranational political opportunities as a channel of globalization of political conflicts: The case of the rights of indigenous peoples.” In Social movements in a globalizing world. Edited by Donatella della Porta, et al., 148–169. London : Macmillan.
Patchen Martin. 1982. Black-white contact in schools. West Lafayette, IN : Purdue Univ. Press.
Patten Alan. 2011. “Rethinking culture: The social lineage account.” American Political Science Review 105 (4): 735–749.
Patterson Orlando. 1975. “Context and choice in ethnic allegiance: A theoretical framework and Caribbean case study.” In Ethnicity: Theory and experience. Edited by Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, 305–349. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Patterson Orlando. 1997. The ordeal of integration: Progress and resentment in America’s “racial” crisis.Washington, DC : Civitas/Counterpoint.
Peel John D. Y.1989. “The cultural work of Yoruba ethnogenesis.” In History and ethnicity. Edited by Elizabeth Tonkin, et al., 198–215. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Pettigrew Thomas F.1980. The sociology of race relations: Reflection and reform. New York : Free Press.
Phinney Jean S., and Anthony D. Ong. 2007. “Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 54 (3) : 271–281.
Phinney Jean S., Anthony D. Ong, and Tanya Madden. 2000. “Cultural values and intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and non-immigrant families.” Child Development 71 (2): 528–539.
Pickering Paula M.2006. “Generating social capital for bridging ethnic divisions in the Balkans: Case studies of two Bosniak cities.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 29 (1): 79–103.
(p.265) Piguet Étienne, and Andreas Wimmer. 2000. “Les nouveaux ‘Gastarbeiter’? Les réfugiés sur le marché de travail suisse.” Journal of International Immigration and Integration 2 (1): 233–257.
Portes Alejandro. 1995. “Children of immigrants: Segmented assimilation and its determinants.” In The economic sociology of immigration: Essays on networks, ethnicity and entrepreneurship. Edited by Alejandro Portes, 248–280. New York : Russell Sage.
Portes Alejandro, and Ruben G. Rumbault. 1990. Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Portes Alejandro, and Ruben G. Rumbaut. 2001. Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Portes Alejandro, and Min Zhou. 1993. “The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530 : 74–96.
Posner Daniel. 2005. Institutions and ethnic politics in Africa. New York : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Powell Patricia. 1998. The pagoda. San Diego : Harcourt Brace.
Preston Julian. 2006. “Texas hospitals reflect debate on immigration.” New York Times, July 18: A1.
Quillan Lincoln, and Mary E. Campbell. 2003. “Beyond black and white: The present and future of multiracial friendship segregation.” American Sociological Review 68 (4): 540–566.
Rabushka Alvin, and Kenneth Shepsle. 1972. Politics in plural societies: A theory of democratic instability. New York : Charles E. Merrill.
Radtke Frank-Olaf. 1990. “Multikulturell: Das Gesellschaftsdesign der 90er Jahre?” Informationsdienst zur Ausländerarbeit 4 : 27–34.
Radtke Frank-Olaf. 2003. “Multiculturalism in Germany: Local management of immigrant’s social inclusion.” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 5 (1): 55–76.
Ragin Charles. 2000. Fuzzy-set social science. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Ragin Charles, and Jeremy Hein. 1993. “The comparative study of ethnicity: Methodological and conceptual issues.” In Race and ethnicity in research methods. Edited by John H. Stanfield and Dennis M. Rutledge, 254–272. London : SAGE.
Ramble Charles. 1997. “Tibetan pride of place; or, why Nepal’s Bhotiyas are not an ethnic group.” In Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu kingdom: The politics of culture in contemporary Nepal. Edited by David Gellner, et al., 325–350. Amsterdam : Harwood Academic Publishers.
Rampton Ben. 1995. “Language crossing and the problematisation of ethnicity and socialisation.” Pragmatics 5 (4): 485–513.
Ranger Terence. 1970. The African voice in Southern Rhodesia, 1898–193 0. Evanston, IL : Northwestern Univ. Press.
Rath Jan. 1991. Minorisering: De sociale contructie van “etnische minderheden.”Amsterdam : Sua.
Rath Jan. 1993. “The ideological representation of migrant workers in Europe: A matter of racialisation.” In Racism and migration in western Europe. Edited by John Wrench and John Solomos, 215–232. Oxford : Berg.
(p.266) Rawls John. 1987. “The idea of an overlapping consensus.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 7 (1): 1–25.
Rector Jim R., Damian P. Johnson, Paul J. Malanij, and Laurie L. Fumic. 2010. The international diversity and inclusion lexicon.Westlake, OH : Profiles in Diversity Journal.
Reina Ruben. 1966. The law of the saints: A Pocomam Pueblo and its community culture. Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill.
Ringer Benjamin B.1983. “We the people” and others: Duality and America’s treatment of its racial minorities. New York : Tavistock.
Robins Garry, Pip Pattison, and Peng Wang. 2009. “Closure, connectivity and degree distributions: Exponential random graph (p*) models for directed social networks.” Social Networks 31 : 105–117.
Robins Garry, Tom Snijders, Peng Wang, Mark Handcock, and Philippa Pattison. 2007. “Recent developments in exponential random graph (p*) models for social networks.” Social Networks 29 : 192–215.
Robins Garry, and Philippa Pattison. 2005. “Interdependencies and social processes: Generalized dependence structures.” In Models and methods in social network analysis. Edited by Peter J. Carrington, et al., 192–214. New York : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Rogers Everett M., and Dilip K. Bhowmik. 1970. “Homophily-heterophily: Relational concepts for communication research.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 34 (4): 523–538.
Roosens Eugeen E.1994. “The primordial nature of origins in migrant ethnicity.” In The anthropology of ethnicity: Beyond “ethnic groups and boundaries.” Edited by Hans Vermeulen and Cora Grovers, 81–104. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
Roseberry William. 1994. “Hegemony and the language of contention.” In Everyday forms of state formation: Revolution and the negotiation of rule in modern Mexico. Edited by Gilbert M. Joseph and Daniel Nugent, 355–366. Durham, NC : Duke Univ. Press.
Rosenblatt Daniel. 1997. “The antisocial skin: Structure, resistance, and ‘modern primitive’ adornment in the United States.” Cultural Anthropology 12 (3): 287–334.
Rosenfeld Michael J.2001. “The salience of pan-national Hispanic and Asian identities in U.S. marriage markets.” Demography 38 : 161–175.
Ross Marc Howard. 2001. “ Psychocultural interpretations and dramas: Identity dynamics in ethnic conflict.” Political Psychology 22 : 157–178.
Roth Wendy D.2012. Race migrations: Latinos and the cultural transformations of race. Stanford, CA : Stanford Univ. Press.
Rothchild Donald. 1995. “Ethnic bargaining and state breakdown in Africa.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 1 (1): 54–72.
Rothschild Joseph. 1981. Ethnopolitics: A conceptual framework. New York : Columbia Univ. Press.
Roy Bill. 2002. “Aesthetic identity, race, and American folk music.” Qualitative Sociology 25 : 459–469.
Ruane Joseph, and Jennifer Todd. 1996. The dynamics of conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, conflict and emancipation. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
(p.267) Russell Andrew. 1997. “Identity management and cultural change: The Yakha of East Nepal.” In Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu kingdom: The politics of culture in contemporary Nepal. Edited by David Gellner, 325–350. Amsterdam : Harwood Academic Publisher.
Russell Kathy, Midge Wilson, and Ronald Hall. 1993. The color complex: The politics of skin color among African-Americans. New York : Anchor.
Rydgren Jens. 2007. “The sociology of the radical right.” Annual Review of Sociology 33 : 241–262.
Rydgren Jens. 2008. “Immigration sceptics, xenophobes, or racists? Radical right-wing voting in six west European countries.” European Journal of Political Research 47 : 737–765.
Sacerdote Bruce. 2001. “Peer effects with random assignment: Results for Dartmouth roomates.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116 (2): 681–704.
Saetersdal Tore. 1999. “Symbols of cultural identity: A case study from Tanzania.” African Archaeological Review 16 (2): 121–135.
Sagiv Lilach, Noga Sverdlik and Norbert Schwarz. 2011. “To compete or to cooperate? Values’ impact on perception and action in social dilemma games.” European Journal of Social Psychology 41 : 64–77.
Saifullah Khan Verity. 1976. “Pakistanis in Britain: Perceptions of a population.” New Community 5 (3): 222–229.
Saks Karen Brodkin. 1994. “How did Jews become white folks?” In Race. Edited by Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek, 78–102. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers Univ. Press.
Samson Alain. 2000. “Middle class, invisible, and dispersed: Ethnic group contact, ethnic awareness and ethnic identity among Swiss-German immigrants in California.” Swiss Journal of Sociology 26 (1): 37–67.
Sandstrom Alan R.1991. Corn is our blood: Culture and ethnic identity in a contemporary Aztec Indian village. Norman : Univ. of Oklahoma Press.
Sanjek Roger. 1981. “Cognitive maps of the ethnic domain in urban Ghana: Reflections on variability and change.” In Language, culture, and cognition. Edited by Ronald W. Casson, 305–328. New York : Macmillan.
Sanjek Roger. 1996. “The enduring inequalities of race,” In Race. Edited by Roger Sanjek and James R. Gregory, 1–13. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers Univ. Press.
Sanjek Roger. 1998. The future of us all: Race and neighborhood politics in New York City. Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press.
Sansone Livio. 2003. Blackness without ethnicity: Constructing race in Brazil. Basingstoke, UK : Palgrave.
Saperstein Aliya. 2006. “Double-checking the box: Examining consistency between survey measures of observed and self-reported race.” Social Forces 85 (1): 57–74.
Sarazzin Thilo. 2010. Deutschland schafft sich ab: Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel setzen. Munich : Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt.
Savoldelli Maria. 2006. Politische Einstellungen: Eingebürgerte Personen und gebürtige Schweizer und Schweizerinnen im Vergleich. Zurich : University of Zurich.
Sayad Abdelmalek. 1999. La double absence: Des illusions de l’émigré aux souffrances de l’immigré. Paris : Seuil.
(p.268) Schaeffer Merlin. 2012. “Which groups are most responsible for problems in your neighborhood? The use of ethnic categories in Germany.” Ethnic and Racial Studies : 1–32.[doi: 10.1080/01419870.2011.644311]
Scheff Thomas. 1994. “Emotions and identity: A theory of ethnic nationalism,” In Social theory and the politics of identity. Edited by Craig Calhoun, 277–303. Oxford : Blackwell.
Schermerhorn Richard A.1970. Comparative ethnic relations: A framework for theory and research. New York : Random House.
Schiffauer Werner. 2000. Die Gottesmänner: Türkische Islamisten in Deutschland. Frankfurt : Suhrkamp.
Schlee Günther. 2006. Wie Feindbilder entstehen: Eine Theorie religiöser und ethnischer Konflikte. Munich : Beck.
Schofield Janet W., and H. Andrew Sagar. 1977. “Peer interaction patterns in an integrated middle school.” Sociometry 40 (2): 130–138.
Schultz S. L.1979. “Marriage preferences and ethnic boundaries: The Greek-American case.” International Journal of Sociology of the Family 9 (2): 197–208.
Schuster John. 1992. “Der Staat und die Einwanderung aus Asien.” Rassismus und Migration in Europa. Edited by Institut für Migrations- und Rassismusforschung, 189–203. Hamburg : Argument-Verlag.
Schwartz Shalom H., and Sipke Huismans. 1995. “Value priorities and religiosity in our Western religions.” Social Psychology Quarterly 58 (2): 88–10 7.
Schweizer Thomas. 1989. “Netzwerkanalyse mit dem Mikrocomputer,” In Netzwerkanalyse: Ethnologische Perspektiven. By Thomas Schweizer, 201–222. Berlin : Reimer.
Scott George M.1990. “A resynthesis of the primordial and circumstantial approaches to ethnic group solidarity: Towards an explanatory model.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 13 : 147–171.
Scott James C.1990. Domination and the arts of resistance. New Haven, CT : Yale Univ. Press.
Sebring James M.1969. “Caste indicators and caste identification of strangers.” Human Organization 83 : 199–207.
Sekulic Dusko, Garth Massey, and Randy Hodson. 1994. “Who were the Yugoslavs? Failed sources of a common identity in the former Yugoslavia.” American Sociological Review 59 : 83–97.
Semyonov Moshe, Rebecca Raijman, and Anastasia Gorodzeisky. 2006. “The rise of anti-foreigner sentiment in European societies, 1988–2000.” American Sociological Review 71 : 426–449.
Sen Amartya. 1999. Reason before identity. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Sharp John, and Emile Boonzaier. 1994. “Ethnic identity as performance: Lessons from Namaqualand.” Journal of Southern African Studies 20 (3): 405–416.
Shibutani Tamotsu, and Kian Kwan. 1965. Ethnic stratification. New York : MacMillan.
Shrum Wesley, Neil H. Cheek, and Sandra MacD. Hunter. 1988. “Friendship in school: Gender and racial homophily.” Sociology of Education 61 : 227–239.
Silberman Roxane, and Irène Fournier. 2006. “Les secondes générations sur le marché du travail en France: Une pénalité ethnique ancrée dans le (p.269) temps: Contribution à la théorie de l’assimilation segmentée.” Revue Française de Sociologie 47 (2): 243–292.
Silvermann Maxim. 1992. Deconstructing the nation: Immigration, racism and citizenship in modern France. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Silverstein Paul A.2005. “Immigrant racialization and the new savage slot: Race, migration, and immigration in the new Europe.” Annual Review of Anthropology 34 : 363–384.
Simmel Georg. 1908. Soziologie: Untersuchungen über die Formen der Vergesellschaftung. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot.
Singelis T. M., H. C. Triandis, D. P. S. Bhawuk, and M. J. Gelfand. 1995. “Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement.” Cross-Cultural Research 29 : 240–275.
Sithole Masipula. 1980. “Ethnicity and factionalism in Zimbabwe: Nationalist politics 1957–79.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 3 (1): 17–39.
Skenderovic Damir. 2009. The radical right in Switzerland: Continuity and change, 1945–200 0. New York : Berghahn.
Skerry Peter. 1995. Mexican Americans: The ambivalent minority. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Skidmore Thomas E.1993 . Black into white: Race and nationality in Brazilian thought. Durham, NC : Duke Univ. Press.
Sklar Richard L.1967. “Political science and national integration: A radical approach.” Journal of Modern African Studies 5 (1): 1–11.
Small Mario Luis, and Katherine Newman. 2001. “Urban poverty after the truly disadvantaged: The rediscovery of family, the neighborhood, and culture.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 : 23–45.
Smith Anthony D.1981. “War and ethnicity: The role of warfare in the formation, self-images and cohesion of ethnic communities.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 4 (4): 375–397.
Smith Anthony D.1986. The ethnic origins of nations. Oxford : Blackwell.
Smith Carol A.1990. “Failed nationalist movements in 19th-century Guatemala: A parable for the Third World.” In Nationalist ideologies and the production of national cultures. Edited by Richard G. Fox, 148–177. Washington, DC : American Anthropological Association.
Smith Jason Matthew. 2010. “Does crime pay? Issue ownership, political opportunity, and the populist right in western Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 43 (11): 1471–1498.
Smith Joanne N.2002. “‘Making culture matter’: Symbolic, spatial and social boundaries between Uyghurs and Han Chinese.” Asian Ethnicity 3 (2): 153–174.
Smith Michael G.1969. “Institutional and political conditions of pluralism.” In Pluralism in Africa. Edited by Leo Kuper and Michael G. Smith, 27–66. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Smith Robert. 2005. Mexican New York: The transnational lives of new immigrants. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Smith Waldemar R.1975. “Beyond the plural society: Economics and ethnicity in middle American towns.” Ethnology 14 : 225–244.
(p.270) Snijders Tom A. B.2002. “Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation of exponential random graph models.” Journal of Social Structure 3 (2): 1–40.
Snijders Tom A. B., Philippa E. Pattison, Garry L. Robins, and Mark S. Handcock. 2006. “New specifications for exponential random graph models.” Sociological Methodology 36 (1): 99–153.
Snow David, E. Burke Rochford, Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford. 1986. “Frame alignment processes, micromobilization, and movement participation.” American Sociological Review 51 : 464–481.
Sollors Werner. 1986. Beyond ethnicity: Consent and descent in American culture. New York : Oxford Univ. Press.
Sollors Werner. 1991. The invention of ethnicity. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Sowell Thomas. 2004. Affirmative action around the world: An empirical study. New Haven, CT : Yale Univ. Press.
Soysal Yasemin Nuhoglu. 1994. Limits of citizenship: Migrants and postnational membership in Europe. Chicago : Univ. of Chicago Press.
Spencer Michael. 1973. “Job market signalling.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 87 (3): 355–374.
Srinivas Mysore Narasimhachar. 1952. Religion and society among the Coorgs of south India. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
Stahl Anna B.1991. “Ethnic style and ethnic boundaries: A diachronic case-study from west-central Ghana.” Ethnohistory 38 (3): 250–275.
Starr Paul. 1978. “Ethnic categories and identification in Lebanon.” Urban Life 7 (1): 111–142.
Stavenhagen Rodolfo. 1991. The ethnic question: Conflicts, development, and human rights. Tokyo : United Nations Press.
Steenkamp Jan-Benedict, and Hans Baumgartner. 1998. “Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research.” Journal of Consumer Research 25 : 79–107.
Steglich Christian, Tom A. B. Snijders, and Patrick West. 2006. “Applying SIENA: An illustrative analysis of the coevolution of adolescents’ friendship networks, taste in music, and alcohol consumption.” Methodology 2 (1): 48–56.
Steinberg Stephen. 1981. The ethnic myth: Race, ethnicity, and class in America. New York : Atheneum.
Stephan Cookie White, and Walter G. Stephan. 1989. “After intermarriage: Ethnic identity among mixed-heritage Japanese-Americans and Hispanics.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 51 (2): 507–519.
Steward Julian Haynes. 1955. Theory of culture change: The methodology of multilinear evolution. Urbana : Univ. of Illinois Press.
Stienen Angela. 2006. Integrationsmaschine Stadt? Interkulturelle Beziehungsdynamiken am Beispiel von Bern. Bern, Switzerland : Haupt.
Stinchcombe Arthur L.2006. “An interactionist view of boundaries and borders.” Paper given at the conference “Great Divides: Transgressing Boundaries,” 101st Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal.
Stolcke Verena. 1995. “Talking culture: New boundaries, new rhetorics of exclusion in Europe.” Current Anthropology 36 (1): 1–24.
Streicker Joel. 1995. “Policing boundaries: Race, class, and gender in Cartagena, Colombia.” American Ethnologist 22 (1): 54–74.
(p.271) Takezawa Yasuko. 1995. Breaking the silence: Redress and Japanese American ethnicity. Ithaca, NY : Cornell Univ. Press.
Tambiah Stanley. 1996. Leveling crowds: Ethnonationalist conflicts and collective violence in South Asia. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Taran Patrick A., Roger Zegers de Beijl, and I. McClure. 2004. “Challenging discrimination in employment: A summary of research and a typology of measures.” International Migration Paper No. 68. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labor Organization.
Tax Sol, and Robert Hinshaw. 1970. “Panajachel a generation later.” In The social anthropology of Latin America: Essays in honor of Ralph Leon Beals. Edited by Walter Goldschmidt and Harry Hoijer, 175–195. Los Angeles : Univ. of California Press.
Tefft S. K.1999. “Perspectives on panethnogenesis: The case of the Montagnards.” Sociological Spectrum 19 (4): 387–400.
Telles Edward E.2004. Race in another America: The significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Telles Edward E., and Vilma Ortiz. 2008. Generations of exclusion: Mexican Americans, assimilation, and race. New York : Russell Sage Foundation Press.
Thelen Kathleen. 2003. “How institutions evolve: Insights from comparative historical analysis.” In Comparative historical analysis in the social sciences. Edited by James Mahoney and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, 208–240. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Thelen Kathleen. 2004. How institutions evolve: The political economy of skills in Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Thibaut John. 1968. “The development of contractual norms in bargaining: Replication and variation.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 12 (1): 102–112.
Thomson Gerald E.1997. “Discrimination in health care.” Annals of Internal Medicine 126 (11): 910–912.
Tilly Charles. 1998. Durable inequality. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Tilly Charles. 2006. Identities, boundaries, and social ties. Boulder, CO : Paradigm Press.
Tinker John N.1973. “Intermarriage and ethnic boundaries: The Japanese American case.” Journal of Social Issues 29 (2): 49–66.
Tiryakian Edward A.1968. “Typologies.” In International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Edited by David L. Sills, 177–186. London : Macmillan.
Torpey John. 1999. The invention of the passport: Surveillance, citizenship and the state. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Tran Van C.2011. Rethinking culture and structure: Race, class and assimilation in multi-ethnic America. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Tribalat Michèle. 1995. Faire France: Une enquête sur les immigrés et leurs enfants. Paris : La Découverte.
Turner M. A., and S. L. Ross. 2005. “How racial discrimination affects the search for housing.” In The geography of opportunity. Edited by Xavier de Souza Briggs, 81–100. Washington, DC : Brookings Institution Press.
Vago Bela. 1981. Jewish assimilation in modern times. Boulder, CO : Westview.
Vail Leroy. 1989. “Introduction: Ethnicity in Southern African history.” In The creation of tribalism in southern Africa. By Leroy Vail, 1–19. London : James Currey.
(p.272) van den Berghe Pierre L.1967. Race and racism: A comparative perspective. New York : John Wiley.
van den Berghe Pierre L.1990. State violence and ethnicity. Niwot : University Press of Colorado.
van den Berghe Pierre L.1991. The ethnic phenomenon. New York : Elsevier.
van den Berghe Pierre L.1997. “Rehabilitating stereotypes.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 20 (1): 1–16.
van der Brug, Wouter, Meindert Fennema, and Jean Tillie. 2000. “Anti-immigrant parties in Europe: Ideological or protest vote.” European Journal of Political Research 37 : 77–102.
van Laar Colette, Shana Levin, Stacey Sinclair, and Jim Sidanius. 2005. “The effect of university roommate contact on ethnic attitudes and behavior.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 41 : 329–345.
Vaquera Elizabeth, and Grace Kao. 2008. “Do you like me as much as I like you? Friendship reciprocity and its effects on school outcomes among adolescents.” Social Science Research 37 : 55–72.
Varese Stefano. 1983. Proyectos étnicos y proyectos nationales. Mexico City : Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Varshney Ashutosh. 2003. Ethnic conflict and civil life. New Haven, CT : Yale Univ. Press.
Verdery Katherine. 1994. “Ethnicity, nationalism, and state-making.” In The anthropology of ethnicity: Beyond “ethnic groups and boundaries.” Edited by Hans Vermeulen and Cora Govers, 33–58. Amsterdam : Het Spinhuis.
Vermeij Lotte, Marijtje A. J. van Duijn, and Chris Baerveldt. 2009. “Ethnic segregation in context: Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates.” Social Networks 41 (4): 230–239.
Vertovec Steve. 2007. “Super-diversity and its implications.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (6): 1024–1054.
Vujacic Veljko, and Victor Zaslavsky. 1991. “The causes of disintegration in the USSR and Yugoslavia.” Telos 88 : 120–140.
Wacquant Loïc. 1997. “Towards an analytic of racial domination.” Political Power and Social Theory 11 : 221–234.
Wacquant Loïc. 2004. “Ghetto.” In International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences. Edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baites, 1–7. London : Pergamon Press.
Wacquant Loïc. 2007. “Territorial stigmatization in the age of advanced marginality.” Thesis Eleven 91 : 66–77.
Wacquant Loïc. 2008. Urban outcasts: A comparative sociology of advanced marginality. Cambridge, UK : Polity Press.
Wade Peter. 1995. Blackness and race mixture: The dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
Waldinger Roger. 2003a. “Foreigners transformed: International migration and the making of a divided people.” Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies 12 (2): 247–272.
Waldinger Roger. 2003b. “The sociology of immigration: Second thoughts and reconsiderations,” In Host societies and the reception of immigrants. Edited by Jeffrey (p.273) G. Reith, 21–43. La Jolla : Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, Univ. of California at San Diego.
Waldinger Roger. 2007. “The bounded community: Turning foreigners into Americans in 21st century Los Angeles.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (7): 341–374.
Waldinger Roger, and Michael I. Lichter. 2003. How the other half works: Immigration and the social organization of labor. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Waldinger Roger, and Joel Perlmann. 1997. “Second generation decline? Immigrant children past and present: A reconsideration.” International Migration Review 31 (4): 893–922.
Waldron Jeremy. 1995. “Minority cultures and the cosmopolitan alternative.” In Rights of minority cultures. Edited by Will Kymlicka, 93–118. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press.
Wallman Sandra. 1978. “The boundaries of ‘race’: processes of ethnicity in England.” Man 13 (2): 200–217.
Wallman Sandra. 1986. “Ethnicity and the boundary process in context.” In Theories of race and ethnic relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason, 226–245. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Ward Robin, and Richard Jenkins. 1984. Ethnic communities in business: Strategies for economic survival. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Warhola James W., and Orlina Boteva. 2000. “The Turkish minority in contemporary Bulgaria.” Nationalities Papers 31 (3): 255–279.
Warren Kay B.1998. Indigenous movements and their critics. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Washington Scott. 2012. “The killing fields revisited: Lynching and anti-miscegenation legislation in the Jim Crow South, 1882–1930.” Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Princeton Univ.
Wasserman Stanley, and Garry Robins. 2005. “An introduction to random graphs, dependence graphs, and p*.” In Models and methods in social network analysis. Edited by Peter J. Carrington et al., 148–161. New York : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Wasserstrom Robert. 1983. Class and society in central Chiapas. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Waters Mary C.1990. Ethnic options: Choosing identities in America. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Waters Mary C.1999. Black identities: West Indian immigrant dreams and American realities. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Univ. Press.
Way Niobe, and Lisa Chen. 2000. “Close and general friendships among African American, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families.” Journal of Adolescent Research 15 (2): 274–301.
Weber Eugen. 1979. Peasants into Frenchmen: The modernisation of rural France, 1870–1914. London : Chatto & Windus.
Weber Max. 1978 (1922). Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology. Edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley : Univ. of California Press.
Weber Max. 1985 (1922). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. Tübingen, Germany : Mohr.
Wellman Barry, Janet Salaff, Dimitrina Dimitrova, Laura Garton, Milena Gulia, and Caroline Haythornthwaite. 1996. “Computer networks as social (p.274) networks: Collaborative work, telework, and virtual community.” Annual Review of Sociology 22 : 213–238.
Wessendorf Susanne. 2007. “Sushi-eating secondos and casual Latins: Political movements and the emergence of a Latino counter-culture among second-generation Italians in Switzerland.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 28 (3): 345–360.
Wetherell Margaret, and Jonathan Potter. 1993. Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimation of exploitation. New York : Columbia Univ. Press.
Willems Wim, Annemarie Cottaar, and Daniel van Aken. 1990. “Indische Nederlanders: Van marginale groep tot succesvolle migranten?.” In Van Ost naar West: Racisme als mondiaal Verschijnsel. Edited by D. van Arkel, 34–51. Baarn, The Netherlands : Ambo.
Williams Brackette F.1989. “A class act: Anthropology and the race to nation across ethnic terrain,” Annual Review of Anthropology 18 : 401–444.
Williamson Joel. 1995. New people: Miscegenation and mulattoes in the United States. Baton Rouge : Louisiana State Univ. Press.
Wimmer Andreas. 1993. “Ethnischer Radikalismus als Gegennationalismus: Indianische Bewegungen im sechsten Jahrhundert nach Kolumbus.” In 500 Jahre danach: Zur heutigen Lage der indigenen Völker beider Amerika. Edited by Peter Gerber, 127–149. Chur, Switzerland : Rüegger.
Wimmer Andreas. 1994. “Die ethnische Dynamik in Mexiko und Guatemala.” In Ethnische Dynamik in der außereuropäischen Welt. Edited by Hans-M üller, 251–294. Zurich : Argonaut-Verlag.
Wimmer Andreas. 1995. Transformationen: Sozialer Wandel im indianischen Mittelamerika. Berlin : Reimer.
Wimmer Andreas. 1996a. “Kultur: Zur Reformulierung eines ethnologischen Grundbegriffs.” Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 48 (3): 401–425.
Wimmer Andreas. 1996b. “L’État-nation: Une forme de fermeture sociale.” Archives Européennes de Sociologie 37 (1): 163–179.
Wimmer Andreas. 1996c. “L’héritage de Herder : Nationalisme, migrations et la pratique théorique de l’anthropologie.” Tsantsa: Revue de la Société Suisse d’Ethnologie 1 : 4–18.
Wimmer Andreas. 1997. “Explaining racism and xenophobia: A critical review of current research approaches.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 20 (1): 17–41.
Wimmer Andreas. 1998. “Binnenintegration und Au ßenabschlie ßung: Zur Beziehung zwischen Wohlfahrtsstaat und Migrationssteuerung in der Schweiz.” In Migration in nationalen Wohlfahrtsstaaten: Theoretische und vergleichende Untersuchungen. Edited by Michael Bommes and Jürgen Halfmann, 199–222. Osnabrück, Germany : IMIS.
Wimmer Andreas. 2000a. “Racism in nationalized states: A framework for comparative research.” In Comparative perspectives on racism. Edited by Jessika ter Wal, et al., 47–72. Aldershot, UK : Ashgate.
Wimmer Andreas. 2000b. “St ädtevergleich, Netzwerkanalyse und Schlu ßfolgerungen.” In Integration-Segregation: Interkulturelle Beziehungen in Basel, Bern und Zürich. Edited by Andreas Wimmer, et al. Unpublished manuscript, Swiss National Science Foundation , Zurich.
(p.275) Wimmer Andreas. 2002. Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflicts: Shadows of modernity. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Wimmer Andreas. 2003. “Democracy and ethno-religious conflict in Iraq.” Survival: The International Institute for Strategic Studies Quarterly 45 (4): 111–134.
Wimmer Andreas. 2005. Kultur als Prozess: Zur Dynamik des Aushandelns von Bedeutungen. Wiesbaden, Germany : Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Wimmer Andreas. 2008. “The left-Herderian ontology of multiculturalism.” Ethnicities 8 (1): 254–260.
Wimmer Andreas. 2011. “A Swiss anomaly? A relational account of national boundary making.” Nations and Nationalism 17 (4): 718–737.
Wimmer Andreas, Lars-Erik Cederman, and Brian Min. 2009. “Ethnic politics and armed conflict: A configurational analysis of a new global dataset.” American Sociological Review 74 (2): 316–337.
Wimmer Andreas, and Yuval Feinstein. 2010. “The rise of the nation-state across the world, 1816 to 2001.” American Sociological Review 75 (5): 764–790.
Wimmer Andreas, and Nina Glick Schiller. 2002. “Methodological nationalism and beyond: Nation state formation, migration and the social sciences.” Global Networks 2 (4): 301–334.
Wimmer Andreas, and Kevin Lewis. 2010. “Beyond and below racial homophily: ERG models of a friendship network documented no Facebook.” American Journal of Sociology 116 (1): 583–642.
Wimmer Andreas, and Brian Min. 2006. “From empire to nation-state: Explaining wars in the modern world, 1816–2001.” American Sociological Review 71 (6): 867–897.
Winant Howard. 2000. “Race and race theory.” Annual Review of Sociology 26 : 169–185.
Winddance Twine, France, and Charles Gallagher. 2008. “Introduction: The future of whiteness: A map of the ‘third wave.’” Ethnic and Racial Studies 31 (1): 4–24.
Wintrobe Ronald. 1995. “Some economics of ethnic capital formation and conflict.” In Nationalism and rationality. Edited by Albert Breton, et al., 43–71. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
Woldemikael Tekle Mariam. 1989. Becoming black American: Haitians and American institutions in Evanston, Illinois. New York : AMS Press.
Wolf Eric. 1957. “Closed corporate peasant communities in Mesoamerica and central Java.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 13 (1): 1–18.
Wolfe Patrick. 2001. “Land, labour, and difference: The elementary structures of race.” American Historical Review 106 : 866–905.
Woods Dwayne. 2003. “The tragedy of the cocoa pod: Rent-seeking, land and ethnic conflict in Ivory Coast.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 : 641–655.
Wright Frank. 1987. Northern Ireland: A comparative analysis. Dublin : Gill & Macmillan.
Yancey William E., Eugene P. Erickson, and Richard N. Juliani. 1976. “Emergent ethnicity: A review and reformulation.” American Sociological Review 41 : 391–403.
Yashar Deborah. 2005. Contesting citizenship in Latin America: The rise of indigenous movements and the postliberal challenge. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge Univ. Press.
(p.276) Young Crawford. 1965. Politics in the Congo: Decolonization and independence. Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press.
Young Crawford. 1976. The politics of cultural pluralism. Madison : Univ. of Wisconsin Press.
Zelizer Viviana A., and Charles Tilly. 2006. “Relations and categories.” The Psychology of Learning and Motivation 47 : 1–31.
Zhou Min. 1997. “Segmented assimilation: Issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation.” International Migration Review 31 : 975–1008.
Zolberg Aristide, and Long Litt Woon. 1999. “Why Islam is like Spanish: Cultural incorporation in Europe and the United States.” Politics and Society 27 (1): 5–38.