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Spirit and PowerThe Growth and Global Impact of Pentecostalism$

Donald E. Miller, Kimon H. Sargeant, and Richard Flory

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199920570

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920570.001.0001

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(p.329) Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and Asia

(p.329) Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and Asia

Findings from a Ten-Country Survey

Source:
Spirit and Power
Author(s):

John C. Green

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Pentecostalism broadly defined is one of the fastest growing segments of global Christianity. For example, the World Christian Database estimates that at least one-quarter of the world's two billion Christians belong to faith communities that stress the gifts of the Holy Spirit, such as speaking in tongues and divine healing. These communities are, however, diverse in religious terms. The World Christian Database uses the broader term “renewalist” to capture the diversity of these communities, including classic Pentecostals and charismatics. Classic Pentecostals are often seen as central to the growth of this segment of global Christianity, while charismatics reflect the impact of this growth on other Christian communities. The size and diversity of these communities raise two closely related questions: what characteristics of renewalists contribute to their growth and what impact might the growing numbers of renewalists have on societies around the globe?

This chapter offers evidence relevant to these questions drawn from a ten-country public opinion survey conducted at the 100th anniversary of the 1906 Azusa Street Revival, generally regarded as the origin of the contemporary renewalist movements. Although not a comprehensive global portrait of renewalists, this evidence includes basic information about their characteristics and attitudes, and how they differ from their fellow citizens.

We find the spiritual descendants Azusa Street Revival located in diverse and dynamic communities around the globe, distinctive in some religious practices but in other respects not outside of the mainstream of the societies in which they live. This general assessment is based on four main survey findings.

(p.330) First, renewalists are distinctive with respect to religious experiences associated with the Holy Spirit, but also in their commitment to traditional Christian practices and beliefs, including a strong emphasis on sharing their faith with non-believers.

Second, renewalists are not always distinctive in demographic terms. For example, they are not necessarily drawn disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic sectors of society and do not come disproportionately from women.

Third, renewalists tend to hold distinctive attitudes on social issues, especially sexuality. On these matters, they tend to be very traditional, but with a degree of complexity in their views. The renewalists tend not to be distinctive on other kinds of issues, including views on social welfare, where renewalists often hold progressive views. Renewalists tend to be at least as supportive of a prominent political role for religion as are other religious groups within each country.

Fourth, renewalists are quite diverse within and across the countries surveyed, often making up a large part of the Christian and Protestant populations, with charismatics typically outnumbering Pentecostals. The proportion of converts within renewalist communities varies considerably, ranging from large minorities to small minorities in number. National context is often important in accounting for these religions variations as well as differences in issue attitudes.

This evidence has implications for understanding the growth and impact of the renewalists around the globe. The faith-based distinctiveness of renewalists suggests that they can offer clear religious alternatives to potential converts, while their lack of demographic distinctiveness suggests that such offers may be widely accessible to the population at large. At the same time, renewalists’ emphasis on traditional sexual morality may contribute to growth by natural increase. For these reasons and others, the impact of renewalists on their societies is likely to vary by topic, with the strongest impact occurring among issues directly tied to their distinctive faith.

Data and Definitions

This essay summarizes the results of a ten-nation survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion & Public Life in 2006 with generous support from the Templeton Foundation.1 The ten nations surveyed included the United States; Brazil, Chile, and Guatemala in Latin America; Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa in Africa; and in Asia, the Philippines, South Korea, and parts of India. These countries were chosen to provide a sense of the range of renewalist Christianity around the world.

(p.331) The surveys were conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International and the methodology varied with local conditions and practical considerations. For example, the survey in the United States was a telephone survey of a national probability sample, while in India it involved face-to-face interviews in disproportionately Christian districts of three states where Christians are numerous. Each of these surveys had an over-sample of renewalists. (Additional details about survey methodology are located below.)

Here the term “renewalist” is used to describe both Pentecostals and charismatics. A “Pentecostal” is defined as a respondent who belongs to a Pentecostal denomination (either a church founded shortly after the Azusa Street Revival, such as the Assemblies of God or the Church of God in Christ, or a church founded more recently, such as the Brazil-based Universal Church of the Kingdom of God). A “charismatic” is defined as a Christian respondent who does not belong to a Pentecostal denomination, but who nevertheless identifies themselves as a “charismatic Christian” or “Pentecostal Christian” apart from denominational affiliation, or who reports speaking in tongues at least several times a year.

Size of the Renewalist Populations

These surveys provide an independent and systematic estimate of the size and composition of the renewalist populations in each locale surveyed (see Table A2.1). There is substantial variation in the number of renewalists from country to country, ranging from a low of 5% in the regions of India surveyed to a high of 60% in Guatemala. In every nation surveyed except India, renewalists make up at least 10% of the adult population, and in three countries (Brazil, Guatemala, and Kenya) renewalists approach or exceed 50%.

In terms of the composition of the renewalist population, Pentecostals outnumber charismatics in just two countries (Kenya and Nigeria), while in all the other countries, charismatics outnumber Pentecostals by at least two to one. Pentecostals are more concentrated in Latin America and Africa (ranging from 9% of the population in Chile to 33% in Kenya) than they are in the United States or Asia (ranging from 1% of the population in the regions of India surveyed to 5% in the United States). The largest charismatic populations are in Brazil (34%), Guatemala (40%), and the Philippines (40%). In several other countries, including the United States, Chile, Kenya, and South Africa, approximately one in five people are charismatic.2

In six of the ten countries surveyed, renewalists account for a majority of the overall Protestant population (see Table A2.2); in five nations (Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Kenya, and the Philippines), more than two-thirds of all (p.332)

Table A2.1 Estimated Size of Renewalist Populations

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Total (Renewalists)

United States

5%

18%

=23%

Latin America

Brazil

15

34

=49

Chile

9

21

=30

Guatemala

20

40

=60

Africa

Kenya

33

23

=56

Nigeria

18

8

=26

South Africa

10

24

=34

Asia

India (localities)

1

4

=5

Philippines

4

40

=44

South Korea

2

9

=11

Protestants are Pentecostal or charismatic. In Nigeria, renewalists account for six in ten Protestants. These patterns confirm that renewalists are an important part of Christianity in many places in the world.3

Religious Characteristics

Renewalists, especially Pentecostals, differ from other Christians in certain important respects, perhaps most notably in their experiences with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. In addition, renewalists stand out because of their extensive engagement in traditional Christian practices and intense commitment to traditional Christian beliefs. In these regards, renewalists are highly distinctive in religious terms within the countries surveyed. However, renewalists are quite diverse in terms of religious affiliation and this diversity tends to reflect the characteristics of Christianity in their countries.

A good place to begin looking at the religious characteristics of renewalists is with religious affiliation (see Table A2.3). Pentecostals are defined by membership in specific denominations, but the exact denominations vary by country. In Chile and South Korea, large majorities of Pentecostals belong to older Pentecostal denominations. For example, nearly all Pentecostals (p.333)

Table A2.2 Renewalists and Protestantism

% of Protestants who are …

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Non–renewalists

Total Protestant/AlC

United States

10

18

72

= 100 (n = 388)

Latin

America

Brazil

72

6

22

= 100 (n= 148)

Chile

59

19

22

= 100(n = 87)

Guatemala

58

27

15

= 100 (n = 341)

Africa

Kenya

50

23

27

= 100 (n = 436)

Nigeria

48

12

40

= 100 (n = 289)

South Africa

14

29

57

= 100 (n = 533)

Asia

India (localities)*

Philippines

37

30

33

= 100(n = 89)

South Korea

9

29

62

= 100 (n = 150)

() African Independent Church

(*) Results for India are not reported here because the general population survey in that country included only a small number of Protestants.

in South Korea are members of the Assemblies of God. In three nations (Guatemala, Nigeria, and the Philippines), Pentecostals are drawn primarily from newer Pentecostal denominations. For instance, in Nigeria more than 80% of Pentecostals belong to newer churches, such as the Church of God Mission International or the Redeemed Christian Church of God. In the five other nations, Pentecostals are more evenly divided between older and newer denominations. In South Africa, for example, four in ten Pentecostals belong to newer denominations while the remaining six in ten belong to older ones.

Interestingly, the surveys find that for the most part, Pentecostals are more likely to have changed affiliation than other Christians, and in two countries, Brazil and the Philippines, majorities of Pentecostals report having experienced a change in religious affiliation. However, in other countries half or more of Pentecostals say that they have been lifelong members of their current denomination.

(p.334)

Table A2.3 Renewalists and Changes in Religious Affiliation

% saying they have not always belonged to their current religion

All

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

29%

43%

29%

27%

Latin America

Brazil

26

62

10

13

Chile

18

39

14

9

Guatemala

26

49

19

14

Africa

Kenya

26

42

21

13

Nigeria

9

36

8

South Africa

16

18

13

11

Asia

India (localities)

3

10

6

1

Philippines

12

74

10

8

South Korea

21

13

16

16

Question wording: Have you always been (insert religion)?

The religious affiliation of charismatics tends to reflect the religious composition of the general population in each country. In countries with large Catholic populations large majorities of charismatics are Roman Catholics, such as Brazil (95%), Philippines (85%), Chile (76%), and Guatemala (65%). But in countries where Catholics are outnumbered by Protestants, other Christians, or non-Christians, charismatics tend to contain fewer Catholics, such as the United States (38%), Kenya (35%), India (33%), South Africa (16%), and South Korea (13%).

The proportion of converts among the renewalists surveys varies considerably, measured as a change from childhood affiliation. In two countries, Brazil (62%) and the Philippines (74%), a large majority of Pentecostals are converts. And in five countries, Guatemala (49%), Unites States (43%), Nigeria (42%), Kenya (42%) and Chile (39%), large minorities are converts. However, converts make up only small minorities in South Africa (18%), South Korea (13%), and India (10%).

Charismatics tended to report lower rates of conversion (reflecting in part the fact that the definition used here does not involve religious affiliation). The largest number of converts among charismatics is in the United States (29%), (p.335) Kenya (21%), Guatemala (19%), South Korea (16%), Chile (14%), South Africa (13%), Brazil (10%), the Philippines (10%), and India (6%).

In all countries, conversions are most common among young adults or children. Taken together, these figures suggest that at least in some part of the world, the growth has been due to natural increase within renewalist communities.

Gifts of the Holy Spirit

What about the distinctive religious practices of renewalists? In all ten countries surveyed, overwhelming majorities of Pentecostal church attendees say that their religious services include people practicing the gifts of the Holy Spirit, such as speaking in tongues or praying for divine healing, on at least an occasional basis (see Figure A2.1). Such reports are particularly common in Latin America and Africa, where pluralities of Pentecostals in most countries report that their services include these activities either always (Brazil, Guatemala, South Africa) or frequently (Chile, Kenya). Reports of such services are less common in Asia, where pluralities in the regions of India surveyed, the Philippines, and South Korea report that such phenomena occur only occasionally. Reports of signs of the spirit are also common among charismatics, although less so than among Pentecostals.

In all the countries surveyed, majorities of Pentecostals say they have experienced or witnessed a divine healing of an illness or injury (see Table A2.4). In every country except the United States (where 62% of Pentecostals report having experienced or witnessed divine healing) and South Korea (where 56% of Pentecostals are personally familiar with divine healing), more than seven in ten Pentecostals report having experienced or witnessed a miraculous cure. Such experiences are also fairly common among charismatics. In South Korea, for instance, charismatics are just as likely to report having experienced divine healing as Pentecostals. And in three other locales (Guatemala, Kenya, and the Indian states surveyed) majorities of charismatics say they are familiar with divine healings.

Although many renewalists report attending religious services where speaking in tongues is common, fewer report that they themselves regularly speak or pray in tongues (see Table A2.5). In fact, in six of the ten countries, more than four in ten Pentecostals say they never speak or pray in tongues. Indeed, the only country in which a majority of Pentecostals say they speak or pray in tongues on a weekly basis is Guatemala.

Compared to renewalists, reports of having experienced the gifts of the Holy Spirit are rarer among non-renewalist Christians in the countries surveyed. With the exceptions of Nigeria and the Indian states, majorities of (p.336)

Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.1. Signs of the Spirit in Religious Services

(p.337)

Table A2.4 Divine Healings

% saying they have witnessed or experienced a divine healing

All

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

29%

62%

46%

28%

Latin

America

Brazil

38

77

31

32

Chile

26

77

37

24

Guatemala

56

79

63

47

Africa

Kenya

71

87

78

47

Nigeria

62

79

75

South Africa

38

73

47

32

Asia

India (localities)

44

74

61

55

Philippines

38

72

44

30

South Korea

10

56

61

20

Question wording: Have you ever (insert item)?

a. experienced or witnessed a divine healing of an illness or injury?

non-renewalist Christian church attendees (ranging from 52% in South Korea to 79% in the United States) say their church services never feature behaviors such as speaking in tongues or prophesying. And compared to renewalists, other Christians have generally had less experience with divine healing, though in Nigeria and in the Indian states surveyed majorities also report experiencing or witnessing miraculous cures. Other religious experiences that tend to be more common among renewalists than among other Christians include exorcisms and giving and interpreting prophecy.

Traditional Christian Practices and Beliefs

In addition to practicing the gifts of the Holy Spirit, renewalists tend to engage in traditional Christian practices at somewhat higher rates than non-renewalists (p.338)

Table A2.5 Speaking in Tongues …*

% saying they speak or pray …*

Weekly or more

Never

United States—All (n = 619)

14%

74%

Pentecostals

33

49

Charismatics

50

32

Latin America

Brazil—All (n = 643)

8

85

Pentecostals

29

50

Charismatics

8

84

Chile—All (n = 510)

8

84

Pentecostals

25

45

Charismatics

30

38

Guatemala—All (n = 854)

37

55

Pentecostals

53

35

Charismatics

53

39

Africa

Kenya—All (n = 642)

19

61

Pentecostals

38

27

Charismatics

23

53

Nigeria—All (n = 649)

9

76

Pentecostals

37

32

South Africa—All (n = 720)

11

76

Pentecostals

38

41

Charismatics

26

57

Asia

India (localities)—All (n = 725)

8

75

Pentecostals

41

54

Charismatics

51

34

Philippines—All (n = 995)

10

77

Pentecostals

34

45

Charismatics

18

65

South Korea—All (n = 346)

4

67

Pentecostals

45

18

Charismatics

31

12

(*) Based on those who identified themselves as belonging to a particular religion.

Question wording: How often do you speak or pray in tongues? Would you say every day, more than once a week, once a week, at least once a month, several times a year, less often or never?

(p.339) (see Table A2.6). For example, the vast majority of Pentecostals report attending religious services at least once a week. In the United States and the regions of India surveyed, at least six in ten report weekly attendance, and in the other countries, this figure increases to at least three in four. Majorities of charismatics in every country except Brazil and Chile also say they attend church at least once a week.

In most of the countries surveyed, majorities of the general population say they pray to God every day. Despite the generally high level of private prayer among all groups, Pentecostals, and, to a lesser extent, charismatics, report a higher level of private devotion. In nearly every country, at least two-thirds of Pentecostals pray every day, and majorities of charismatics also report praying every day. The only exception is South Korea, where only a minority of Pentecostals and charismatics pray daily.

Renewalists hold many of the same traditional beliefs as other Christians, but tend to hold them more intensely. Views of the Bible provide a good example of this pattern (see Table A2.7). In all the countries surveyed, many Christians believe that the Bible is the word of God and is to be taken literally. But in nearly every country, the number of Pentecostals who are biblical literalists is higher. (The lone exception is the Philippines, where Pentecostals and other Christians are about equally likely to express this point of view.) Similarly, in seven of the ten countries, charismatics are at least slightly more likely than non-renewalist Christians to view the Bible as literally true.

Belief in the intervention of supernatural forces in everyday life is common among renewalists around the world.

For example, majorities of Pentecostals say that miracles still occur today just as they did in ancient times (see Figure A2.2). In every country, more than four-fifths of Pentecostals hold this belief. This finding is perhaps not surprising given that most Pentecostals claim to have experienced or witnessed (p.340)

Table A2.6 Church Attendance

% saying they attend church at least once a week

All

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

44%

65%

63%

50%

Latin America

Brazil

38

86

32

32

Chile

29

79

43

28

Guatemala

64

87

77

67

Africa

Kenya

80

92

89

64

Nigeria

76

83

89

South Africa

55

75

71

55

Asia

India (localities)

36

60

52

51

Philippines

62

90

65

58

South Korea

28

79

78

75

Question wording: Aside from weddings and funerals how often do you attend religious services … more than once a week, once a week, once or twice a month, a few times a year, seldom, or never?

Muslims were asked: On average, how often do you attend the mosque for salah and Jum’ah Prayer? More than once a week, once a week for Jum’ah, once or twice a month, a few times a year, seldom, or never?

divine healings, exorcisms, or direct revelations from God. However, belief in miracles is by no means unique to Pentecostals. In every country, majorities of both charismatics and non-renewalist Christians also say that miracles still happen, but hold these views with less intensity than Pentecostals.

Sharing Faith with Non-believers

Pentecostals around the world report making a concerted effort to share their faith with non-believers (see Figure A2.3). In eight of the ten countries, majorities say they share their faith with non-believers at least once a week. And relatively few Pentecostals (ranging from a low of 3% in South Korea to a high of 33% in the Indian states surveyed) say they never share their faith with non-believers. (p.341)

Table A2.7 Views of Scripture

% saying Bible is …

Word of God to be taken literally

Word of God NOT to be taken literally

Written by men, not word of God

United States—All

35%

41%

19%

Pentecostals

76

16

5

Charismatics

48

41

5

Other Christians

37

48

12

Latin America

Brazil—All

53

30

12

Pentecostals

81

14

2

Charismatics

49

37

7

Other Christians

65

21

12

Chile—All

39

37

17

Pentecostals

83

15

1

Charismatics

54

30

9

Other Christians

37

45

12

Guatemala —All

77

14

5

Pentecostals

89

6

2

Charismatics

81

12

4

Other Christians

72

21

2

Africa

Kenya—All

80

18

*

Pentecostals

91

9

0

Charismatics

84

15

0

Other Christians

73

26

0

Nigeria—All

88

10

*

Pentecostals

94

4

1

Other Christians

82

17

0

South Africa—All

59

26

7

Pentecostals

72

24

2

Charismatics

72

22

2

Other Christians

63

27

5

Asia

India (localities)—All

50

18

29

Pentecostals

90

6

5

Charismatics

82

9

10

Other Christians

66

16

16

Philippines—All

53

40

5

Pentecostals

55

44

1

Charismatics

49

45

6

Other Christians

54

39

4

South Korea—All

33

20

27

Pentecostals

88

8

2

Charismatics

82

13

3

Other Christians

58

24

9

Question wording: Which one of these statements comes closest to describing your feelings about [INSERT “THE BIBLE” FOR CHRISTIANS; “THE KORAN” FOR MUSLIMS; “SACRED SCRIPTURES” FOR ALL OTHERS]? The [Bible is/the Koran is/sacred scriptures are] the actual word of God and [is/are] to be taken literally, word for word OR [the Bible is/the Koran is/sacred scriptures are] the word of God, but not everything in [it/them] should be taken literally, word for word OR [the Bible is a book/the Koran is a book/sacred scriptures were] written by men and [is/are] not the word of God.

(p.342)

Except in Kenya and the parts of India surveyed, charismatics report sharing their faith less frequently than Pentecostals. Only in Guatemala, Kenya, and South Korea do majorities of charismatics report sharing their faith with others on a weekly basis. In contrast, other Christians are generally less likely than renewalists to frequently share their faith with others. In fact, in most countries, pluralities or even majorities (in Brazil and the Philippines) of other Christians say they never engage in such activities.

In sum, renewalists are distinctive in religious terms within their countries, both regarding the special gifts of the spirit and traditional Christian beliefs and practices. But this religious distinctiveness occurs within the context of diverse religious affiliations. (p.343)

Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.2. Miracles

(p.344)
Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.3. Sharing Faith with Non-believers

(p.345) Demographic Characteristics

Contrary to what might have been expected, the surveys found that renewalist Christianity is not always distinctive in demographic terms. One case in point is income: renewalists do not draw disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic sectors of society. Whether Pentecostals and charismatics have higher or lower income levels than the general population very much depends on the country in question (see Table A2.8).

In the United States, for instance, Pentecostals do tend to be poorer than other religious groups; 58% of Pentecostals have a household income that places them in the bottom two income categories, compared with 41% for the population overall. The differences between Pentecostals and the general population are smaller but still notable in Chile (44% vs. 35%) and Guatemala (48% vs. 40%). However, in most of the countries surveyed, those with lower incomes are not more prevalent among renewalists. For example, in Brazil, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, the regions of India surveyed, the Philippines and South Korea, renewalist populations do not include a disproportionately high number of lower-income people. South Korea and the regions of India surveyed have a notably larger percentage of higher-income people among Pentecostals than in the general population. In South Korea, for example, 63% of Pentecostals are in the upper two income categories, compared with only 49% of the general population.

Similarly, in the regions of India surveyed, 59% of Pentecostals fall into the two higher-income groups, compared with only 39% of the general population. And in South Africa, there is a higher percentage of Pentecostals (29%) in the highest income bracket than among the general population (20%). Pentecostals have somewhat lower income levels than charismatics in the United States, but they have higher income levels in the Indian states surveyed. In the other countries, differences in the income levels of Pentecostals and charismatics tend to be less pronounced.

These surveys also revealed that renewalists are not disproportionately women. Although roughly half or more of the renewalist populations in all the countries surveyed are female, the percentage of renewalists who are female tends to resemble the proportion of women in each country as a whole. In addition, the number of children born to renewalists closely resembles the numbers among the general populations surveyed, with the exception of Nigeria, where Pentecostals have significantly fewer children than the general population. Finally, the average age of renewalists does not differ significantly from that of the general population in any of the countries surveyed.4 (p.346)

Table A2.8 Income

% of Religious Group in Income Category

1–Low

2

3

4–High

United States—All

21%

20%

23%

21%

Pentecostals

29

29

23

10

Charismatics

24

20

22

16

Other Christians

18

19

23

24

Latin America

Brazil—All

21

20

30

17

Pentecostals

20

20

28

13

Charismatics

16

22

32

19

Other Christians

26

20

32

14

Chile—All

16

19

18

36

Pentecostals

17

27

23

21

Charismatics

17

20

21

30

Other Christians

13

19

18

40

Guatemala—All

16

24

18

22

Pentecostals

19

29

19

18

Charismatics

20

25

16

21

Other Christians

13

18

20

24

Africa

Kenya—All

69

16

5

1

Pentecostals

66

20

7

*

Charismatics

61

19

5

1

Other Christians

71

15

5

1

Nigeria—All

27

14

8

13

Pentecostals

33

15

8

8

Other Christians

21

12

7

17

South Africa—All

17

21

18

20

Pentecostals

12

22

17

29

Charismatics

12

23

16

22

Other Christians

18

20

19

21

Asia

India (localities)—All

19

38

15

24

Pentecostals

7

26

25

34

Charismatics

13

36

24

22

Other Christians

19

37

13

26

Philippines—All

21

30

15

15

Pentecostals

12

35

23

10

Charismatics

19

35

13

15

Other Christians

21

25

17

16

South Korea—All

14

27

31

18

Pentecostals

11

24

36

27

Charismatics

10

22

31

34

Other Christians

8

23

35

20

() Specific response options vary from country to country. Income categories have been designed, as nearly as possible, to resemble quartiles. Thus, figures should be used only to compare groups within countries and not to make cross–national comparisons. Figures do not sum to 100 because DK/Ref responses are not shown.

(p.347)

Taken together, these demographic findings suggest that renewalists are not always distinctive in demographic terms within their countries. However, a few caveats are in order. This survey is limited to ten countries and it is possible that a stronger relationship between renewalism and demography may hold in other places. Indeed, the survey results reveal considerable diversity by country. It is also possible that there are important variations among renewalists, with, for example, some particular Pentecostal groups having lower economic status. Finally, there may be variations in the links between renewalism and demography by religious commitment and time of conversion.

Social, Civic, and Political Attitudes

What are the attitudes of renewalists on social, civic, and political questions? Renewalists all around the world tend to hold very traditional views on sexual matters, sometimes standing out even in countries where the general population (p.348) is quite conservative. In this regard, renewalists tend to be distinctive within their countries. However, there is a good deal of nuance in the political application of these views on issues such as the AIDS epidemic and abortion. Most renewalists say that women should be allowed to serve in religious leadership roles, but women are not viewed as the equal of men in all social circumstances. On other kinds of issues, renewalists are less distinctive within their countries. For instance, on social welfare issues, renewalists often hold progressive views. Interestingly, the surveys also found that renewalists are just as willing as non-renewalists to endorse a role for religion in the political life of their nations.

Social Issues

In most of the countries surveyed, majorities of the general population hold traditional views on sexuality (see Table A2.9). In eight of the ten countries, for instance, at least half of the general population says that homosexuality can never be justified. In Kenya and Nigeria, there is virtual unanimity on this question: 98% of the public in these two countries says homosexuality can never be justified. But even in these conservative contexts, Pentecostals stand out for their moral traditionalism. In five of the seven countries outside of Africa, Pentecostals are substantially more opposed to homosexuality than are non-renewalist Christians. A similar pattern emerges on other sexual issues, including prostitution, extramarital sex, and polygamy.

Although renewalists tend to subscribe to strict sexual mores, many reject the idea that AIDS is God's punishment for immoral sexual behavior (see Table A2.10). Majorities of Pentecostals in five countries (Brazil, Chile, the Philippines, the United States, and South Africa) reject the idea that those with AIDS have incurred God's wrath, as do at least half of charismatics in most countries. There are, however, exceptions to this pattern; in Guatemala, Kenya, and South Korea, majorities of Pentecostals say that AIDS is divine retribution for sexual immorality, as do majorities of charismatics in Kenya and South Korea. And in seven countries, Pentecostals are more likely than non-renewalist Christians to say that AIDS is a punishment from God.

A similarly complex pattern emerged with regard to attitudes on abortion. Large numbers of people in most of the countries surveyed are opposed to abortion—with the United States being the only country where less than half say abortion is never justified (see Table A2.11). Most Pentecostals (ranging from 64% in the United States to 97% in the Philippines) and charismatics (ranging from 57% in the United States to 96% in the Philippines) share the view that abortion can never be justified.

But while populations in most countries are morally opposed to abortion, they are more closely divided on the question of whether governments should prevent women from obtaining abortions. In Brazil, for instance, 48% of the (p.349)

Table A2.9 Sexual Morality

% saying behavior is never justified

Homo-sexuality

Prostitution

Extra–marital sex

Polygamy

United States—All

50%

67%

37%

71%

Pentecostals

80

81

64

71

Charismatics

59

78

47

74

Other Christians

54

73

37

77

Latin America

Brazil—All

49

61

29

83

Pentecostals

76

81

63

94

Charismatics

46

57

26

85

Other Christians

46

64

21

85

Chile—All

32

49

22

81

Pentecostals

64

70

44

90

Charismatics

39

56

29

84

Other Christians

30

49

20

82

Guatemala —All

63

63

67

86

Pentecostals

73

71

77

89

Charismatics

61

63

66

86

Other Christians

61

65

68

90

Africa

Kenya—All

98

93

79

60

Pentecostals

99

96

91

77

Charismatics

98

94

86

73

Other Christians

98

91

61

46

Nigeria—All

98

94

91

54

Pentecostals

97

92

91

88

Other Christians

98

94

86

84

South Africa—All

70

80

51

66

Pentecostals

79

83

68

81

Charismatics

70

81

54

68

Other Christians

72

81

47

67

Asia

India

72

72

78

78

(localities)—All

Pentecostals

87

86

84

90

Charismatics

86

87

90

92

Other Christians

85

81

86

88

Philippines—All

56

86

77

92

Pentecostals

86

95

95

97

Charismatics

59

87

86

95

Other Christians

52

86

69

94

South Korea—All

78

87

78

95

Pentecostals

90

97

92

95

Charismatics

90

96

95

95

Other Christians

86

88

85

95

Question wording: Please tell me, for each of the following statements, whether you think it can always be justified, sometimes be justified, or never be justified. a. homosexuality … b. prostitution … g. sex between people who are not married to each other … i.polygamy.

(p.350) public agrees with the statement that the government should not interfere with a woman's ability to have an abortion, while 49% disagree. Chile, South Africa, and the regions of India surveyed are also similarly divided. A comparable pattern holds among Pentecostals and charismatics.

Gender Issues

Historically, women have played a prominent role in helping to shape renewalist Christianity. It might be expected, therefore, to find that Pentecostals have a more egalitarian outlook on gender roles compared with non-renewalists, and this expectation is born out in views of the appropriateness of having female clergy. In five countries (Guatemala, Kenya, Nigeria, the Philippines, and South Korea), Pentecostals are more willing to allow women to serve as pastors or church leaders compared with other Christians (see Figure A2.4). (p.351)

Table A2.10 AIDS as God’s Punishment

% agreeing AIDS is God’s punishment

All*

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

20%

34%

30%

15%

Latin America

Brazil

27

37

23

26

Chile

21

42

29

19

Guatemala

44

51

44

39

Africa

Kenya

59

62

69

53

Nigeria

43

45

34

South Africa

46

37

44

46

Asia

India (localities)

38

42

44

39

Philippines

42

48

39

41

South Korea

45

77

72

55

(*) Based on those who identified themselves as belonging to a particular religion or believing in God. U.S. n = 681; Brazil n = 690; Chile n = 569; Guatemala n = 1000; Kenya n = 653; Nigeria n = 650; S. Africa n = 788; India localities n = 726; Philippines n = 1000; S.Korea n = 420.

Question wording: Now I am going to read you a series of statements on some different topics. For each one, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it, or completely disagree with it. The first one is (insert item). Do you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree, or completely disagree? i.e., AIDS is God’s punishment for immoral sexual behavior.

Table A2.11 Abortion

% saying abortion is never justified

All

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

45%

64%

57%

45%

Latin America

Brazil

79

91

76

82

Chile

71

88

76

72

Guatemala

85

90

85

86

Africa

Kenya

88

88

89

81

Nigeria

94

95

96

South Africa

73

78

69

74

Asia

India (localities)

68

78

88

77

Philippines

97

97

96

97

South Korea

54

77

70

65

% saying government should not interfere with obtaining an abortion

All

Pentecostals

Charismatics

Other Christians

United States

64%

41%

53%

62%

Latin America

Brazil

48

41

51

51

Chile

46

28

43

45

Guatemala

58

61

58

54

Africa

Kenya

18

19

18

16

Nigeria

30

37

32

South Africa

46

47

47

46

Asia

India (localities)

46

53

47

43

Philippines

25

21

21

29

South Korea

62

41

52

55

Question wording: Please tell me, for each of the following statements, whether you think it can always be justified, sometimes be justified, or never be justified: h. abortion Question wording: Please tell me whether you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree or completely disagree with the following statements: c. The government should not interfere with a woman’s ability to have an abortion

(p.352) (p.353)
Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.4. Female Clergy

(p.354) Pentecostals in the ten countries surveyed also express generally egalitarian views when it comes to other aspects of gender roles (see Table A2.12). For instance, majorities agree with the statement that a working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work outside the home. There is also widespread support among renewalists and non-renewalists alike for egalitarian views when it comes to women in the workplace; in six of the ten countries surveyed, majorities of the public disagree with the statement that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women. Publics in Asia and Nigeria, however, stand out for their less egalitarian views on this question; in these countries, at least six in ten agree that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women. And unlike the question about women pastors, there is little evidence to suggest that Pentecostals are more egalitarian than others in their views of working mothers and women in the workplace.

Furthermore, support for gender equality in the countries surveyed is far from unqualified. In six countries, majorities agree that a wife must always obey her husband. Only in the United States, Brazil, Chile, and South Korea do majorities disagree with that statement. And on this question, Pentecostals in six nations (the United States, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Korea) are somewhat less egalitarian than the public as a whole. In five of the countries surveyed (Kenya, Nigeria, and all three Asian nations) at least half of the overall population agrees that, on the whole, men make better political leaders than women. In the United States and all three Latin American countries, however, majorities take the opposite view. There are relatively few differences within countries between renewalists and non-renewalists on this question.

Social Trust

When asked whether most people can be trusted or not, majorities in every country except South Korea say no, that one cannot be too careful in dealing with people (see Figure A2.5). This view is particularly widespread in Latin America, where 85% of Chileans, 88% of Guatemalans, and 95% of Brazilians say that one must be careful in dealing with people, and in the Philippines, where 95% are generally distrustful. Social trust is most common in the parts of India surveyed (where 41% say that most people can be trusted) and the United States (where 35% share this point of view). There are few differences between renewalists and others when it comes to general trust in others. (p.355)

Table A2.12 Gender Issues

% agreeing that…

Men have greater right to jobs than women

Working mothers can establish just as warm relationships

Men make better political leaders

A wife must always obey her husband

United States—All

14%

75%

26%

24%

Pentecostals

29

70

37

46

Charismatics

20

71

32

37

Other Christians

12

75

25

20

Latin America

Brazil—All

25

67

30

38

Pentecostals

29

69

36

61

Charismatics

26

65

29

34

Other Christians

30

72

36

42

Chile—All

36

72

32

31

Pentecostals

41

61

40

52

Charismatics

40

72

31

35

Other Christians

36

73

31

29

Guatemala —All

39

64

38

65

Pentecostals

40

59

40

73

Charismatics

32

59

33

58

Other Christians

44

70

40

66

Africa

Kenya—All

35

76

51

90

Pentecostals

25

81

43

89

Charismatics

34

80

48

88

Other Christians

42

74

65

85

Nigeria—All

66

69

78

98

Pentecostals

59

72

67

97

Other Christians

59

78

77

97

South

40

77

49

71

Africa—All

Pentecostals

36

79

43

76

Charismatics

36

81

51

74

Other Christians

39

77

48

69

Asia

India (localities)—All

69

66

67

86

Pentecostals

74

79

73

85

Charismatics

70

74

72

94

Other Christians

64

69

64

85

Philippines—All

76

75

65

57

Pentecostals

69

77

62

68

Charismatics

73

76

61

55

Other Christians

77

74

67

58

South

60

59

51

23

Korea—All

Pentecostals

65

59

50

40

Charismatics

70

64

55

42

Other Christians

60

58

47

26

Question wording: Now I am going to read you another series of statements on some different topics. For each statement, please tell me if you completely agree with it, mostly agree with it, mostly disagree with it or completely disagree with it. The first one is (insert item). How about (insert next item) ?

a. when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job than women.

b. on the whole, men make better political leaders than women do.

c. a wife must always obey her husband.

d. a working mother can establish just as warm and secure a relationship with her children as a mother who does not work.

(p.356) (p.357)
Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.5. Trust in Others

(p.358) But while the publics surveyed are generally distrustful, some groups and organizations are deemed more trustworthy than others (see Table A2.13). Both renewalists and non-renewalists, for instance, say that their family members are trustworthy. In fact, in eight of the ten countries (Kenya and Nigeria are the exceptions), overall majorities say that people in their immediate family can be trusted a lot.

In every country, majorities of religious people also say that people at their own church or place of worship can be trusted at least to some extent (though only in the United States does an overall majority say that their fellow church members can be trusted a lot). In six countries, Pentecostals were more likely than non-renewalist Christians to say that church members can be trusted a lot. Renewalists and non-renewalists alike generally are less trusting of people from other religions than they are of people from their own churches.

Neighbors also tend to be accorded a relatively high level of trust. In eight countries, majorities say that people in their neighborhoods can be trusted at least some. Interestingly, however, relatively few people, ranging from 2% among the general public in Brazil to 29% in the United States, say that their neighbors can be trusted a lot. Renewalists express similar levels of trust in their neighbors as do their fellow citizens.

While trust in family members, fellow church members, and neighbors is relatively high, trust in other organizations is relatively low. For instance, majorities in only four countries (the United States, Kenya, the regions of India surveyed, and the Philippines) say that the military can be trusted at least to some extent. By contrast, in five countries, including all three Latin American nations, Nigeria, and South Korea, majorities say that the military can be trusted only a little or not at all.

Keys to Personal Economic Success

Majorities in every country surveyed report that a variety of factors are important to determining personal economic success or failure (see Table A2.14). One of the paramount factors is faith in God: in every country except South Korea, majorities say that faith in God is a very important factor in people's economic success. In most countries, including Brazil, Guatemala, all three African nations, the regions of India surveyed, and the Philippines, support for this view exceeds 70%.

In five countries, this view is more common among Pentecostals than among non-renewalist Christians. In the United States, for instance, more than 80% of Pentecostals see faith in God as very important to economic success, compared with only 56% among other Christians. In all ten countries, (p.359)

Table A2.13 Trust in Other People

% saying can trust a lot

Family

Neighbors

Fellow church members*

People of other faiths

United States—All

70%

29%

51%

23%

Pentecostals

66

20

57

22

Charismatics

64

24

44

22

Other Christians

72

32

51

24

Latin America

Brazil—All

52

2

13

3

Pentecostals

50

2

23

3

Charismatics

49

1

7

2

Other Christians

58

2

12

4

Chile—All

75

14

32

10

Pentecostals

75

11

54

11

Charismatics

76

15

42

10

Other Christians

79

16

25

11

Guatemala —All

73

15

40

12

Pentecostals

76

12

48

11

Charismatics

74

17

41

13

Other Christians

75

17

38

13

Africa

Kenya—All

46

9

36

8

Pentecostals

50

10

36

9

Charismatics

47

8

37

10

Other Christians

48

7

33

7

Nigeria—All

42

4

23

4

Pentecostals

43

5

26

7

Other Christians

33

1

14

2

South Africa—All

62

13

41

16

Pentecostals

55

14

46

19

Charismatics

65

15

47

20

Other Christians

64

11

38

17

Asia

India (localities)—All

74

25

34

26

Pentecostals

74

24

60

17

Charismatics

72

16

49

19

Other Christians

71

28

38

24

Philippines—All

85

15

35

13

Pentecostals

86

18

51

15

Charismatics

83

11

34

16

Other Christians

86

15

34

12

South Korea—All

73

5

16

1

Pentecostals

76

6

31

3

Charismatics

77

10

32

4

Other Christians

75

6

22

2

* ”All” row based on those who identified themselves as belonging to a particular religion. U.S. n = 518; Brazil n = 643; Chile n = 510; Guatemala n = 854; Kenya n = 642; Nigeria n = 649; S. Africa n = 720; India n = 725; Phil, n = 995; S. Korea n = 346

Question wording: I’m going to read a list of institutions and people. For each one, please tell me whether you feel that you can trust them a lot, some, only a little, or not at all. First, how about (insert item), do you feel you can trust them a lot, trust them some, trust them only a little, or not trust them at all? How about (insert next item), would you say you can trust them a lot, some, only a little, or not at all?

a. people in your immediate family

b. people in your neighborhood

g. people from other religions

h. people at your church or place of worship

(p.360) (p.361)

Table A2.14 Keys to Success

% saying very important factor in economic success

Faith in God

Hard work

Education

Fate

Govt. policies

Personal contacts

Parents’ economic situation

United States—All

56%

84%

84%

34%

36%

50%

36%

Pentecostals

81

88

90

53

47

54

53

Charismatics

76

86

83

45

38

49

42

Other Christians

56

86

83

32

35

51

31

Latin America Brazil—All

93

57

93

55

29

67

67

Pentecostals

99

57

96

48

24

66

63

Charismatics

95

58

93

57

30

66

68

Other Christians

94

61

95

57

29

69

72

Chile—All

57

58

85

28

28

55

49

Pentecostals

85

50

82

22

21

41

41

Charismatics

69

59

84

32

28

50

50

Other Christians

63

61

86

28

29

58

50

Guatemala —All

87

86

92

51

35

62

66

Pentecostals

87

86

92

50

40

65

63

Charismatics

88

85

92

55

41

61

68

Other Christians

89

87

92

50

33

66

64

Africa

Kenya—All

88

94

74

19

45

48

47

Pentecostals

92

95

78

17

47

45

49

Charismatics

95

94

78

18

47

48

52

Other Christians

83

89

78

21

43

52

47

Nigeria—All

95

84

81

55

41

57

58

Pentecostals

94

86

88

49

43

59

55

Other Christians

91

85

85

50

42

55

53

South Africa—All

74

87

86

35

30

42

40

Pentecostals

89

89

91

44

33

48

42

Charismatics

82

86

87

40

33

48

44

Other Christians

76

88

85

36

29

38

38

Asia

India (localities)—All

75

94

95

30

33

56

56

Pentecostals

88

97

94

55

30

54

41

Charismatics

95

94

97

30

27

52

52

Other Christians

82

96

96

29

34

53

49

Philippines—All

94

92

95

34

42

48

61

Pentecostals

98

93

94

26

45

40

63

Charismatics

96

92

97

32

41

48

65

Other Christians

93

93

94

34

40

45

57

South Korea—All

16

77

50

18

27

53

21

Pentecostals

64

73

47

8

25

56

13

Charismatics

59

76

49

12

21

49

15

Other Christians

35

78

48

12

31

54

22

Question wording: As I read from a list, please tell me how important each factor is in people’s economic success. Is (insert item) a very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not at all important factor (s) in people’s economic success? a. hard work b.fate

c. people’s parents’ economic situation

d. faith in God

e. government policies

f. personal connections and contacts

g. education

(p.362) (p.363) two other factors deemed very important to success are hard work and education, and in this regard, renewalists and non-renewalists express similar views.

While there is a strong consensus across countries that hard work, education, and faith in God are important determinants of economic success or failure, most respondents also recognize that these attributes alone are not sufficient to guarantee economic prosperity. In every country, majorities (including both renewalists and non-renewalists) say that personal connections and contacts and people's parents’ economic situation are each at least somewhat important in determining economic success. And in nine countries (with the lone exception of Kenya), majorities say that economic success or failure is, at least in part, determined by government policies and fate.

Free Market, Government Guarantees, and Globalization

In all ten countries surveyed, there is strong support for a free market economy (see Table A2.15). In every nation, majorities agree that most people are better off in a free market economy, even though some people are rich and some are poor. On this question, the opinions of Pentecostals and charismatics tend to resemble those of non-renewalists.

But support for a free market economy is not associated with opposition to government efforts to provide for a basic standard of living. In all the countries surveyed, majorities also agree that government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep. Here again, the opinions of Pentecostals and charismatics tend, for the most part, to be roughly similar to those of non-renewalists.

In every country, substantial majorities say that their country benefits at least to some extent from increased influence of international business practices, trade, ideas, communication, and products from other countries, such as food and TV programs. Renewalists and non-renewalists alike view such increased international ties as beneficial for their countries.

Religion and Politics

Traditionally, renewalist Christianity has been associated with a reluctance to intermingle religion with politics. These surveys find, however, that renewalists tend to be at least as supportive of a prominent political role for religion as are other groups. For instance, in eight out of the ten countries surveyed, large majorities of Pentecostals say that religious groups should express their views on day-to-day social and political questions, a view held also by at least (p.364)

Table A2.15 The Free Market and Government Aid

% agreeing that…

Most are better off in free market

Govt. should aid citizens

United States—All

75%

70%

Pentecostals

60

77

Charismatics

67

79

Other Christians

79

66

Latin America

Brazil—All

72

93

Pentecostals

78

95

Charismatics

73

93

Other Christians

75

93

Chile—All

52

87

Pentecostals

47

90

Charismatics

46

86

Other Christians

56

85

Guatemala—All

72

92

Pentecostals

74

92

Charismatics

73

90

Other Christians

71

92

Africa

Kenya—All

87

83

Pentecostals

83

80

Charismatics

87

86

Other Christians

85

87

Nigeria—All

88

94

Pentecostals

89

96

Other Christians

86

88

South Africa—All

74

85

Pentecostals

74

88

Charismatics

84

89

Other Christians

73

83

Asia

India (localities)—All

79

85

Pentecostals

72

78

Charismatics

88

92

Other Christians

77

86

Philippines—All

86

94

Pentecostals

83

97

Charismatics

85

93

Other Christians

85

95

South Korea—All

86

77

Pentecostals

88

87

Charismatics

86

79

Other Christians

90

83

Question wording: Please tell me whether you completely agree, mostly agree, mostly disagree or completely disagree with the following statements. (Read list)

a. Most people are better off in a free market economy, even though some people are rich and some are poor

b. The government should guarantee every citizen enough to eat and a place to sleep

(p.365) seven in ten charismatics in seven countries. In most cases, renewalists and non-renewalist Christians all share this conviction (see Table A2.16).

However, the regions of India surveyed and South Korea are exceptions to this pattern. In these two places, majorities of the population (54% in the regions of India surveyed and 58% in South Korea) say that religious groups should keep out of political matters. Renewalists in these countries are also less supportive of religious groups speaking out about politics compared with renewalists in other countries.

Even though most renewalists believe that God is active in the world and support religious involvement in politics, they are divided on whether God fulfills his purposes through politics (see Figure A2.6). In three countries (p.366)

Table A2.16 Religious Groups and Politics

% saying that religious groups should…

keep out of political matters

express views on political questions

United States—All

35%

61%

Pentecostals

14

79

Charismatics

23

71

Other Christians

36

61

Latin America

Brazil—All

39

57

Pentecostals

33

65

Charismatics

35

61

Other Christians

44

53

Chile—All

37

59

Pentecostals

30

65

Charismatics

34

61

Other Christians

34

61

Guatemala—All

27

70

Pentecostals

25

72

Charismatics

24

73

Other Christians

28

69

Africa

Kenya—All

16

83

Pentecostals

15

84

Charismatics

13

87

Other Christians

14

85

Nigeria—All

22

75

Pentecostals

16

79

Other Christians

26

69

South Africa—All

31

63

Pentecostals

25

70

Charismatics

26

70

Other Christians

34

60

Asia

India (localities)—All

54

42

Pentecostals

46

48

Charismatics

42

52

Other Christians

53

42

Philippines—All

38

61

Pentecostals

36

63

Charismatics

37

63

Other Christians

39

60

South Korea—All

58

36

Pentecostals

43

50

Charismatics

38

56

Other Christians

42

51

Question wording: In your opinion, should religious groups keep out of political mattersor should they express their views on day–to–day social and political questions?

(p.367) (Guatemala, Nigeria, and South Korea), majorities of Pentecostals say that God fulfills his purposes through politics and elections, and they are joined by a majority of charismatics in South Korea. By contrast, in four other countries (Brazil, Chile, Kenya, and the Philippines), majorities of both Pentecostals and charismatics take the opposite view, disagreeing that God fulfills his purposes through politics.

Given that many renewalists reject the notion that God fulfills his purposes through politics and elections, it is perhaps not surprising that most renewalists do not express a desire for a government that is explicitly Christian. Indeed, in seven countries, majorities or pluralities of Pentecostals say that there should be a separation between church and state, and they are joined by majorities or pluralities of charismatics in eight countries (see Figure A2.7). Only in Nigeria did a clear majority of Pentecostals say that the government should take special steps to “make our country a Christian country”; in the United States and Kenya, however, roughly half of Pentecostals also express this view.

(p.368)

Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.6. God and Politics

(p.369)
Appendix 2 Pentecostal Growth and Impact in Latin America, Africa, and AsiaFindings from a Ten-Country Survey

Figure A2.7. Separation of Church and State

(p.370) Nevertheless, Pentecostals in eight of the ten countries express more support for government action to make their countries Christian countries than do non-renewalist Christians. In fact, in four of these countries (the United States, Brazil, the parts of India surveyed, and South Korea), Pentecostals are approximately twice as likely as non-renewalist Christians to express this point of view. In five nations (the United States, Guatemala, Kenya, the regions of India surveyed, and South Korea), charismatics are also at least somewhat more willing than non-renewalist Christians to support making their countries Christian countries.

Summary

Based on the surveys of renewalist Christianity in ten countries at the 100th anniversary of the Azusa Street Revival, we find its spiritual descendants located in diverse and dynamic communities, distinctive in some religious practices but in other respects not outside of the mainstream of the societies in which they live.

Renewalists are religiously distinctive, especially regarding the experience of the Holy Spirit, but also in its commitment to traditional Christian practices and beliefs, including a strong emphasis on sharing their faith with non-believers. However, renewalists are not always distinctive in demographic terms. For example, they do not necessarily draw disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic sectors of society or come disproportionately from women.

Renewalists tend to hold traditional values on social issues, especially sexual matters, but there is some complexity in these views. In contrast, renewalists do not tend to have distinctive views on other kinds of issues, such as social welfare, where many have progressive views. Renewalists tend to be at least as supportive of a prominent political role for religion as are other religious groups.

However, renewalists are quite diverse within and across the ten countries surveyed. National context is often important in accounting for these religious variations as well as variation on issues attitudes.

Surveys at one point in time have limitations in addressing questions regarding the growth and impact of renewalist Christianity. Nevertheless, these findings have implications for these questions. Renewalists may have grown—and may continue to grow—because they can be effective competitors in the “religious marketplace.” This feature is partly due to their religious distinctiveness, including commitment to sharing their faith with others, and partly because of their lack of demographic distinctiveness. Their emphasis on traditional (p.371) sexual morality may be associated with natural increase as well. Under these circumstances, the impact of renewalists on their societies is likely to vary by topic, with the strongest impact occurring on issues directly tied to their distinctive faith.

Survey Methodology

In each country, surveys were conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International. The surveys in Guatemala, Nigeria, the Philippines, and the United States are based on national samples. The survey in Chile is based on a national sample but excludes non-continental and remote areas, and the survey in Kenya is based on a national sample but excludes the largely Muslim North Eastern Province. In Brazil, South Africa, and South Korea, the surveys are based on urban samples.

In India, the survey was conducted in three states believed to have among the highest percentage of Christians in India: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Meghalaya. Within the three selected states, districts with the highest proportion of Christians were first selected, and then sampling points were randomly selected from these districts. The survey is NOT representative of the general population of India, nor is it representative of the population of the three Indian states in which it was conducted.

In each country, interviews were conducted among the general public and among oversamples of renewalists. The information below details the number of interviews conducted among the general public in each country, as well as the total number of interviews conducted among Pentecostals and charismatics.

Brazil

Sample design:

Probability sample of urban cities

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Language:

Portuguese

Fieldwork dates:

May 13–May 30, 2006

Sample size:

General public—700; Pentecostals—313; Charismatics—329

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 6%; Charismatics 5%

Chile

Sample design:

National probability sample, excluding non-continental and remote areas

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Language:

Spanish

Fieldwork dates:

May 12–May 28, 2006

Sample size:

General public—600; Pentecostals—276; Charismatics—286

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 6%; Charismatics 6%

(p.372)

Guatemala

Sample design:

National probability sample

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Language:

Spanish

Fieldwork dates:

May 5–May 31, 2006

Sample size:

General public—1,005; Pentecostals—410; Charismatics—487

Margin of Error:

General public 3%; Pentecostals 5%; Charismatics 4%

India

Sample design:

Probability sample of disproportionately Christian districts of three states—Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Meghalaya

Mode:

Face to face with adults 18+

Languages:

Hindi, Tamil, and Malayalam

Fieldwork dates:

May 16–June 9, 2006

Sample size:

General public—726; Pentecostals—409; Charismatics—125

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 5%; Charismatics 9%

Kenya

Sample design:

National probability sample, excluding North Eastern Province

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Languages:

English and Kiswahili

Fieldwork dates:

May 17–May 26, 2006

Sample size:

General public—655; Pentecostals—403; Charismatics—306

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 5%; Charismatics 6%

Nigeria

Sample design:

National probability sample

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Languages:

Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, and English

Fieldwork dates:

May 15–July 27, 2006

Sample size:

General public—650; Pentecostals—483; Charismatics—67

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 4%; Charismatics N/A (Due to the small number of Nigerian charismatics surveyed, results for Nigerian charismatics are not presented here.)

(p.373)

Philippines

Sample design:

National probability sample

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Languages:

Tagalog, Cebuano, and Ilonggo

Fieldwork dates:

May 6–May 29, 2006

Sample size:

General public—1,000; Pentecostals—309; Charismatics—433

Margin of Error:

General public 3%; Pentecostals 6%; Charismatics 5%

South Africa

Sample design:

National probability sample of urban areas

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Languages:

Afrikaans, Pedi, Sotho, Tswana, Xhosa, Zulu, and English

Fieldwork dates:

May 11–May 27, 2006

Sample size:

General public—800; Pentecostals—259; Charismatics—344

Margin of Error:

General public 3%; Pentecostals 6%; Charismatics 5%

South Korea

Sample design:

National probability sample of urban cities

Mode:

Face-to-face with adults 18+

Language:

Korean

Fieldwork dates:

May 8–May 26, 2006

Sample size:

General public—600; Pentecostals—131; Charismatics—333

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 9%; Charismatics 5%

(p.374)

United States

Sample design:

National probability sample

Mode:

Telephone

Languages:

English and Spanish

Fieldwork dates:

July 20–September 7, 2006

Sample size:

General public—739; Pentecostals—119; Charismatics—421

Margin of Error:

General public 4%; Pentecostals 9%; Charismatics 5%

Notes:

(1.) This essay is an abridged and adapted version of the full report of the survey's findings. The full report can be read in its entirety at http://pewforum.org/surveys/pentecostal.

(2.) In the United States, 18% of charismatics are classified as such solely because they describe themselves as Charismatic Christians; 15% of charismatics qualify solely because they describe themselves as Pentecostal Christians but do not belong to explicitly Pentecostal denominations; 43% of charismatics are classified as such solely because they say they speak in tongues; and the remaining 24% of U.S. charismatics qualify as such by multiple measures.

(3.) For more information on the religious demography of the countries surveyed, see the original report, http://pewforum.org/surveys/pentecostal.

(4.) For a fuller description of the demography of renewalists, see the original study, http://pewforum.org/surveys/pentecostal.