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Smoke Signals for the GodsAncient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods$

F. S. Naiden

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199916405

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199916405.001.0001

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(p.341) Appendix B Acts of Negative Extispicy in Written Sources Including Curtius

(p.341) Appendix B Acts of Negative Extispicy in Written Sources Including Curtius

Source:
Smoke Signals for the Gods
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

This appendix contains a chronological list, beginning with Aeschylus and ending with Polyaenus, for the acts of negative extispicy discussed in chapter 4. If such acts appear in more than one work by a single author, these works appear in the same order as in LSJ. If an act appears in more than one author, citations from the later authors are inset, as at no. 5. This list excludes sphagiai, save for an instance at which entrails were inspected before a river-crossing and a negative result occurred (no. 1) and an instance in which entrails were inspected during an attack and the same occurred (no. 5). This list also excludes the inspection of entrails when it occurs before a meal, or as part of an act of thusia that does not precede some military, political, or personal decision; and it excludes one act of extispicy that prompted an eclipse (appendix A, no. 18).1 Successive acts by the same celebrant with the same intent are listed as a single item, but with a footnote. In Xenophon, such acts are divided among two or three items if some circumstance has changed, such as greater attendance (no. 15 versus 14) or the passage of a day or the use of an unusual victim (no. 16 versus 17 and 18).

Each act is schematized as follows:

Source and celebrant

Result

Intent

Response

(p.342) For example:

1. A. Sept. 536–538 Argives (Amphiaraus)

σφάγια οὐ γίγνεται καλὰ

Diabatēria

Obeyed

The citation given on the left includes the celebrant, but not the army or other group for which he acts. If a soothsayer is said to assist the celebrant, his name appears in parentheses, or the word mantis appears, but in many instances the presence of an unacknowledged soothsayer should be assumed. The next column, reporting the result, consists of the words indicating negative extispicy. In the third column, the intent is that of the celebrant, and the alternative is to abjure this intent. Twice (nos. 13, 21) the alternative is to pursue some other course of action. In these cases, the alternative is stated after the word “or.” Voyages and border- and river-crossings are described as diabatēria. In the fourth column, the response indicates whether the celebrant obeyed the gods’ wishes, or took some other course of action, including manipulating the result. (p.343) (p.344) (p.345)

Source and celebrant

Result

Intent

Response

1. A. Sept. 536–538 Argives (Amphiaraus)

σφάγια οὐ γίγνεται καλὰ

Diabatēria

Obeyed2

2. Hdt. 6.76 Cleomenes

οὐ … ἐκαλλιέρεε

Diabatēria

Obeyed

3. Hdt. 9. 36–38 Mardonius (Hegisistratus)

οὐκ ἐπιτήδεα ἐγίνετο τὰ ἱρά

Attack

Disobeyed3

4. Hdt. 9.36–38 Greeks (Tisamenus)

καλὰ ἐγίνετο τὰ ἱρὰ … οὔ·

Attack

Obeyed

5. Hdt. 9.61 Pausanias

Plu. Arist. 17.7

οὐ … ἐγίνετο τὰ σφάγια χρηστά.

οὐκ ἐκαλλιέρει

Attack

Same

Obeyed4

Same

6. E. Supp. 155–156 Adrastus5 (Amphiaraus)

{Θη.} μάντεις δ’ ἐπῆλθες ἐμπύρων τ’ εἶδες φλόγα; {Aδ.} οἴμοι· διώκεις μ’ ἧι μάλιστ’ ἐγὼ ’σφάλην.

Disobeyed

7. Th. 5.54.2 Agis

τὰ διαβατήρια … οὐ προυχώρει

Obeyed

8. Th. 5.55.3 Spartans

οὐδ’ ἐνταῦθα τὰ διαβατήρια αὐτοῖς ἐγένετο

Obeyed

9. Th. 5.116.1 Spartans

τὰ διαβατήρια οὐκ ἐγίγνετο

Obeyed

10. X. An. 2.2.3 Clearchus

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά

Attack

Obeyed

11. X. An. 5.5.2 Generals (manteis)

γνώμην ὅτι οὐδαμῇ προσίοιντο οἱ θεοὶ

Attack

Obeyed

12. X. An. 5.6.16 Xenophon (Silanus)

ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς φαίνοιτό τις δόλος7

Found city6

Obeyed

13. X. An. 6.1.22–24 Xenophon

ὁ θεὸς σημαίνει μήτε προσδεῖσθαι τῆς ἀρχῆς μήτε εἰ αἱροῖντο ἀποδέχεσθαι.

Accept or reject command

Obeyed

14. X. An. 6.4.13 generals (Arexion)

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά

Return to Calpe

Obeyed

15. X. An. 6.4.15 Xenophon8

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά9

Same

Obeyed

16. X. An. 6.4.19 Xenophon10

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά

Obtain supplies

Obeyed

17. X. An. 6.4.20 Xenophon11

θύματα ἐπελελοίπει

Same

Obeyed

18. X. An. 6.4.22 Cleanor

οὐδ’ ὣς ἐγένοντο12

Same

Obeyed13

19. X. An. 6.4.25 unstated

οὐκ ἐγεγένητο τὰ ἱερὰ

Unstated

Obeyed14

20. X. An. 6.6.35 Cleander

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερά15

Advance

Obeyed

21. X. An. 7.6.44 Xenophon

[Zεὺς] ἀναιρεῖ αὐτῷ ἀπιέναι

Join forces or withdraw

Obeyed

22. X. HG 3.1.17 Dercylidas

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο τὰ ἱερὰ16

Advance

Obeyed

23. X. HG 3.4.15 Agesilaus

Plu. Ages. 39

ἄλοβα γίγνεται τῶν ἱερῶν ἀλόβων φανέντων

Advance

Obeyed

24. X. HG 4.4.5 Corinthian oligarchs

τὰ ἱερὰ ὥστε οἱ μάντεις ἔφασαν ἄμεινον εἶναι καταβαί-νειν ἐκ τοῦ χωρίου

Leave Acro-Corinth or remain

Obeyed

25. X. HG 4.7.7. Agesipolis

τὰ ἱερὰ ἄλοβα

Build wall

Obeyed

26. X. HG 4.8.36 Anaxibius

οὐδὲ τῶν ἱερῶν γεγεν-ημένων αὐτῷ

Advance

Disobeyed

27. Hell. Oxy. 7.4 ed. Bartoletti Agesilaus

μὴ γίγνεθαι καλὰ

Advance

Obeyed

28. Aeschin. 3.131 Philip II

οὐκ … καλὰ τὰ ἱερὰ

Advance

Obeyed

29. DS 13.97.5 Callicratidas (unnamed mantis)

ἡ τοῦ θύματος κεφαλὴ κειμένη παρὰ τὸν αἰγιαλὸν ἀφανὴς ἐγεγόνει,

Attack

Disobeyed17

30. Curt. 4.6.10 Alexander (Aristander)

Interrupted by ominous bird

Attack

Disobeyed

Arr. An. 2.26.4

Same

Same

Same18

Plu. Alex. 25.3

Same

Same

Same

31. Curt. 5.4.2 Alexander (Aristander)

Damnatis intempestivis sacrificiis

Attack

Obeyed

32. Curt. 7.7.8, 23 Alexander (Aristander)

Tristia exta

Diabatēria

Conclusion altered

Arr. An. 4.4.3

τὰ ἱερὰ οὐκ ἐγίγνετο

Same

Disobeyed

It. Alex. 85

Sacrificia … creberrime

Same

Same

33. Curt. 9.4.27 Alexander (Demophon)

Vitae eius periculum ostendi

Attack

Disobeyed

34. Plu. Alex. 25.1 Alexander (Aristander)

A month allotted by Aristander

Capture of Tyre

Days added to month by Alexander

35. Arr. An. 5.28.4 Alexander

οὐκ ἐγίγνετο … τὰ ἱερά.

Diabatēria

Obeyed

36. Arr. An. 7.18.2 Alexander (Peithagoras)

ἄλοβον τὸ ἧπαρ

ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ τῆς σωτηρίας

Death

37. Polyaen. 3.9.9 Iphicrates (unnamed manteis)

τῶν μάντεων ἀπαγορευόντων

Unstated

οὐκ εὐθὺς ἐπείθετο

(p.346)

Notes:

(1) . So also doubtful acts (appendix A here, nos. 26, 27, 29). Other classifications: Pritchett (1971) 3.83 holding that sphagia before battle was commonly divinatory, but according to a different method than in thusia; and Szymanski (1908) 89 holding that it was commonly divinatory by the same method; and Stengel (1886) 307–312 holding that it was common according to the method described at E. Ph. 1255.

(2) . As shown at A. Sept. 577–594.

(3) . Hdt. 9.41.

(4) . Superseded by omen.

(5) . Unlike no. 1, diabatēria not specified.

(6) . Or, as Xenophon later explains, whether to consult the troops about the foundation or to abandon the plan.

(7) . Thus Silanus; τὰ ἱερὰ καλὰ according to Xenophon.

(8) . Same day as previous; troops attend.

(9) . Three attempts.

(10) . Same day as previous.

(11) . Day after previous.

(12) . Using cattle. Hiera is the implied subject.

(13) . Except by Neon, with 2,000 foragers (X. An. 6.4.23–24).

(14) . Followed by an act of sphagia preceding an attack made in response to an emergency.

(15) . During three days.

(16) . During three days.

(17) . On the ground that negative sign concerned only the commander.

(18) . Only with respect to Alexander himself. The omen foretold danger for him, not defeat for the army. The verb, thuein, is active, whereas elsewhere Arrian uses thuesthai for divination, but the circumstances resemble those of divination.