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The Ancient Hawaiian StateOrigins of a Political Society$

Robert J. Hommon

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199916122

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199916122.001.0001

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(p.261) Appendix Summary of Ancient Hawaiian Political History

(p.261) Appendix Summary of Ancient Hawaiian Political History

The Ancient Hawaiian State
Oxford University Press

This appendix summarizes the ancient political history of the Hawaiian Islands from the early fifteenth century to the early nineteenth century, as recounted in oral traditions reduced to written form during the nineteenth century. The chief sources are volume 2 of An Account of the Polynesian Race, by Abraham Fornander, originally published in 1880 and reprinted in 1969, and the 1992 revised edition of Ruling Chiefs of Hawai`i, by Samuel M. Kamakau. The completeness of the traditional record varies from island to island. The most complete accounts are those of Hawai`i Island, in part because it was never conquered and was the home island of Kamehameha, who united the islands. The least complete traditional records are those of Kaua`i, the first of the large island kingdoms to be annexed by another polity, an event that may have disrupted the maintenance of oral traditions.

The summary is based on the chronological sequence of ruling chiefs of each of the four largest islands. Each entry begins with the identification of a ruler or corulers (ali`i nui, or mō`ī), including the following:

  • As in Table 15.4, each ruler code, such as “AnHa24bP,” consists of “An” (for ali`i nui), two letters designating the island with which the individual is associated (Ha, Ma, Oa, or Ka for Hawai`i, Maui, O`ahu, or Kaua`i, respectively), and the ali`i nui reign number assigned in this study. Appended to the ruler code as appropriate may be a lowercase letter (a, b, or c, usually in order of political prominence) if the ruler was a member of a diarchy or triarchy, an uppercase P if a ruler was of nī`aupi`o or pi`o rank, and an uppercase W if the ruler was a female (wahine).

  • Following the name of each ruler and some of the other chiefs is a genealogical code in parentheses consisting of the initial letter for the island of origin or G for a chief of the late voyaging era associated with more than one island, generation number as listed in Table 15.1, and gender (w for wahine, female or k for kāne, male). The word or phrase following this code indicates the way rulership was acquired (e.g., “inheritance”).

(p.262) Certain entries also include brief descriptions of significant events during the reign of prominent rulers. Ali`i nui and generation codes are appended to additional individuals’ names to clarify interruler relationships and interisland events.

Hawai`i Island

AnHa1 Kanipahu (H12k); unknown.

According to Fornander (1969:2:39), Kanipahu was born around 1390, and his ancestors were recent arrivals from Kahiki.

AnHa2 Kamaiole (H13k); usurpation.

Fornander (1969:2:40) states that Kamaiole, of native Hawaiian ancestry, in contrast to Kanipahu, is said to have become oppressive.

AnHa3 Kalapana (H13k); usurpation (H13k).

Kanipahu (AnHa1), in exile on Moloka`i, refused to return, so his son Kalapana, who had led the successful revolt against Kamaiole (AnHa2), was installed as ali`i nui.

AnHa4 Kaha`imoeleaikaikupou (H14k); inheritance as son of AnHa3 Kalapana (H13k).

Genealogical information is from Malo (1951:258).

AnHa5 Kalaunuiohua (H15k); uncertain.

Kalaunuiohua is said to have raided Maui and Moloka`i and captured their respective ali`i nui, as well as chiefs of two O`ahu districts. He then took them to Kaua`i, where he was captured. After being held for several years, he was released to return to Hawai`i, where he continued his reign (Fornander 1969:2:67–68).

AnHa6 Kuaiwa (H16k); inheritance as son of AnHa5 Kalaunuiohua (H15k).

AnHa7 Kahoukapu (H17k); inheritance as son of AnHa6 Kuaiwa (H16k).

During Kahoukapu’s reign, chiefs of Hawai`i and Maui attacked O`ahu, where they were defeated and killed by an army led by Mā`ilikūkahi (AnOa3; O17k), the ali`i nui of that island.

AnHa8 Kauholanuimahu (H18k); inheritance as son of AnHa7 Kahoukapu (H17k). (p.263)

Kauholanuimahu resided for long periods at Keone`ō`io (La Perouse Bay), Maui. He returned to Hawai`i to defeat a chief, unnamed in the traditional accounts, who had attempted to usurp his power.

AnHa9 Kiha-nui-lulu-moku (H19k); inheritance as son of AnHa8 Kauholanuimahu (H18k).

AnHa10P Līloa (H2Ok); inheritance as son of AnHa9 Kiha-nui-lulu-moku (H19k).

Līloa bequeathed the rule of the island to Hākau (AnHa11aP) and the custodianship of the god-image, Kū-kā`ili-moku, to `Umi-a-Līloa (AnHa12).

AnHa11aP Hākau (H21k), inheritance as son of AnHa10P Līloa(H2Ok); and AnHa11b `Umi-a-Līloa (H21k).

Hākau’s rule is said to have been oppressive. The half-brothers Hākau and `Umi-a-Līloa formed a short-lived diarchy with the former as symbolic ruler and the latter as active ruler.

AnHa12 `Umi-a-Līloa (`Umi) (H21k); usurpation.

`Umi’s mother, Akahi-a-kuleana (H20w) was a low-ranked ali`i (Fornander 1969:2:74; Kamakau 1992:3–4; Malo 1951:258). `Umi defeated Hākau and sacrificed him to Kū-kā`ili-moku (the war-god worshiped by the ali`i nui of Hawai`i Island), whereupon the chiefs of the five districts other than his own (Hāmākua) rose in rebellion. He conquered each district and then moved his court from Waipi`o valley, Hāmākua, to Kailua, Kona.

AnHa13P Keli`iokāloa (H22k); inheritance as son of AnHa12 `Umi-a-Līloa (`Umi) (H21k).

Keli`iokāloa, whose mother was Kapukini (H21w), sister of Hākau (AnHa11aP), inherited the office of ali`i nui and direct control of Kona, Kohala and Hāmākua districts. He is said to have been oppressive.

AnHa14P Keawe-nui-a-`Umi (H22k); usurpation.

He inherited direct control of Hilo, Puna, and Ka`ū districts from `Umi (AnHa12). Later, on the advice of his chiefs, he defeated his brother Keli`iokāloa (AnHa13P) to become ali`i nui.

AnHa15aW Kaikilaninui-ali`i-wahine-o-Puna (Kaikilaninui) (H24w); AnHa15b Lono-i-ka-makahiki (H23k), inheritance; and AnHa15cP Kanaloa-kua`ana (H23k). (p.264)

Fornander (1969:2:114–126) and Kamakau (1992:45–61) differ in several respects concerning this complex period. Both, however, indicate that Lono-i-ka-makahiki was ali`i nui (Fornander 1969:2:115; Kamakau 1992:6l). According to Fornander, AnHa14P Keawenui-a-`Umi (H22k) conferred the title of ali`i nui on AnHa15aW Kaikilaninui (H24w), the granddaughter of AnHa13P Keli`iokāloa (H22k) and wife of his two sons, AnHa15b Lono-i-ka-makahiki (H23k), and AnHa15cP Kanaloakua`ana (H23k). Kanaloakua`ana served as regent for his half-brother and his wife while they were young. In Valeri’s view, these three ali`i formed a triarchy, consisting of two males who shared active chiefship and Kaikilaninui as symbolic chief. According to Kamakau (1992:2:45), control of the Hawai`i districts was divided as follows:

  1. 1. Kona and Kohala were controlled by Kanaloa-kua`ana and `Umiokalani (H23k).

  2. 2. Ka`ū and Puna were controlled by Lono-i-ka-makahiki.

  3. 3. Hilo and Hāmākua were controlled by Kumalae (H22k) and his son Makua-a-Kumalae (H23k).

In the belief that Lono-i-ka-makahiki had slain Kaikilaninui, the district chiefs, except for his son Pupuakea of Ka`ū, rose in rebellion against Lono-i-ka-makahiki. On his return from a trip to Kaua`i, he sent for Pupukea, and together they suppressed the rebellion and reunited the island.

AnHa16 Keakea-lani-kāne (H24k); inheritance as a son of AnHa15cP Kanaloa-kua`ana (H23k) and AnHa15aW Kaikilaninui-ali`i-wahine-o-Puna (Kaikilaninui) (H24w) (Fornander 1969:2:127).

Keakea-lani-kāne is not mentioned by Kamakau (1992) as an ali`i nui. Evidently, his effective rule extended only to Kohala, Kona, and Ka`ū districts. `Ī (H24k), son of Makua-a-Kumalae (H23k), controlled the windward districts of Hilo, Hāmākua, and Puna.

AnHa17aPW Keakamahana (H25w); inheritance as daughter of AnHa16 Keakea-lani-kāne (H24k) and AnHa17b Iwikauikaua (H25k).

Keakamahana, as the offspring of a full brother and sister (Keakea-lani-kāne and Keali`iokalani (H24w), was of pi`o rank. Like her father, she ruled only three leeward districts. The windward districts were controlled by Kua`ana-a-`Ī (H25k), son of `Ī (H24k). In Valeri’s view (1990b:61) AnHa17b Iwikauikaua (H25k) served as Keakamahana’s active coruler.

AnHa18aW Keakea-lani-wahine (H26w); inheritance as daughter of AnHa17aPW Keakamahana (H25w) and AnHa18b Mahi`ololī (H26k).

Keakea-lani-wahine ruled only the three leeward districts, as had her mother and grandfather. The windward districts were controlled by Kuahuia (H26k). During this period, there was sporadic warfare between the two sides of the island. In his role as “kuhina (p.265) kaua nui, ‘general in chief,’” Mahi`ololī apparently served as Keakea-lani-wahine’s active coruler (Valeri 1990b:63).

AnHa19a Keawe-i-kekahi-ali`i-o-ka-moku (Keawe) (H27k) and AnHa19bPW Kalani-kauleleiaiwi (H27w); inheritance.

These half-siblings seem to have been corulers. Keawe ended the warfare between the windward and leeward districts and united the island by marrying Lonoma`aikanaka (H26w), daughter of Ahu-a-`Ī (H25k), a member of the powerful `Ī family of windward chiefs and brother of Kua`ana-a-`Ī (H25k).

AnHa20aP Kalanike`eaumoku (H28k) and AnHa20b Kalaninui`īamamao (H28k); inheritance as sons of AnHa19a Keawe-i-kekahi-ali`i-o-ka-moku (Keawe) (H27k).

AnHa19a Keawe (H27k) apparently bequeathed control of Kona and Kohala to Kalanike`eaumoku and of Ka`ū to Kalaninui`īamamao. The three windward districts (Hilo, Hāmākua, and Puna) regained independence under Mokulani (H27k), son of Kuahuia (H26k).

AnHa21 Alapa`inui (H28k); usurpation.

Alapa`inui’s ancestors—including Ka-uaua-nui-a-mahi (H27k), Mahi`ololī (H26k), Kalaloauo`o (H25k), Ho`ola`aikaiwi (H24k), and `Umiokalani (H23k)—were Kohala chiefs, known as “the Mahi family.” AnHa20b Kalaninui`īamamao (H28k) was killed, probably by his half-brother AnHa20a Kalanike`eaumoku (H28k). Alapa`inui returned from Maui, where he had been visiting his half-sister, Keku`iapoiwanui (H28w), and, with the support of the Kohala chiefs, defeated and killed Kalanike`eaumoku, and then Mokulani (H27k), who ruled the windward districts. As a result, Alapa`inui became ali`i nui of the united island, though he evidently allowed Ululani (H28w), only child of Mokulani, to remain nominal chief of the windward districts (Fornander 1969:2:132–133). See also AnMa16 Kauhi`aimokuakama (M29k), AnOa16 Peleiōhōlani (O28k), and AnOa15 Kapiohookalani (O28k).

AnHa22 Keawe-`ōpala (H29k); inheritance as son of AnHa21 Alapa`inui (H28k).

Keawe-`ōpala ruled the island, except for Ka`ū and Puna, which had been taken by AnHa23 Kalani`ōpu`u (H29k) before Alapa`inui’s death. Keawe-`ōpala’s reign was short, perhaps less than a year.

AnHa23 Kalani`ōpu`u (H29k); usurpation.

Kalani`ōpu`u, as the son of AnHa20b Kalaninui`īamamao (H28k), inherited control of Ka`ū. By the end of the reign of AnHa21 Alapa`inui`(H28k), Kalani`ōpu`u also controlled (p.266) Puna district. Shortly after AnHa22 Keawe-`ōpala (H29k) came to power, Kalani`ōpu`u defeated him in battle and became ali`i nui. About 1770, Kalani`ōpu`u conquered Hāna and Kīpahulu districts, Maui, and installed Puna, a Hawai`i Island chief, as governor. These districts were reconquered around 1781 by AnMa18P Kahekili (M29k). About the same year, `Īmakakoloa, the ali`i `ai moku of Puna district, rebelled against Kalani`ōpu`u‘s rule by refusing to supply him with goods. The rebel was defeated, captured, and then sacrificed to Kū-kā`ili-moku by AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30k).

AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30k); as custodian of the Kū-kā`ili-moku image; usurpation and AnHa24bP Kīwala`ō (H30k); inheritance as son of AnHa23 Kalani`ōpu`u (H29k).

Kīwala`ō was of nī`aupi`o rank (Kamakau 1964:5). Before he completed the first year of his reign (1781), he was defeated and killed by AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30k).

Kamehameha was the son of Keōua (H29k) and grandson of AnHa20A Kalanike`eaumoku (H28k). After the death of AnHa24bP Kīwala`ō (H30k), Hawai`i was divided into three multi-district polities:

  1. 1. Kona, Kohala, and half of Hāmākua; held by AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30k)

  2. 2. Ka`ū and half of Puna; held by Keōua Kū`ahu`ula (H30k), younger half-brother of AnHa24bP Kīwala`ō (H30k)

  3. 3. Hilo and the remaining portions of Puna and Hāmākua; held by Keawema`uhili (H29k)

In late 1785 or early 1786, AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30k) sent his younger brother, Kalani-mālokuloku-i-ka-po`o-o-kalani (also known as Keali`i-maika`i; H30k), to conquer Hāna and Kīpahulu districts, Maui. The expedition was initially successful, but later in 1786 the Hawai`i forces were defeated and ejected by AnMa19a Kalanikūpule (M30k).

In 1790, Keawema`uhili joined forces with AnHa24a Kamehameha (H30-lk) and was then killed by Keōua Kū`ahu`ula (H30k). After defeating and occupying Maui and Moloka`i, Kamehameha returned to Hawai`i to capture and sacrifice Keōua Kū`ahu`ula at Pu`ukoholā Heiau in Kohala district, thus consolidating the entire island of Hawai`i under his rule. The following year, Maui and Moloka`i were recaptured by Maui chiefs under the command of AnMa18P Kahekili (M29k). From 1794 to 1795, Kamehameha conquered the rest of the islands, except for Kaua`i and N`i`ihau. In 1796, Nāmakehā (M30k), a chief of nī`aupi`o rank, took control of Ka`ū, Puna, and Hilo districts. Kamehameha returned to Hawai`i from O`ahu, defeated Nāmakehā, and sacrificed him.


AnMa1 Kuhimana (M13k); uncertain.

AnMa2 Kamaluohua (M14k); inheritance as son of AnMa1 Kuhimana (M13k).

(p.267) AnMa3 Kaka`e (M18k); uncertain.

Genealogical information for about three generations, between AnMa2 Kamaluohua (M14k) and Kaka`e, is unclear. Kaka`alaneo (M18k) may have acted as regent for his brother Kaka`e, who “was considered as deficient in mental qualities” (Fornander 1969:2:82).

AnMa4 Kahekili I (M19k); inheritance as son of AnMa3 Kaka`e (M18k).

AnMa5 Kawaokaohele (M20k); inheritance as son of AnMa4 Kahekili I (M19k).

AnMa6 Pi`ilani (M21k); inheritance as son of AnMa5 Kawaokaohele (M20k).

According to Fornander (1969:2:78), until the time of Pi`ilani, the East Maui districts, including Hāna, Ko`olau, Kīpahulu, and Kaupō, had formed an independent political confederacy controlled by a succession of at least six ali`i nui. The last of these was Ho`olae (M21k), a contemporary of Pi`ilani, after whose reign East Maui was ruled, at times tenuously, by the West Maui ali`i nui.

AnMa7 Lono-a-Pi`i (M22k); inheritance as eldest son of AnMa6 Pi`ilani (M21k).

His reign is said to have been oppressive.

AnMa8 Kiha-a-Pi`ilani (M22k); usurpation.

Aided by AnHa12 `Umi-a-Līloa (H21k), Kiha-a-Pi`ilani overthrew his brother AnMa7 Lono-a-Pi`i (M22k) and established himself as ali`i nui.

AnMa9 Kamalālāwalu (M23k); inheritance as son of AnMa8 Kiha-a-Pi`ilani (M22k).

“From certain allusions in the legends the inference may with great probability be drawn that the chiefs of Lanai became subject or tributary to Maui during this reign; but whether through war or negotiation is not apparent” (Fornander 1969:2:207).

Kamalālāwalu attacked Hawai`i Island and was killed there in battle against the army of AnHa15a Lono-i-ka-makahiki (H23k).

AnMa10 Kauhi-a-Kama (M24k); inheritance as son of AnMa9 Kamalālāwalu (M23k).

Kauhi-a-Kama was killed at Waikīkī, O`ahu, during an unsuccessful military expedition. See AnOa11 Kānekapu-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k).

AnMa11 Kalanikaumakaowakea (M25k); inheritance as son of AnMa10 Kauhi-a-Kama (M24k).

(p.268) AnMa12 Lonohonuakini (M26k); inheritance as son of AnMa11 Kalanikaumakaowakea (M25k).

AnMa13 Ka`ulahea (M27k); inheritance as son of AnMa12 Lonohonuakini (M26k).

AnMa14 Kekaulike (M28k); inheritance as son of AnMa13 Ka`ulahea (M27k).

Kekaulike led a military expedition against Hawai`i, taking advantage of the civil war that led to the establishment of AnHa21Alapa`inui (H28k) as ali`i nui of that island. Kekaulike, defeated on land and at sea, retreated to Maui, where he soon died.

AnMa15P Kamehamehanui (M29k); inheritance as son of AnMa14 Kekaulike (M28k).

Kekaulike’s designation of Kamehamehanui as his successor was contrary to the usual rule of primogeniture, because Kamehamehanui was of nī`aupi`o rank and his mother (Keku`iapoiwanui, H28w) was of higher rank than Kahawalu (Ml8w), the mother of AnMa16 Kauhi`aimokuakama (M29k), who was Kekaulike’s eldest son (Fornander 1969:2:211).

AnMa16 Kauhi`aimokuakama (Kauhi) (M29k); usurpation.

AnHa21Alapa`inui (H28k) arrived at Lahaina, Maui, following a military expedition to Moloka`i and O`ahu to find that Kauhi had rebelled against AnMa15P Kamehamehanui (M29k), his younger half-brother. Kamehamehanui, escaping from a battle with Kauhi, was forced to take refuge with Alapa`inui, who returned with him to Hawai`i. Soon afterward, Alapa`inui returned to Maui with Kamehamehanui and fought several battles against the forces of Kauhi and his O`ahu ally AnOa16 Peleiōhōlani (O28k). During the final battle, Kauhi was captured by Alapa`inui, ending the war, and Kamehamehanui was restored to his position as ali`i nui. Both foreign armies returned home (Fornander 1969:2:140–141).

AnMa17P Kamehamehanui (M29k); restoration.

During the latter period of his reign, probably around 1770, AnHa23 Kalani`ōpu`u (H29k) conquered Hāna and Kīpahulu districts. Kamehamehanui died around 1775 (Stokes 1933:42).

AnMa18P Kahekili (M29k); inheritance as younger brother of AnMa17P Kamehamehanui (M29k) and as a pi`o chief.

According to Fornander (1969:2:215), Kahekili’s higher ranked sister, Kalola (M29w), as a wife of Hawai`i’s ruler AnHa23 Kalani`ōpu`u (H29k), was not a candidate for the office of Maui ali`i nui.

(p.269) When AnOa17 Kūmahana (O29k) was deposed by the O`ahu chiefs, they selected AnOa18 Kahahana (O29k) to replace him. Kahahana had been raised in Kahekili’s court, and Kahekili consented to allow Kahahana to return to O`ahu, on the condition that Kahekili would be awarded the ahupua`a of Kualoa, Ko`olaupoko district, O`ahu, and all whalebone and ivory found on O`ahu’s shores. The O`ahu chiefs, led by Ka`ōpulupulu, the high priest, refused Kahekili’s demands because Kualoa was one of O`ahu’s sacred places, and the right to whalebone and ivory was traditionally and exclusively that of O`ahu’s ali`i nui. Ka`ōpulupulu argued that meeting Kahekili’s demands would be tantamount to giving Kahekili political control of O`ahu. In 1779, Kahekili asked for and received the ahupua`a of Hālawa, Moloka`i, from Kahahana. In 1782 or early I783, when the priest Ka`ōpulupulu, Kahekili’s most effective adversary, was killed, Kahekili defeated Kahahana’s army and added O`ahu and its possession Moloka`i to his realm (Fornander 1969:2:217–225).

Around 1781, Kahekili reconquered Hāna and Kīpahulu districts, displacing Kalani`ōpu`u’ forces.

Kahekili now ruled all the Hawaiian islands, directly or indirectly, except for Hawai`i, since his half-brother, AnMa19b Kā`eokūlani (M29k), controlled Kaua`i through his marriage to AnKa19 Kamakahelei (K30w). Kahekili remained on O`ahu for some time to consolidate his control and sent his son, AnMa19a Kalanikūpule (M30k) back to Maui as governor. In 1786, Kalanikūpule’s forces ejected Kalani-mālokuloku-i-ka-po`o-o-kalani (H30k), Kamehameha’s brother, who had retaken Hāna and Kīpahulu earlier that year (Fornander 1969:2:228–229).

In 1790, Kahekili lost Maui and Moloka`i to Kamehameha. When Kamehameha returned to Hawai`i in 1791, Kahekili led his army, augmented with forces raised by Kā`eokūlani on Kaua`i, to Maui and then attacked Hawai`i. Kahekili’s fleet was defeated off Waipi`o, Hāmākua district, Hawai`i, by Kamehameha’s forces in Kepūwaha`ula`ula—the battle of the “red-mouthed gun,” the first Hawaiian naval battle in which Western artillery was used. Kahekili died in 1794.

AnMa19a Kalanikūpule (M30k) and AnMa19b Kā`eokūlani (M29k); inheritance as son and half-brother (respectively) of AnMa18P Kahekili (M29k).

Kalanikūpule was nominal ruler of all of Kahekili’s holdings, but he controlled only O`ahu directly. Kā`eokūlani administered Maui, Moloka`i, and Lāna`i. Apparently, he also maintained some control over Kaua`i, though he had been away from that island for several years.

As a result of a complex series of events, Kalanikūpule defeated and killed Kā`eokūlani, on O`ahu in 1794 (Fornander 1969:2:262–268). The following year, Kamehameha completed his conquest of Maui, Moloka`i, Lāna`i, and O`ahu by defeating Kalanikūpule’s forces at Nu`uanu, O`ahu, and sacrificing Kalanikūpule to Kū-kā`ili-moku.

(p.270) O`ahu

AnOa1 Lakona (O12k); uncertain.

Lakona exercised direct control over `Ewa, Wai`anae, and Waialua districts, while Lāuli-a-Laa (O12k), a son of one of the last of the long-distance voyagers, La`amaikahiki (G1lk), evidently ruled Kona district, and Kaulaulao-kalani (O12k) held Ko`olauloa and Ko`olaupoko.

AnOa2 Haka (O16k); uncertain.

Haka’s rule is said to have been oppressive. He was killed by order of the council of O`ahu chiefs.

AnOa3 Mā`ilikūkahi (O17k); selected and installed by the council of O`ahu chiefs.

During Mā`ilikūkahi‘s reign, he defeated a raiding expedition led by Hawai`i and Maui chiefs (see AnHa7 Kahoukapu [H17k]; chapter 15).

AnOa4 Kalona-iki (O18k); inheritance as son of AnOa3 Mā`ilikūkahi (O17k).

AnOa5 Piliwale (O19k); inheritance as son of AnOa4 Kalona-iki (O18k).

AnOa6W Kūkaniloko (O20w); inheritance as daughter of AnOa5 Piliwale (O19k) (Fornander 1969:2:91).

AnOa7W Kalaimanuia (O21w); inheritance as daughter of AnOa6 Kūkaniloko (O20w); and AnOa7b Lupe Kapukeahomakali`i (O21k).

This and the previous four reigns were apparently peaceful and prosperous in the main (Fornander 1969:2:89–91). According to Fornander, Kalaimanuia’s husband, Lupe Kapukeahomakali`i, was “a wise and kind man, who frequently accompanied his royal spouse on the customary circuits of inspection of the island, and assisted her in the government and administration of justice” (269–270).

AnOa8 Kū-a-Manuia (O22k); inheritance as son of AnOa7W Kalaimanuia (O21w).

Before her death, Kalaimanuia divided her realm among her three sons and a daughter as follows:

  1. 1. AnOa8 Kū-a-Manuia (O22k) inherited the title of ali`i nui and direct control of Kona and Ko`olaupoko districts.

  2. 2. Hao (O22k) inherited `Ewa and Wai`anae districts.

  3. 3. Kekela (O22w), the daughter, inherited control of Waialua and Ko`olauloa districts.

  4. (p.271) 4. AnOa9 Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia (O22k) inherited “the charge of the tabus, the religious culte, and her family gods, ‘Kukalani’ and ‘Kuhooneenuu’; and for his maintenance … the lands of Kalauao, Aiea, Halawa, and Moanalua” (Fornander 1969:2:270).

In the mo`olelo, AnOa8 Kū-a-Manuia (O22k) is depicted as an oppressive and greedy chief who tried to gain direct control of the whole island by attacking his brother, Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia. The latter, with Hao’s aid, counterattacked and killed Kū-a-Manuia.

AnOa9 Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia (O22k); usurpation.

Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia, though generally known as a good ruler, killed his brother, Hao (022k), together with a large number of followers and retainers. According to mo`olelo, the motive was fear or envy of Hao’s wealth. Hao’s son, Napulanahu-mahiki (O23k) escaped death, retained control of Wai`anae district, and by marrying his aunt Kekela (O22w), added Waialua and Koolauloa districts to his realm. Thus, until the death of Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia, who still held `Ewa, Kona, and Ko`olaupoko districts, O`ahu was divided into two polities (Fornander 1969:2:271–272).

AnOa10 Kākuhihewa (O23k); inheritance as son of AnOa9 Ka`ihikapu-a-Manuia (O22k).

Kākuhihewa made peace with Napulanahu-mahiki (O23k) and married his daughter Kaea-a-Kalona (O24w), thus reunifying the entire island under a single ali`i nui.

AnOa11 Kānekapu-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k); inheritance as eldest son of AnOa10 Kākuhihewa (O23k).

Though Kānekapu-a-Kākuhihewa was acknowledged ali`i nui, the island was divided into three units, directly controlled by Kānekapu-a-Kākuhihewa, his brother, Kaihikapu-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k), and his half-brother, Kauakahinui-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k) (Fornander 1969:2:274–276).

AnOa12 Kaho`owahaokalani (O25k); inheritance as son of AnOa11 Kānekapu-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k).

The island was apparently reunited under Kaho`owahaokalani’s rule.

AnOa13 Kauakahi-a-Kaho`owaha (O26k); inheritance as son of AnOa12 Kaho`owahaokalani (O25k).

According to Fornander (1969:2:277), the kapu moe or prostrating kapu was introduced on O`ahu during the reign of Kauakahi-a-Kaho`owaha, after it had been (p.272) observed on Kaua`i during the reign of AnKa14 Kawelomakualua (K25k). This custom was later introduced on Maui from O`ahu in the time of AnMa14 Kekaulike (M28k).

During the reign of Kauakahi-a-Kaho`owaha, chiefs of the constituent O`ahu districts were becoming increasingly independent.

AnOa14 Kūali`i (O27k); inheritance as son of AnOa13 Kauakahi-a-Kaho`owaha (O26k).

Kūali`i strengthened the office of ali`i nui and reunified the island. His first step was to perform a ceremony at Kawaluna Heiau, in Kona district. This annual ceremony was traditionally performed by the highest ranked chief of O`ahu. The Kona chiefs were evidently opposed to Kūali`i’s exercise of this prerogative because they considered Kūali`i to be a Ko`olaupoko chief. After the ceremony, Kūali`i’s forces defeated the Kona army that had gathered, and the Kona chiefs recognized him as ruler.

Following Kūali`i’s defeat of the forces of `Ewa and Waialua districts, his control of the whole island seemed secure, but a little later he had to return from a raiding expedition on Hawai`i to put down a rebellion by `Ewa and Wai`anae chiefs.

Later, he aided the chiefs of Kona district, Moloka`i, in their dispute over fishing grounds claimed by Kona but encroached on by chiefs of that island’s Ko`olau district. With the aid of Kūali`i’s army, the Kona chiefs defeated those of Ko`olau in a battle on Kalaupapa peninsula, after which Kūali`i returned to O`ahu.

During his reign, Kūali`i obtained control of Kona district, Kaua`i. The manner of acquisition is not specified, but conquest is unlikely, since traditional accounts mention no battles. Possibly he inherited rights to the district through his paternal grandmother, Kawelo-lauhuki (K25w) (Fornander 1969:2:280–282, 293–294).

AnOa15 Kapiohookalani (O28k); inheritance as son of AnOa14 Kūali`i (O27k).

Kapiohookalani died during his attempted conquest of Moloka`i. His army was defeated by that of AnHa21 Alapa`inui (H28k), which had come from Maui to aid the Moloka`i chiefs.

AnOa16 Peleiōhōlani (O28k); inheritance as brother of AnOa15 Kapiohookalani (O28k).

Taking advantage of his victory over the forces of Kapiohookalani, AnHa21 Alapa`inui (H28k) attacked O`ahu. Notified of this turn of events by a messenger, Peleiōhōlani returned to O`ahu from Kaua`i (where he ruled Kona district) and took command of the O`ahu forces in the name of Kanahaokalani (O29k), Kapiohookalani’s young son. A truce was arranged, and Alapa`inui left O`ahu in peace. Kanahaokalani died soon thereafter, leaving Peleiōhōlani ali`i nui of O`ahu.

(p.273) Responding to a request by AnMa16 Kauhi (M29k), Peleiōhōlani then sailed to Maui to aid him in his war against the forces of AnMa15P/17P Kamehamehanui (M29k) and his ally Alapa`inui of Hawai`i. After Kauhi’s death, Peleiōhōlani met with Alapa`inui once again, and both agreed to return to their respective islands in peace (Fornander 1969:2:137–141).

The mo`olelo indicate that Peleiōhōlani stopped at Moloka`i on his way to O`ahu and “is said to have brought the Ko`olau chiefs to acknowledge him as their sovereign, though their subjection was neither very thorough nor lasting” (Fornander 1969:2:289). Sometime later, Moloka`i chiefs killed Ke`elanihonuaiakama (O29w), Peleiōhōlani’s daughter. Peleiōhōlani retaliated by conquering Moloka`i and killing and exiling several chiefs. Peleiōhōlani died about 1780.

AnOa17 Kūmahana (O29k); inheritance as son of AnOa16 Peleiōhōlani (O28k).

According to Fornander, Kūmahana was “an indolent, penurious, unlovable chief” (1969:2:290). He was deposed by the O`ahu chiefs’ council, and since he lacked supporters, no lives were lost. He was allowed to exile himself at Waimea, Kaua`i.

AnOa18 Kahahana (O29k); selected and installed by the council of O`ahu chiefs.

The short reign of Kahahana is described above in the entry on AnMa18P Kahekili (M29k). Kahahana was killed around 1783, after Kahekili’s conquest of O`ahu and Moloka`i. See also the entry on AnMa19a Kalanikūpule (M30k) and AnMa19b Kā`eokūlani (M29k) for the subsequent history of O`ahu.

Kaua` i

AnKa1 Ahukini-a-La`a (K12k); unknown.

Ahukini-a-La`a was a son of La`amaikahiki (G11k), who lived at the end of the late voyaging era.

AnKa2 Kamahano (K13k); inheritance as son of AnKa1 Ahukini-a-La`a (K12k).

AnKa3 Luanu`u (K14k); inheritance as son of AnKa2 Kamahano (K13k).

AnKa4 Kūkona (K15k); inheritance as son of AnKa3 Luanu`u (K14k).

Kūkona ended AnHa5 Kalaunuiohua’s (H15k) military expedition by capturing him when he landed on Kaua`i.

AnKa5 Manokalanipō (K16k); inheritance as son of AnKa4 Kūkona (K15k). (p.274)

Manokalanipō is said to have administered the expansion of irrigated field systems (Fornander 1969:2:93).

AnKa6 Kaumaka`a-a-mano (K17k); inheritance as son of AnKa5 Manokalanipō (K16k).

AnKa7 Kahakuakane (K18k); inheritance as son of AnKa6 Kaumaka`a-a-mano (K17k).

AnKa8 Kuwalupaukamoku (K19k); inheritance as son of AnKa7 Kahakuakane (K18k).

AnKa9 Kahakumakapaweo (K20k); inheritance as son of AnKa8 Kuwalupaukamoku (K19k).

AnKa10 Kalanikukuma (K21k); inheritance as son of AnKa9 Kahakumakapaweo (K20k).

AnKa11 Kahakumakaliua (K22k); inheritance as son of AnKa10 Kalanikukuma (K21k).

Ni`ihau appears to have been annexed by Kaua`i about this time.

AnKa12 Kamakapu (K23k); inheritance as son of AnKa11 Kahakumakaliua (K22k).

AnKa13 Kawelomahamahai`a (K24k); inheritance as son of AnKa12 Kamakapu (K23k).

AnKa14 Kawelomakualua (K25k); inheritance as son of AnKa13 Kawelomahamahai`a (K24k).

AnKa15P Kawelo`aikanaka (K26k); inheritance as son of AnKa14P Kawelomakualua (K26k).

Kawelo`aikanaka was one of nī`aupi`o-rank twins; his parents were full siblings.

AnKa16 Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i (K25k); usurpation.

Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i was forced to leave Kaua`i by his cousin, AnKa15P Kawelo`aikanaka (K26k), for some unspecified reason. Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i fled to O`ahu, possibly finding refuge with Kaihikapu-a-Kākuhihewa (O24k) in `Ewa district. Later, Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i attacked his cousin, apparently with the aid of men and canoes provided by O`ahu chiefs. Kawelo`aikanaka was killed, and Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i replaced him.

(p.275) Interim

After the death of AnKa16 Kawelo-a-Maihunali`i (K25k), AnOa14 Kūali`i (O27k) extended his control to at least Kauai’s Kona district and possibly the entire island and sent his son, AnOa16 Peleiōhōlani (O28k) to be his viceroy there (Fornander 1969:2:281–282, 295–296). Fornander (293) suggests that direct control of Kona district may have been inherited by the descendants of Ilihiwalani (K22k), the younger brother of AnKa11 Kahakumakaliua (K22k). This junior line includes Kauihi-a-Hiwa (K23k), Kāneiahaka (K24w), Kauakahilau (K25k), his sister, Kapulauki (K25w), and Kuluina (K26w).

The Kaua`i-born chief of Kona who appears to have been Peleiōhōlani’s contemporary was Lonoikalaupu (K27k), the son of Kuluina and her uncle-husband Kauakahilau. It is known that Lonoikalaupu’s son, Kaumehe`iwa (K28k), married Ka`apuwai (O29w), Peleiōhōlani’s daughter. It is possible that Peleiōhōlani and/or Kūali`i also had wives from Kaua`i and that these alliances resulted in the transfer of political control of part or all of Kaua`i to the O`ahu chiefs. As noted earlier, similar genealogical connections may also have been indicated by the fact that Kūali`i’s paternal grandmother, Kawelo-lauhuki (K25w), was a Kaua`i chief (Fornander 1969:2:293–297).

After AnHa21Alapa`inui (H28k) invaded and departed from O`ahu and Kanahaokalani (O19–6k) died, Peleiōhōlani apparently established residence on O`ahu as ali`i nui. Though AnOa17 Kūmahana (O29k) fled to Kaua`i when he was deposed, he did not rule the island.

AnKa17aW Kamakahelei (K29w); inheritance as daughter of Kaumehe`iwa (K28k) and Peleiōhōlani’s daughter, Ka`apuwai (O29w) andAnKa17b Kā`eokūlani (M29k; AnMa19b); acquisition of power as husband of AnKa17a Kamakahelei (K29w).

Kamakahelei may have ruled Kaua`i for 10 or more years after Peleiōhōlani’s departure. By the early 1780s, however, Kā`eokūlani, younger brother of AnMal8 Kahekili (M29k) had apparently become at least a coruler with Kamakahelei, and may have been the de facto ali`i nui, perhaps as regent for his son, AnKa18 Kaumuali`i (Kuykendall 1968:48).

Kā`eokūlani left Kaua`i in 1791 to aid his brother Kahekili militarily and in 1794 died on O`ahu in a battle with AnMa19a Kalanikūpule (M30k).

AnKa18 Kaumuali`i (K30-3k); inheritance as son of AnKa17a Kamakahelei (K29w) and AnKa17b Kā`eokūlani (M29k; AnMa19b).

Kaumuali`i came to power in 1794 with the death of Kā`eokūlani and of Inamo`o, the chief that Kā`eokūlani had appointed regent when he left Kaua`i in 1791.

(p.276) AnKa19 Keawe (K30k); usurpation.

In 1796, Keawe led a revolt against AnKa18 Kaumuali`i (K30k), from which he emerged ali` i nui (Kuykendall 1968:48).

AnKa20 Kaumuali`i (K30k); restoration.

Within a year or two of Kaumuali`i’s deposition, AnKa19 Keawe (K30k) died, and Kaumuali`i returned to power (Kuykendall 1968:48). The year 1810 is widely accepted as the year when Kamehameha completed the consolidation of his kingdom by annexing the island of Kaua`i. Peter Mills (2002a) argues persuasively with a review of the subsequent 14 years, including Kaumuali`i’s retention of Kaua`i’s rulership, his alliances with various foreigners, and his continued refusal to send tribute to Kamehameha, that the Kaua`i kingdom did not yield its sovereignty until 1824, soon after Kaumuali`i’s death and five years after the death of Kamehameha.