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Music & the British Military in the Long Nineteenth Century$

Trevor Herbert and Helen Barlow

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199898312

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199898312.001.0001

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(p.302) Appendix 4 Indicative List of Band Instrumentations in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

(p.302) Appendix 4 Indicative List of Band Instrumentations in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Source:
Music & the British Military in the Long Nineteenth Century
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

There was no standard instrumentation for military bands in the period of this book, and music manuscripts and photographs of bands confirm the variety of instrumentations used. The elite bands of the London Guards could probably achieve the instrumental line-ups that their bandmasters required, but in other places all manner of expediencies intervened and it was expected that bandmasters would make the best use of the resources at their disposal.

Appendix 2 gives an indicative list of published repertoire from around 1800, but it reveals no standard formulation, and instrumentations given in such publications seldom match those found in inventories. From these and similar sources we can conclude that published music was adapted for the forces at hand.

Photographs of bands from the second half of the century, interesting through they are, have been ignored for our purposes here, because while they cast light on instruments owned by bands, they reveal less about the instrumentations carried in scores. This same point could be made about the first of the categories given below (lists of instruments in early documents), but in the absence of other sources, such information is especially helpful.

The list is made up of four types of source, each of which has to be viewed with an element of caution:

  1. 1. Early nineteenth-century archival or secondary sources that quote information which suggests instrumentation. These sources are usually restricted to information about the purchase and discarding of instruments, and relevant payment inventories. Only a few inventories actually list the instruments that were in use at the time the source was created.

  2. (p.303) 2. Military band journal publications. Editorial control of these commercial journal publications was almost always in the hands of military bandmasters. While the instrumentation looks impressive, it should be pointed out that several parts doubled each other, and it is likely that bands mixed and matched the parts to suit their resources.

  3. 3. Instrumentations found in nineteenth-century scores of arrangements for military band. Most of these are from the archives of the Royal Military School of Music and originated as instrumentation exercises by student bandmasters. These are good indicators of the formulations that these young musicians favoured, and they were probably performed by the band at Kneller Hall.

  4. 4. Extracts from reliable didactic and reference publications that recommend or cite information about instrumentation. These include extracts from writings by Charles Mandel, Jacob Kappey and George Miller which were influential on actual practice. A final section gives extracts from the instrumentations included in Kappey’s ‘Wind Band’ entry for the first edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians.

Early Lists of Instruments

1793. Instrumentation of the West Middlesex Militia Band, given in a letter from W. J. Matham, an innkeeper from Levenham, Suffolk, 2 July 1793. (Quoted in J. C. Leask and H. M. McCance, The Regimental Records of the Royal Scots [Dublin: Alexander Thom and Co., Ltd., 1915], 709)

  • 5 Clarinets

  • 2 French Horns

  • 1 Bugle Horn

  • 1 Trumpet

  • 2 Bassoons

  • Bass drum

  • Triangles (‘played by boys of nine years old’)

  • Tambourines (played by ‘Mulattos’)

  • Clashpans [Cymbals] (played ‘by a real black-a-moor’)

1799. Instrumentation by ‘Mr Busby’ from his ‘The Field of Honor’, one of the pieces distributed within the monthly publication The British Military Library. Though most of such items are by Busby, the instrumentation varies slightly from month to month. (The British Military Library or Journal, comprehending and consisting of original communications with Selections from the most approved and respectable foreign military publications, no. 1 [Carpenter and Sons, Dublin: 1799])

  • 2 Flutes

  • 2 Horns

  • (p.304) 2 Trumpets

  • 2 Clarinets

  • Serpent

  • Bassoon

  • Piano forte (condensed score)

c. 1805. Scots Guards Band, from a letter probably written by Captain C. A. Quist of the Royal Artillery. (Quoted in Henry George Farmer, ‘The Scots Guards Band’, Handel’s Kettledrums and Other Papers on Military Music [London: Hinrichsen, 1950], 4)

  • 1 Small Flute

  • 3 Hautboys

  • 1 Small Clarinett

  • 6 ‘Grand Clarinetts’

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 3 Trombones

  • 2 Trumpets

  • 2 French Horns

  • 1 Serpent

  • 1 Bass Horn

  • Drums, Tambourine and Cymbals

1814. Band of the Shropshire Regiment of Militia (Shropshire Archive, reference number 586/5)

  • 6 Flutes

  • 7 Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 1 Horn

  • 1 Bugle

  • 1 Serpent

  • 1 Bass Horn

  • 1 Trombone

  • Bass drum, kettle drum, cymbals, tambourine, triangle

1830. Article in The Harmonicon giving the instrumentation for the Duke of York’s March. The name of the band which performed it is not given, but the article, titled ‘On Flutes and Piccolos’, is by John Parry, a former master of the Denbigh Militia Band. (Instrumentation below is in score order.) (The Harmonicon, July 1830, 281)

  • B 〈flat〉

  • F 〈flat〉

  • (p.305) Concert Flute

  • Oboe

  • 2 Horns in E b

  • 2 Trumpets in E b

  • F Trombone [written at pitch]

  • 2 B b Clarinets

  • Bassoon

  • Serpent

1833. A letter dated 7 October 1833, from the Colonel of the Dorset Militia, citing advice provided by an unnamed regimental bandmaster on what the instrumentation for a band of eleven should be. (Dorset History Centre, D/DOY:A.3/7/2)

  • 3 Keyed Bugles

  • 2 Valved Trumpets

  • 2 Concert Trumpets

  • 1 Bass Horn

  • 1 Tenor Trombone

  • 1 Bass Trombone

  • Pair of Kettle Drums

1835. South Cork [Militia Band]. (Inventory of Regimental Stores, 28 September 1835. National Archive of Ireland, OP/1837/174)

  • 4 Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 4 Kent Bugles

  • 2 French Horns

  • 1 Bass Horn

  • 1 Trombone

  • 1 Serpent

  • Bass Drum

  • [‘7 Field Bugles’ also included in the inventory]

Journal publications

Boosey’s Military Journal, 1848, 5th series (GB Lbl h.1549)

  • 86th series, February 1889

  • 1st Clarinet in B b

  • 2nd Clarinet in B b

  • (p.306) 3rd Clarinet in B b

  • 1st Clarinet in E b

  • 2nd Clarinet in E b

  • Clarinet in E b Alto

  • 1st Bassoon or Bass Clarinet in B b

  • 2nd Bassoon or Bass Clarinet in B b

  • 1st and 2nd Horn in E b

  • 3rd and 4th Horn in E b

  • Basses

  • Euphonion

  • 1st Tenor Trombone

  • 2nd Tenor Trombone

  • Bass Trombone

  • 1st Trumpet in E b

  • 2nd Trumpet in E b

  • 1st Cornet in B b

  • 2nd Cornet in B b

  • Flute & Piccolo

  • Oboes or Clarinets in C

  • Baritone in B b

  • Drums

1878. Boosé’s Supplemental Journal (previously Jullien’s Military Journal), no. 292, August 1878 (GB Lbl h.1544)

  • 1st Clarinet B b

  • 2nd Clarinet B b

  • 3rd Clarinet B b

  • Oboes or clarinets in C (2 parts on the same sheet)

  • 1st Clarinet in E b

  • 2nd Clarinet in E b

  • Clarinet in E b Alto

  • 1st Bassoon or Bass Clarinet in B b

  • 2nd Bassoon or Bass Clarinet in B b

  • 1st and 2nd Horns in E b (2 parts on the same sheet)

  • 3rd and 4th Horns in E b (2 parts on the same sheet)

  • Basses

  • 1st Tenor Trombone

  • 2nd Tenor Trombone

  • Bass Trombone

  • 1st Trumpet in E b

  • 2nd Trumpet in E b

  • 1st Cornet in B b

  • (p.307) 2nd Cornet in B b

  • Flute and Piccolo

  • Althorn in B b

  • Euphonion [in C]

  • Drums

Kneller Hall student bandmaster exercises

1865. Overture, The Merry Wives of Windsor, by Otto Nicolai, arr. W. Winterbottom (1865), Kneller Hall (KH) cat. U58

  • Piccolo E b

  • Flute

  • Clarinets E b

  • Clarinet [Clarinetts] Solo B b

  • 1st Clarinets B b

  • 2nd Clarinets B b

  • 3rd & 4th Clarinets B b

  • Oboes

  • 1st Piston B b

  • 2nd Piston B b

  • Flugelhorn B b

  • Trumpets F

  • Sax Alto E b

  • Saxophone E b

  • Althorn B b

  • 1st & 2nd Horn F

  • 3rd & 4th Horn F

  • 1st Trombone

  • 2nd Trombone

  • 3rd Trombone

  • 1st & 2nd Bassoon

  • 1st Euphonium

  • 2nd Euphonium

  • Bass

  • Drums etc.

1883. A Faust Overture, by Richard Wagner, arr. H. van der Höhe? (1883), KH cat.

  • U71

  • Piccolo

  • Flute

  • Oboes

  • (p.308) Clarinets B

  • Bassoons (1st & 2nd; 3rd)

  • Horns F

  • Horns D

  • Trumpets F

  • Trombones (1st & 2nd; 3rd)

  • Tuba

  • Timpani D, A

  • 1st Violin

  • 2nd Violin

  • Viola

  • Cello

  • Contrabass

1895. Overture ‘Achilles’, by E. C. Stretton (1895), KH cat. U82

  • Flute & Piccolo E b

  • Clarinets E b (1st; 2nd)

  • Oboes

  • Clarinets B b (1st; 2nd; 3rd)

  • Alto Clarinet E b

  • Bassoons (1st; 2nd)

  • Horns F (1st & 2nd; 3rd & 4th)

  • Cornets B b (1st; 2nd)

  • Baritone

  • Trumpets F

  • Trombones (1st; 2nd; 3rd)

  • Euphonium

  • Basses

  • Timpani F, C, G

1907. Fifth Symphony, 3rd movement, Valse, by Tchaikovsky, arr. J. Brady, Student RMSM (1907), KH cat. U78

  • Flute & Piccolo D b

  • Clarinets E b (1st; 2nd)

  • Oboes

  • Clarinets B b (1st; 2nd; 3rd)

  • Tenor Clarinets & Saxophone E b

  • Bassoons (1st; 2nd)

  • Horns F (1st & 2nd; 3rd & 4th)

  • Cornets B b (1st; 2nd)

  • (p.309) Baritone B b

  • Trumpets F

  • Trombones B b (1st; 2nd)

  • Bass Trombone

  • Euphonium

  • Basses

  • Drums etc.

Arrangements by William Winterbottom, bandmaster of the Royal Marines

1862–68. Instrumentation used generally, but not consistently, by William Winterbottom in two volumes of arrangements. The thirty melodic parts scored here do not, of course, suggest that there were just thirty players; for example, if all else that one reads in the literature is correct, the clarinet parts would have been at least doubled. (Royal College of Music, London, RCM MS 2286 and 2287)

  • Flute doubling piccolo

  • 2 Clarinets in E b

  • Clarinet 1 in B b

  • Clarinet 2, 3 and 4 (separate parts) also in B b

  • Oboe 1 and 2

  • Piston [cornet] 1 and 2 in B b

  • Flugelhorn in B b

  • Trumpet 1 and 2 in E b

  • Sax alto [tenor horn] E b

  • Saxophone E b

  • Saxophone B b

  • Horn 1, 2, 3 and 4 in E b

  • Trombone 1, 2 and 3

  • Bassoon 1 and 2

  • Euphonium 1 and 2

  • Basso

  • Drums

Late nineteenth-century didactic manuals and reference works

1869. Instrumentations formulated by Charles Mandel when director of music at the Military School of Music, Kneller Hall. He provided five suggested line-ups for bands of between twelve and one hundred performers. (Charles Mandel, Mandel’s System of Music [London: Boosey & Co, n.d., probably 1865–69], 25)

(p.310) For 12 performers

  • 1 Flauto or Piccolo

  • 1 E b Clarionet 1 Solo B b Clarionet

  • One 1st, one 2nd and one 3rd B b Clarionets

  • 1 Bassoon

  • 1 Cornet

  • 1 E b Tenorhorn

  • 1 B b Baritone

  • Drum

  • [String] Bass

For 30 performers

  • 1 Flauto or Piccolo

  • 1 Oboe

  • 1 E b Clarionet

  • 1 Solo B b Clarionet

  • Three 1st, two 2nd and one 3rd B b Clarionets

  • 1 Alto Clarionet

  • 1 Bass Clarionet

  • 1 Saxophone

  • 1 Sarrusophone

  • Two 1st French Horns

  • Two 2nd French Horns

  • One 1st Cornet

  • One 2nd Cornet

  • 1 E b Tenorhorn

  • 1 B b Baritone

  • 1 Bassoon

  • Two 1st Trumpets

  • Two 2nd Trumpets

  • 3 Trombones in parts

  • Drum

  • [String] Bass

Mandel’s instrumentation for forty performers increases the doublings on several parts, especially the clarinets, but also includes four sarrusophones (soprano, alto, tenor and bass).

1886. Instrumentation of bands of English line regiments (Jacob Kappey, ‘Wind-Band’, in Charles Grove, ed., Dictionary of Music and Musicians (AD1450–1889) by Eminent Writers [London: Macmillan, 1878–89])

  • (p.311) 1 Piccolo

  • 1 Flute

  • 1 or 2 Oboes (C-Clarinets?)

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • From 8 to 10 B b Clarinets (3 parts)

  • 1 Alto Clarinet

  • 2 Bassoons (or Bass Clarinets)

  • 4 Horns in E b

  • 2 Cornets in B b

  • 2 Trumpets in E b

  • 1 or 2 Baritones in B b

  • 1 or 2 Euphoniums in B b

  • 2 Tenor Trombones in B b

  • 1 Bass Trombone in G

  • 2 or 3 Bombardons in E b

  • 1 Contrabass in B b (?)

  • Side and Bass Drum with Cymbals

1912. ‘Foundation Band’ recommended by George Miller of the Royal Marines, by which he meant the core ensemble to which other instruments might be added. (George Miller, The Military Band [London: Novello and Company, 1912], 65)

  • 1 Flute or Piccolo

  • 1 Oboe

  • 1 E b Clarinet

  • 2 Solo B b Clarinets

  • 2 Ripieno B b Clarinets

  • 2 Second B b Clarinets

  • 2 Third B b Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 3 B b Trumpets or Cornets

  • 3 Trombones

  • 3 B b Cornets or Flugel-Horns

  • 2 French Horns

  • 1 Euphonium

  • 3 Basses (including one string bass)

  • Drums

Foreign bands

1886 (and earlier). Instrumentations of foreign bands given by Jacob Kappey. He expressed indebtedness for much of the information to A. Kalkbrenner’s Die (p.312) Organisation der Musikchöre aller Länder (1884). (Jacob Kappey, Military Music: A Short History of Wind-Instrumental Bands [London: Boosey and Co., n.d. (1894)], 90–93)

Prussia: Wieprecht’s Reformed Military Band

  • 2 Flutes

  • 2 Oboes

  • 1 A b (high) Clarinet

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • 8 B b Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 2 Contrabassoons

  • 2 Tenor Trombones

  • 2 Bass Trombones

  • 2 Soprano Cornetts in E b

  • 2 Altocornets in B b

  • 2 Tenor Horns in B b

  • 1 Bariton Tuba (Euphonium)

  • 4 Bass Tubas (Bombardones)

  • 4 Trumpets

  • 4 French Horns

  • 2 Side Drums, Bass Drum, Cymbals and Crescent

  • (47 men in all)

Prussia: Wieprecht’s Cavalry Band

  • 1 Cornettino in B b

  • 2 Cornettos in E b

  • 4 Cornets in B b

  • 2 Tenor Horns

  • 8 Trumpets

  • 1 Euphonium

  • 3 Bombardones

  • (21 men in all)

Prussia: Wieprecht’s Artillery Band

  • 3 Cornettinos in B b

  • 3 Cornettos in E b

  • 6 Cornets in B b

  • 6 Tenor Horns

  • 3 Euphoniums

  • 12 Trumpets

  • (p.313) 6 Tubas (Bombardones)

  • (39 men in all)

Prussia: Wieprecht’s Light Infantry (Jager) Band

  • 1 Cornettino in B b

  • 2 Cornettos in E b

  • 4 Cornets in B b

  • 2 Tenor Horns

  • 4 French Horns

  • 3 Trumpets

  • 2 Euphoniums

  • 3 Bombardones

Austrian Infantry Band 1860

  • 1 Piccolo

  • 1 high A b Clarinet

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • 4 B b Clarinets

  • 2 Cornettinos (B b)

  • 2 Cornettos (E b)

  • 2 Cornets (B b)

  • 2 Tenor Horns

  • 2 Euphoniums

  • 4 Bombardons

  • 4 Trumpets

  • 2 French Horns

  • 2 Tenor Trombones

  • 2 Bass Trombones

  • 1 Side and 1 Bass Drum and one pair of Cymbals

  • (35 men in all)

Austrian Infantry Band 1886

  • 1 Piccolo in E b

  • 1 Flute

  • 1 High A b Clarinet

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • 8 B b Clarinets (in 4 parts)

  • 4 Horns (E b)

  • 2 First Flügel Horns

  • 2 Second ditto

  • (p.314) 2 ditto B b Bass (or Tenor Horns)

  • 2 Euphoniums

  • 10 Trumpets E b (in 4 or 5 parts)

  • 2 Bass Trumpets (B b)

  • 3 Bombardons in F

  • 3 Tubas in E b, C, or Contra B b

  • 2 Side and 1 Bass Drum and Cymbals

  • (47 men in all)

French Infantry Band 1860

  • 2 Flutes

  • 2 Piccolos

  • 4 Clarinets

  • 2 Oboes

  • 2 Saxophones soprano

  • 2 Do. alto

  • 2 Do. tenor

  • 2 Do. bariton

  • 2 Cornets à pistons

  • 2 Trumpets (cylinder)

  • 3 Trombones

  • 2 Saxhorns B b alto

  • 3 Saxtromba E b

  • 3 Do. bass in B b (4 cylinders)

  • 1 Do. contrabass in E b

  • 1 Do. contrabass in B b

  • Side and Bass Drums and Cymbals

French Infantry Band 1884

  • 2 Piccolos in E b

  • 1 Flute in D (concert)

  • 2 Oboes

  • 1 E b Clarinet

  • 4 B b Clarinets

  • 1 Saxophone soprano

  • 1 Do. alto

  • 1 Do. tenor

  • 1 Do. baritone

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 1 Petit Bugle in E b

  • 2 Pistons in B b

  • (p.315) 2 Bugles in B b

  • 2 Horns in E b

  • 2 Trumpets in E b

  • 3 Altos in E b

  • 2 Barytones in B b

  • 3 Trombones

  • Bass in B b (Euphonium)

  • Contrabass in E b

  • Do. in B b

  • Drums and Cymbals

Spain 1884

  • 1 Piccolo in E b (D b)

  • 1 Flute in E b

  • 1 E b Clarinet

  • 10 B b Clarinets

  • 2 Saxophones soprano in B b

  • 2 Do. alto in E b

  • 2 Do. tenor in B b

  • 2 Do. bass in C

  • 2 Flügelhorns in B b

  • 4 Cornets in B b

  • 3 Trumpets in E b

  • 2 French Horns

  • 4 Tenor Trombones in C

  • 1 Bass Trombone in F

  • 2 Euphoniums in B b

  • 2 Bombardons in E b

  • 2 Tubas in C

  • 1 Tuba (Contra F)

  • 1 high (shallow Side Drum)

  • 1 Do. (long, old pattern)

  • 1 Bass Drum

  • 1 Cymbals

  • 1 Lyra (Glockenspiel)

  • (To which are added, for various instruments, 10 pupils under training.)

Spain (the three marine divisions) 1894

  • 1 Piccolo

  • 2 Flutes

  • 2 Oboes

  • (p.316) 1 Clarinette in high A b

  • 2 Clarinettes in E b

  • 10 Clarinettes in B b

  • 2 Bass Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 2 Contrafagotts

  • 1 Serpent

  • 8 Saxophones (2 Soprano, 2 Altos, 2 Tenors, and 2 Bass)

  • 4 Cornets in B b

  • 4 Flügelhorns in B b

  • 4 Trumpets in E b

  • 4 Horns in E b

  • 2 Alto Trombones in E b

  • 2 Tenor Trombones in B b

  • 2 Bass Trombones in E b

  • 2 Althorns in E b

  • 2 Baritons in B b

  • 2 Euphonions

  • 2 Bombardones in E b

  • 1 Contra Bombardone in B b

  • 1 Lyre and Triangle

  • 3 pairs of Cymbals

  • 1 Side Drum

  • 1 Tenor Drum

  • 1 Bass Drum

Japan 1886

  • 2 Flutes

  • 1 Oboe

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • 8 B b Clarinets

  • 4 Saxophones in B b

  • 4 Do. in E b

  • 2 Do. in B (bass)

  • 2 Baritones in B b

  • 3 Cornets in B b

  • 2 Trumpets in E b

  • 3 Trombones

  • 4 Euphoniums

  • 2 Bombardones in E b

  • 2 Contrabasses in B b

  • And 2 Drums, with Cymbals

(p.317) Germany 1884

  • Piccolo and Flute in D b

  • 2 Oboes

  • 1 A b Clarinet

  • 2 E b Clarinets

  • 8 B b Clarinets

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 2 Flugelhorns

  • 2 Alt. Cornets in E b

  • 4 Trumpets

  • 4 Horns

  • 1 Bariton (Euphonion)

  • 2 Althorns (Baritons)

  • 4 Trombones

  • 3 Bombardones

  • 3 Percussion instruments, and very frequently one or two contrafagottes

Russia 1884

  • 1 Piccolo, 1 Flute

  • 1 Clarinet in E b

  • 8 Clarinets in B b

  • 2 Bassethorns (alto Clarinets)

  • 4 to 7 Trumpets in E b

  • 2 Flügelhorns

  • 3 Trombones

  • 4 Horns

  • 2 Euphonions

  • 2 Basses

  • 3 Percussion instruments

  • ‘The bands in the Russian Army vary greatly in instrumentation and strength.’

Italy 1884

  • 1 Piccolo, 1 Flute

  • 2 Oboes

  • 1 Clarinet in E b

  • 7 to 8 Clarinets in B b

  • 3 Saxophones, Soprano, Alto and Tenor

  • 1 Cornet in E b

  • 3 Cornets in B b

  • 2 Flügelhorns in B b

  • (p.318) 4 Trumpets in E b

  • 4 Horns in E b

  • 2 Baritones in B b

  • 2 Bassoons

  • 1 Contrafagott

  • 4 Trombones

  • 2 Euphonions

  • 2 Bombardones

  • Bells, and Timpani, Side, and Bass Drum, Cymbals and Triangle