Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
InfrastructureThe Social Value of Shared Resources$

Brett M. Frischmann

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199895656

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199895656.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.375) Bibliography

(p.375) Bibliography

Source:
Infrastructure
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aghion, Philippe, & Peter Howitt (1998), On the Macroeconomic Effects of Major Technological Change, in GENERAL PURPOSE TECHNOLOGIES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH (Elhanan Helpman ed.).

ALBERT, STEVEN, & KEITH BRADLEY (1997), MANAGING KNOWLEDGE: EXPERTS, AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS.

ALSTON, LEE J., THRÁINN EGGERTSSON, & DOUGLASS CECIL NORTH (1996), EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE.

ALTMAN, CHARLES F. (1989), THE AMERICAN FILM MUSICAL.

AMABILE, TERESA M. (1996), CREATIVITY IN CONTEXT.

American Society of Civil Engineers (2009), Report Card for American Infrastructure, available at http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/sites/default/files/RC2009_full_report.pdf.

Ammori, Marvin (forthcoming 2012), First Amendment Architecture, 2012(1) WISCONSIN L. REV.

Anderson, Nate (2007), Deep Packet Inspection Meets Net Neutrality, CALEA, Ars Technica, July 25, available at http://arstechnica.com/hardware/news/2007/07/Deep-packet-inspection-meets-net-neutrality.ars.

ANDERTON, ALAIN (2000), ECONOMICS (3d ed.).

Annals of Congress (1817–18).

Appropriate Framework for Broadband Access to the Internet over Wireline Facilities, Report and Order and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (2005), 20 FCC Rcd. 14853.

Armstrong, Mark, & John Vickers (2001), Competitive Price Discrimination, 32 RAND J. OF ECON. 579.

ARNOLD, ROGER A. (2008), ECONOMICS.

ARNOTT, RICHARD (2001), THE ECONOMIC THEORY OF URBAN TRAFFIC CONGESTION: A MICROSCOPIC RESEARCH AGENDA.

(p.376) Arrow, Kenneth (1962), Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Inventions, in THE RATE AND DIRECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY (R. R. Nelson ed.).

Arrow, Kenneth J. (1970), The Organization of Economic Activity: Issues Pertinent to the Choice of Market Versus Nonmarket Allocation, in PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND POLICY ANALYSIS (Robert H. Haveman & Julius Margolis eds.).

Arrow, Kenneth J. (1999), Observations on Social Capital, in SOCIAL CAPITAL: A MULTIFACETED PERSPECTIVE WASHINGTON: WORLD BANK 3 (P. Dasgupta & I. Serageldin eds.).

Aschauer, David Alan (2000), Public Capital and Economic Growth: Issues of Quantity, Finance, and Efficiency, 48(2) J. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE 391.

AT&T (n.d.), A Brief History: The Bell System, available at http://www.corp.att.com/history/history3.html.

Averch, Harvey, & Leland L. Johnson (1962), Behavior of the Firm under Regulatory Constraint, 52 AM. ECON. REV. 1052.

Aviram, Amitai (2003), A Network Effects Analysis of Private Ordering, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series 11079.

Baker, Edwin (2007), The Independent Significance of the Press Clause under Existing Law, 35 HOFSTRA L. REV. 955.

Baker, Edwin C. (1997), Giving the Audience What It Wants, 58 OHIO ST. L. J 311, 350–51.

Balkin, Jack (2004), Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: A Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society, 79 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1.

Balkin, Jack (2009), The Future of Free Expression in a Digital Age, 36 PEPPERDINE L. REV. 707.

Balvanera, Patricia, & Ravi Prabhu (2004), UN Millennium Project Task Force on Environmental Sustainability, Ecosystem Services: The Basis for Global Survival and Development, available at http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/TF6_IP2_Ecosystem.pdf.

BARNES, PETER (2006), CAPITALISM 3.0: A GUIDE TO RECLAIMING THE COMMONS.

Barnett, Jonathan M. (2004), Private Protection of Patentable Goods, 25 CARDOZO L. REV. 1251.

Barnett, Jonathan (2011), The Host’s Dilemma: Strategic Forfeiture in Platform Markets for Informational Goods, 124 HARVARD L. REV. 1861.

BARON, ROBERT A., & SCOTT A. SHANE (2008), ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A PROCESS PERSPECTIVE.

Barringer, Felicity (2011), Need a Ride? There Are Apps for That, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 20, available at http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/20/need-a-ride-theres-an-app-for-that.

Barron, Anne (2008), Copyright Infringement, “Free Riding” and the Lifeworld, London Sch. of Econ. & Pol. Sch., Law, Society and Economy Working Paper No. 17, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1272564.

BARSBY, A. W. (1997), PRIVATE ROADS: THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK (2d ed.).

Bassanini, Andrea, & Stefano Scarpetta (2001), The Driving Forces of Economic Growth: Panel Data Evidence for the OECD Countries, 33 OECD ECONOMIC STUDIES 9.

Bauer, Steven, & Peyman Faratin (2005), Analyzing Provider and User Incentives Under Congestion Pricing on the Internet, available at http://projects.csail.mit.edu/csw/2005/proceedings/bauer_csw05.pdf.

Baumol, W. J. (1990), Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and Destructive, 98(5) JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 893–921.

BAUMOL, WILLIAM J., & ALAN S. BLINDER (2009), ECONOMICS: PRINCIPLES AND POLICY.

Baumol, William J., & David F. Bradford (1970), Optimal Departures from Marginal Cost Pricing, 60 AM. ECON. REV. 265.

(p.377) BAUMOL, WILLIAM J., ROBERT LITAN, & CARL J. SCHRAMM (2007), GOOD CAPITALISM, BAD CAPITALISM, AND THE ECONOMICS OF GROWTH AND PROSPERITY.

Bayhing for Blood or Doling Out Cash? (2005), ECONOMIST, Dec. 24, at 109.

Becker, Mark J. (1998), Legislative History of the Communications Act of 1934, in TELECOMMUNICATIONS: LAW, REGULATION, AND POLICY 3, 5 (Walter Sapronov & William H. Read eds.).

Beito, David T. (1993), From Privies to Boulevards: The Private Supply of Infrastructure in the United States during the Nineteenth Century, in DEVELOPMENT BY CONSENT: THE VOLUNTARY SUPPLY OF PUBLIC GOODS AND SERVICES (Jerry Jenkins & David E. Sisk eds.), available at http://www.as.ua.edu/history/html/faculty/beitofromprivies.pdf.

Bell, Abraham, & Gideon Parchomovsky (2003), Of Property and Antiproperty, 102 MICH. L. REV. 1.

BENJAMIN, STUART MINOR, DOUGLAS LICHTMAN, & HOWARD A. SHELANSKI (2001), TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW AND POLICY.

BENJAMIN, STUART MINOR, DOUGLAS LICHTMAN, HOWARD A. SHELANSKI, & PHILLIP J. WEISER (2006), TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW AND POLICY, 2nd ed.

Benkler, Yochai (1998a), Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment, 11 HARV. J. L. & TECH. 287.

Benkler, Yochai (1998b), The Commons as a Neglected Factor of Information Policy, Remarks at the Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (September), at http://www.benkler.org/commons.pdf.

Benkler, Yochai (1999), Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain, 74 N.Y.U. L. REV. 354.

Benkler, Yochai (2000a), An Unhurried View of Private Ordering in Information Transactions, 53(6) VANDERBILT L. REV. 2063–80.

Benkler, Yochai (2000b), From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Towards Sustainable Commons and User Access, 52 FED. COMM. L. J. 561.

Benkler, Yochai (2001a), Property, Commons, and the First Amendment: Towards a Core Common Infrastructure, White Paper for the First Amendment Program, Brennan Center for Justice at NYU Law School, available at http://www.benkler.org/WhitePaper.pdf.

Benkler, Yochai (2001b), Siren Songs and Amish Children: Autonomy, Information, and Law, 76 N.Y.U. L. REV. 23.

Benkler, Yochai (2002), Some Economics of Wireless Communications, 16 HARV. J. L. & TECH. 25.

Benkler, Yochai (2003a), The Political Economy of Commons, 4(3) UPGRADE.

Benkler, Yochai (2003b), Lecture, Freedom in the Commons: Towards a Political Economy of Information, 52 DUKE L. J. 1245.

Benkler, Yochai (2004), Sharing Nicely, 114 YALE L. J. 273.

Benkler, Yochai (2006a), Coase’s Penguin, or, Linux and the Nature of the Firm, 112 YALE L. J. 369.

BENKLER, YOCHAI (2006b), THE WEALTH OF NETWORKS: HOW SOCIAL PRODUCTION TRANSFORMS MARKETS AND FREEDOM.

Benkler, Yochai (2011), Between Spanish Huertas and the Open Road: A Tale of Two Commons?, circulated for the Convening Cultural Commons conference at NYU, September 23–24.

Berkman Center for Internet & Society (2009), Next Generation Connectivity: A Review of Broadband Internet Transitions and Policy from Around the World, available at http://www.fcc.gov/stage/pdf/Berkman_Center_Broadband_Study_13Oct09.pdf.

Berry, S. Keith (1992), Ramsey Pricing in the Presence of Risk, 13(2) MANAGERIAL & DECISION ECON. 111.

(p.378) Bishop, Richard C. (2003), Where to from Here?, in A PRIMER ON NONMARKET VALUATION (Patricia A. Champ et al. eds.).

Bluemel, Erik B. (2005a), Accommodating Native American Cultural Activities on Federal Public Lands, 41 IDAHO L. REV. 475.

Bluemel, Erik B. (2005b), Prioritizing Multiple Uses on Public Lands after Bear Lodge, 32 B.C. ENVTL. AFF. L. REV. 365.

Blumenfeld, Jeffrey, & Christy C. Kunin (1998), Local Competition and Universal Service: New Solutions, Old Myths, in TELECOMMUNICATIONS: LAW, REGULATION, AND POLICY (Walter Sapronov & William H. Read eds.).

Blumenthal, Marjory S., & David D. Clark (2001), Rethinking the Design of the Internet: The End-to-End Arguments vs. the Brave New World, 1 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON INTERNET TECH. 70.

Bollier, David (2001), Public Assets, Private Profits: Reclaiming the American Commons in an Age of Market Enclosure, available at http://www.bollier.org/pdf/PA_Report.pdf.

BOLTER, WALTER G., JAMES W. MCCONNAUGHEY, & FRED J. KELSEY (1990), TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY FOR THE 1990S AND BEYOND.

Bontis, Nick (2005), National Intellectual Capital Index: The Benchmarking of Arab Countries, in INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FOR COMMUNITIES (Ahmed Bounfour & Leif Edvinsson eds.).

Bos, Dieter (2003), Regulation: Theory and Concepts, in INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK ON PRIVATIZATION 477 (David Parker & David S. Saal eds.).

Bourdieu, Pierre (1986), The Forms of Capital, in HANDBOOK OF THEORY AND RESEARCH FOR THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION 249 (J. Richardson ed.).

BOWES, MICHAEL D., & JOHN V. KRUTILLA (1989), MULTIPLE-USE MANAGEMENT: THE ECONOMICS OF PUBLIC FORESTLANDS.

BOYLE, JAMES (1996), SHAMANS, SOFTWARE, AND SPLEENS: LAW AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY.

Boyle, James (1997), A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net?, 47 DUKE L. J. 87.

Boyle, James (2003), The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain, 66 L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 33.

BOYLE, JAMES (2010), THE PUBLIC DOMAIN: ENCLOSING THE COMMONS OF THE MIND.

Bradner, Scott (2011), Eyes in Their Ankles: The Congressional View of Network Neutrality, Network World, Mar. 14, available at http://www.networkworld.com/columnists/2011/031411bradner.html

Branscomb, Lewis M., & James H. Keller (1996), Introduction, in CONVERGING INFRASTRUCTURES: INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION AND THE NATIONAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE (Lewis M. Branscomb & James H. Keller eds.).

Breen, John M. (2006), Modesty and Moralism: John Paul II, the Structures of Sin, and the Limits of Law—A Reply to Skeel & Stuntz (unpublished manuscript).

Brenner, Daniel (1998), LAW AND REGULATION OF COMMON CARRIERS IN THE COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY (2d ed.).

Brin, Sergey (2009), A Library to Last Forever, N.Y. TIMES, Oct. 9.

Broadband Access Grows 29 Percent, While Narrowband Declines, according to Nielsen//NetRatings, Nielsen//Netratings, Jan. 15, 2003, available at http://www.nielsen-online.com/pr/pr_030115.pdf.

(p.379) BROCK, GERALD W. (1981), THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY: THE DYNAMICS OF MARKET STRUCTURE.

BROWN, RICHARD E. (2010), BUSINESS ESSENTIALS FOR UTILITY ENGINEERS.

BROWN, STEPHEN J., & DAVID S. SIBLEY (1986), THE THEORY OF PUBLIC UTILITY PRICING.

Brown, Thomas C., & George L. Peterson (2003), Multiple Good Valuation, in A PRIMER ON NONMARKET VALUATION (Patricia A. Champ et al. eds.).

BROWN WEISS, EDITH (1989), IN FAIRNESS TO FUTURE GENERATIONS: INTERNATIONAL LAW, COMMON PATRIMONY, AND INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY.

Brown Weiss, Edith (1990), What Obligation Does Our Generation Owe to the Next? An Approach to Global Environmental Responsibility: Our Rights and Obligations to Future Generations for the Environment, 84 AM. J. INT’L. L. 198.

Brown Weiss, Edith (1995), Intergenerational Equity: Toward an International Legal Framework, in GLOBAL ACCORD: ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES 333 (Nazli Choucri ed.).

Buchanan, James M. (1952), The Pricing of Highway Services, 5 NAT’L TAX J. 106.

Buchanan, James M., & William Craig Stubblebine (1962), Externality, 29 ECONOMICA 371.

BULL, ALBERTO (2004), TRAFFIC CONGESTION: THE PROBLEM AND HOW TO DEAL WITH IT.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2010), National Transportation Statistics, available at http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/.

Burger, Joanna et al. (2001), Introduction, in PROTECTING THE COMMONS: A FRAMEWORK FOR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE AMERICAS (Joanna Burger et al. eds.).

Burk, Dan L. (2000), Patenting Speech, 79 TEX. L. REV. 99.

Burk, Dan L., & Mark A. Lemley (2003), Policy Levers in Patent Law, 89 VA. L. REV. 1575.

Burk, Dan L., & Mark A. Lemley (2005), Quantum Patent Mechanics, 9 LEWIS & CLARK L. REV. 29.

BURK, DAN L., & MARK A. LEMLEY (2009), THE PATENT CRISIS AND HOW THE COURTS CAN SOLVE IT.

BURKHEAD, JESSE, & JERRY MINER (2007), PUBLIC EXPENDITURE.

BUSH, VANNEVAR (1954), SCIENCE, THE ENDLESS FRONTIER.

Button, Kenneth (1996), Ownership, Investment and Pricing of Transport and Communications Infrastructure, in INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE COMPLEXITY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (David F. Batten & Charlie Karlsson eds.).

BUTTON, KENNETH JOHN (1993), TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (2d ed.).

BUTTON, KENNETH JOHN (2010), TRANSPORT ECONOMICS (3rd ed.).

Cain, Louis P. (1998), A Canal and Its City: A Selective Business History of Chicago, 11 DEPAUL BUS. L. J. 125, 142–43.

Canoy, Marcel, et al. (2004), Access to Telecommunications Networks, in THE ECONOMICS OF ANTITRUST AND REGULATION IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS 161 (Pierre A. Buigues & Patrick Rey eds.).

CARRIER, MICHAEL A. (2009), INNOVATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: HARNESSING THE POWER OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND ANTITRUST LAW.

CARLTON, DENNIS W., & JEFFREY M. PERLOFF (1990), MODERN INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION.

Caruso, Andrew J. (2003), The Experimental Use Exception: An Experimentalist’s View, 14 ALB. L. J. SCI. & TECH. 215.

(p.380) Cherry, Barbara (2003), Utilizing “Essentiality of Access” Analyses to Mitigate Risky, Costly and Untimely Government Interventions in Converging Telecommunications Technologies and Markets, 11 COMMLAW CONSPECTUS 251.

Cherry, Barbara (2006), Misusing Network Neutrality to Eliminate Common Carriage Threatens Free Speech and the Postal System, 33 N. KY. L. REV. 483.

Cherry, Steven (2005), The VoIP Backlash, 42 IEEE SPECTRUM 61.

Chiang, Tun-Jen (2011), The Levels of Abstraction Problem in Patent Law, 105 NW. U. L. REV. (forthcoming).

Chittenden, Maurice (2009), Harry and Charlie Davies-Carr: Web Gets Taste for Biting Baby, TIMES (London), Nov. 1, available at http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/the_web/article6898146.ece.

Choi, Jay Pil, & Byung-Cheol Kim (2008), Net Neutrality and Investment Incentives, NET Institute, Working Paper No. 08-03, September, available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1285639.

CHRISTENSEN, CLAYTON M. (1997), THE INNOVATOR’S DILEMMA.

Cisco Systems, Inc., Network-Based Application Recognition, available at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6616/products_ios_protocol_group_home.html (last visited Mar. 4, 2011).

Cisco Systems, Inc., Network-Based Application Recognition and Distributed Network-Based Application Recognition, available at http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6350/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080455985.html (last visited Sept. 30, 2006).

Coase, Ronald H. (1946), The Marginal Cost Controversy, 13 ECONOMICA 169.

Coase, Ronald H. (1947), The Marginal Cost Controversy: Some Further Comments, 14 ECONOMICA 150.

Coase, Ronald H. (1960), The Problem of Social Cost, 3 J. L. & ECON. 1.

COASE, R. H. (1988), THE FIRM, THE MARKET, AND THE LAW.

Cohen, Amy B. (1987), Masking Copyright Decisionmaking: The Meaninglessness of Substantial Similarity, 20 U.C. DAVIS L. REV. 719.

Cohen, Julie E. (1998), Lochner in Cyberspace: The New Economic Orthodoxy of “Rights Management,” 97(2) MICHIGAN L. REV. 462.

Cohen, Julie E. (2000), Copyright and the Perfect Curve, 53 VANDERBILT L. REV. 1799.

Cohen, Julie E. (2001), Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object, 52 STANFORD L. REV. 1373.

Cohen, Julie E. (2005), The Place of the User in Copyright Law, 74 FORDHAM L. REV. 347.

Cohen, Julie E. (2007), Creativity and Culture in Copyright Theory, 40 U.C. DAVIS L. REV. 1151.

Cohen, Wesley, Richard Nelson, & John Walsh (2000), Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not), NBER Working Paper 7552, February, available at http://www.nber.org/papers/w7552.

COLANDER, DAVID (1996), BEYOND MICROFOUNDATIONS: POST-WALRASIAN MACROECONOMICS.

Coleman, James S. (1988), Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, 94 AMERICAN J. OF SOCIOLOGY S95.

Colvile, R. N. et al. (2002), The Transport Sector as a Source of Air Pollution, in AIR POLLUTION SCIENCE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (J. Austin et al. eds.).

Comments of Cablevision Systems Corp., In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52 (Received Jan. 14, 2010).

(p.381) Comments of the Motion Picture Association of America Inc., In the Matter of a National Broadband Plan for Our Future, GN Docket No. 09-51 (October 30, 2009).

Comments of Open Internet Coalition, In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52 (Jan. 14, 2010).

Comments of Recording Industry Association of American, In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52 (Jan. 14, 2010).

Comments of Time Warner Cable Inc., In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52 (Received Jan. 14, 2010).

Confessore, Nicholas (2008), $8 Traffic Fee for Manhattan Gets Nowhere, N.Y. TIMES, Apr. 8, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/08/nyregion/08congest.html.

Congressional Budget Office (1998), The Economic Effects of Federal Spending on Infrastructure and Other Investments, available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/6xx/doc601/fedspend.pdf.

Congressional Budget Office (2003), The Long-Term Budget Outlook, available at http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/49xx/doc4916/Report.pdf.

Congressional Budget Office (2009), Using Pricing to Reduce Traffic Congestion, Study, March.

Congressional Budget Office Testimony (2003), Statement of Douglas Holtz-Eakin, Congestion Pricing on Highways, May 6, available at http://www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=4197&type=0.

Cooper, Mark (2005), Making the Network Connection: Using Network Theory to Explain the Link between Open Digital Platforms and Innovation, available at http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/blogs/cooper/archives/network%20theory.pdf (last visited Jan. 20, 2005).

CORNES, RICHARD, & TODD SANDLER (1996), THE THEORY OF EXTERNALITIES, PUBLIC GOODS, AND CLUB GOODS (2d ed.).

Costanza, Robert, et al. (1997), The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, 387 NATURE 15.

Cotropia, Christopher A., & Mark A. Lemley (2009), Copying in Patent Law, 87 N.C. L. REV. 1421.

Cowan, Simon (2006), Network Regulation, 22(2) OXFORD REV. OF ECONOMIC POLICY.

Cowan, Simon (2007), The Welfare Effects of Third-Degree Price Discrimination with Nonlinear Demand Functions, 38 RAND J. OF ECON. 419.

Crawford, Susan P. (2005), Shortness of Vision: Regulatory Ambition in the Digital Age, 74 FORDHAM L. REV. 695.

Crawford, Susan P. (2009), Transporting Communications, 89 B.U.L. REV. 871.

Crossley, Robert (2009), World of Warcraft Dominates MMO Market, EDGE MAGAZINE, Mar. 24, available at http://www.next-gen.biz/news/world-warcraft-dominates-mmo-market.

CRTC Regulatory Policy 2009-657, available at http://www.cippic.ca/uploads/File/Attachment_B_pt_1_-_Reed_Report.pdf (testimony of Dr. David Reed).

Crump, David (2001), Game Theory, Legislation, and the Multiple Meanings of Equality, 38 HARVARD J. LEGIS. 331.

Daily, Gretchen C., et al. (1997), Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems, ISSUES ECOLOGY, Spring, available at http://www.epa.gov/watertrain/pdf/issue2.pdf.

Daily, Gretchen C., et al. (2000), Value of Nature and the Nature of Value, 289 SCIENCE 395.

Dal Bo, Ernesto (2006), Regulatory Capture: A Review, 22(2) OXFORD REV. OF ECONOMIC POLICY 203–25.

Daly, Herman E. (1992), From Empty-World Economics to Full-World Economics: Recognizing an Historical Turning Point in Economic Development, in POPULATION, TECHNOLOGY AND LIFESTYLE (Robert Goodland et al. eds.).

(p.382) Daly, Herman E. (2005), Economics in a Full World, 293 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 3.

Dasgupta, Partha (2002), Killer Apps, Arizona State University, May 1, available at http://cactus.eas.asu.edu/partha/Columns/2002/07–01-killer-app.htm.

David, Paul A., & Dominique Foray (1996), Information Distribution and the Growth of Economically Valuable Knowledge: A Rationale for Technological Infrastructure Policies, in TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE (M. Teubal et al. eds.)

DeGraba, P. (1990), Input Market Price Discrimination and the Choice of Technology, 80 AMERICAN ECON. REV. 1246–53.

DEMARTINO, GEORGE (2000), GLOBAL ECONOMY, GLOBAL JUSTICE.

Demsetz, Harold (1967), Toward a Theory of Property Rights, 57 AM. ECON. REV. PAPERS & PROC. 347.

Demsetz, Harold (1970), The Private Production of Public Goods, 13 J. L. & ECON. 293.

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (2008), REPORT TO CONGRESS.

Deshpande, Manasi, and Douglas W. Elmendorf (2008), An Economic Strategy for Investing in America’s Infrastructure, BROOKINGS INSTITUTION, July.

DODD, EDWIN MERRICK (1954), AMERICAN BUSINESS CORPORATIONS UNTIL 1860: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MASSACHUSETTS.

DOERN, G. BRUCE, & MONICA GATTINGER (2003), POWER SWITCH: ENERGY REGULATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY.

Doll, Susan, & Greg Faller (1986), Blade Runner and Genre: Film Noir and Science Fiction, 14(2) LIT. FILM Q. 89.

Dreyfuss, Rochelle Cooper (2010), Does IP Need IP? Accommodating Intellectual Production Outside the Intellectual Property Paradigm, 31 CARDOZO L. REV. 1437.

DRIESEN, DAVID M. (2003), THE ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW.

Driesen, David M. (2010), Toward Sustainable Technology, in ECONOMIC THOUGHT AND U.S. CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY 257 (David M. Driesen ed.).

Duffy, John F. (2004), The Marginal Cost Controversy in Intellectual Property, 71 U. CHICAGO L. REV. 37, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1090648.

Duffy, John F. (2005), Comment: Intellectual Property Isolationism and the Average Cost Thesis, 83 TEX. L. REV. 1077.

Eagle, Josh (2006), Regional Ocean Governance: The Perils of Multiple-Use Management and the Promise of Agency Diversity, 16 DUKE ENVTL. L. & POL’Y F. 143.

Eastman, Wayne (1997), Telling Alternative Stories: Heterodox Versions of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the Coase Theorem, and Supply-Demand Equilibrium, 29 CONN. L. REV 727.

Economides, Nicholas (1996a), The Economics of Networks, 14 INT. J. INDUS. ORG. 673.

Economides, Nicholas (1996b), Network Externalities, Complementarities, and Invitations to Enter, 12 EUROPEAN J. OF POL. ECON. 211.

Economides, Nicholas (2003), Competition Policy in Network Industries: An Introduction, in THE NEW ECONOMY: JUST HOW NEW IS IT (Dennis Jansen ed.).

Economides, Nicholas (2008), Antitrust Issues in Network Industries, in THE REFORM OF EC COMPETITION LAW (Ioannis Kokkoris and Ioannis Lianos eds.).

Economides, Nicholas (2010), Why Imposing New Tolls on Third-Party Content and Applications Threatens Innovation and Will Not Improve Broadband Providers’ Investments, GN Docket (p.383) No. 09-191, WC Docket. No. 07-52 (filed with the FCC as “Appendix A” on behalf of Google, Jan. 14).

Edwards, Mathew A. (2006), Price and Prejudice: The Case against Consumer Equality in the Information Age, 10 LEWIS & CLARK L. REV. 559.

Egypt Internet Users Report Major Network Interruptions (2011), TVNZ (New Zealand), Jan. 28, available at http://tvnz.co.nz/technology-news/egypt-internet-users-report-major-network-disruptions-4008917.

Egypt Protesters Use Voice Tweets (2011), BBC, Feb. 1, available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-12332850.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (1994), Technology Transfer and the Genome Project: Problems with Patenting Research Tools, 5 RISK 163, 163–67.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (1996), Public Research and Private Development: Patents and Technology Transfer in Government-Sponsored Research, 82 VA. L. REV. 1663, 1702–04.

Eisenberg, Rebecca S. (2001), Bargaining over the Transfer of Proprietary Research Tools: Is This Market Failing or Emerging?, in EXPANDING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: INNOVATION POLICY FOR THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY (R. C. Dreyfuss et al. eds.) 223–50.

ELLICKSON, ROBERT C. (1991), ORDER WITHOUT LAW: HOW NEIGHBORS SETTLE DISPUTES.

Encyclopedia Britannica (2006), Fatally Flawed: Refuting the Recent Study on Encyclopedic Accuracy by the Journal Nature, ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA March.

EPSTEIN, RICHARD A. (1998), PRINCIPLES FOR A FREE SOCIETY: RECONCILING INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY WITH THE COMMON GOOD.

Epstein, Larry G. (1999), A Definition of Uncertainty Aversion, 66(3) REVIEW OF ECONOMIC STUDIES 579.

Facebook Statistics, Facebook, available at http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics (last visited Feb. 26, 2011).

Faherty, Keith F. (1999), Mechanical Fasteners and Connectors, in WOOD ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION HANDBOOK (Keith Faherty & Thomas Williamson eds.).

Farber, Daniel A. (1991), Free Speech without Romance: Public Choice and the First Amendment, 105 HARV. L. REV. 554.

Farber, Daniel A. (2006), Another View of the Quagmire: Unconstitutional Conditions and Contract Theory, 33 FLA. ST. U. L. REV. 913.

Farber, Daniel A., & Phillip P. Frickley (1987), The Jurisprudence of Public Choice, 65. TEX. L. REV. 873.

Farrell, Joseph, & Philip Weiser (2003), Modularity, Vertical Integration, and Open Access Policies: Towards Convergence of Antitrust and Regulation in the Internet Age, 17 HARVARD J. L. & TECH. 85.

Faulhaber, Gerald (2005), The Question of Spectrum: Technology, Management, and Regime Change, 4 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH L. 123.

Faulhaber, Gerald R., & David Farber (2003), Spectrum Management: Property Rights, Markets, and the Commons, in RETHINKING RIGHTS AND REGULATIONS: INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES 193.

FCC Report and Order (2010), Preserving the Open Internet; Broadband Industry Practices (released Dec. 23), GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52, FCC 10-201, available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-10-201A1.pdf.

(p.384) Federal Communications Commission (2005), Appropriate Framework for Broadband Access to the Internet over Wireline Facilities, Report and Order and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 20 F.C.C.R. 14853.

Federal Communications Commission (2010), National Broadband Plan: Connecting America, available at http://www.broadband.gov/plan/.

Federal Highway Administration (2006), Congestion Pricing: A Primer (2006), available at http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/congestionpricing/congestionpricing.pdf.

Federal Highway Administration (2008), Report to Congress, 14–10.

Federal Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, Memorandum of Understanding to Foster the Ecosystem Approach between the Council on Envtl. Quality et al. (Dec. 15, 1995), available at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/policy/memoofun.htm.

FIELD, JOHN (2008), SOCIAL CAPITAL (2d ed.).

Fink, Carsten (2009), Promoting Checks and Balances, in INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 363 (Ricardo Melendez-Ortiz & Pedro Roffe eds.).

FISHER, WILLIAM W., III (2004), PROMISES TO KEEP: TECHNOLOGY, LAW, AND THE FUTURE OF ENTERTAINMENT.

FISHER, WILLIAM W., III, & TALHA SYED (forthcoming), DRUGS, LAW, AND THE HEALTH CRISIS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD.

Flores, Nicholas E. (2003), Conceptual Framework for Nonmarket Valuation, in A PRIMER ON NONMARKET VALUATION (Patricia A. Champ et al. eds.).

Freeman, A. Myrick III (2003a), Economic Valuation: What and Why, in A PRIMER ON NONMARKET VALUATION (Patricia A. Champ et al. eds.).

FREEMAN, A. MYRICK III (2003b), THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND RESOURCE VALUES: THEORY AND METHODS (2d ed.).

FREY, BRUNO (2008), HAPPINESS: A REVOLUTION IN ECONOMICS.

FRIEDMAN, MILTON (1962), CAPITALISM AND FREEDOM.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2000), Innovation and Institutions: Rethinking the Economics of U.S. Science and Technology Policy, 24 VERMONT L. REV. 347.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2001), Privatization and Commercialization of the Internet Infrastructure: Rethinking Market Intervention into Government and Government Intervention into the Market, 2 COLUM. SCIENCE & TECH. L. REV., available at http://www.stlr.org/cite.cgi?volume=2&article=1.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2005a), An Economic Theory of Infrastructure and Commons Management, 89 MINN. L. REV. 917.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2005b), Peer-to-Peer Technology as Infrastructure: An Economic Argument For Retaining Sony’s Safe Harbor For Technologies Capable of Substantial Noninfringing Uses, 52 J. OF THE COPYRIGHT SOC. 329.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2005c), Commercializing University Research Systems in Economic Perspective: A View from the Demand Side, in 16 ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH, UNIVERSITY ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: PROCESS, DESIGN, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 155 (Gary D. Libecap ed.).

Frischmann, Brett M. (2005d), Some Thoughts on Shortsightedness and Intergenerational Equity, 36 LOYOLA UNIVERSITY CHICAGO L. J. 457.

(p.385) Frischmann, Brett M. (2007a), Cultural Environmentalism and the Wealth of Networks, 74 U. CHICAGO L. REV. 1083.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2007b), Evaluating the Demsetzian Trend in Copyright Law, 3(3) REV. OF L. & ECON., available at http://www.bepress.com/rle/vol3/iss3/art2.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2007c), Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective, 12(6) FIRST MONDAY, June, available at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_6/frischmann/index.html.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2008a), Environmental Infrastructure, 35 ECOLOGY L. Q.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2008b), Speech, Spillovers, and the First Amendment, 2008 U. CHICAGO LEGAL FORUM 301.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2009a), The Pull of Patents, 77 FORDHAM L. REV. 2143.

Frischmann, Brett M. (2009b), Spillovers Theory and Its Conceptual Boundaries, 51 WILLIAM & MARY L. REV. 801.

Frischmann, Brett M., & Mark A. Lemley (2007), Spillovers, 107 COLUM. L. REV. 257.

Frischmann, Brett, & Mark McKenna (2011), Intergenerational Progress, 2011 WISCONSIN L. REV. 123.

Frischmann, Brett M., & Barbara van Schewick (2007), Network Neutrality and the Economics of an Information Superhighway, 47 JURIMETRICS 383.

Frischmann, Brett, & Spencer Waller (2008), Revitalizing Essential Facilities, ANTITRUST L. J.

Fromer, Jeanne (2009), Claiming Intellectual Property, 76 U. CHI. L. REV. 719.

FTC (2003), To Promote Innovation: The Proper Balance of Competition and Patent Law and Policy, October.

Fudenberg, D., & J. M. Villas-Boas (2006), Behavior-Based Price Discrimination and Customer Recognition, in ECONOMICS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS 377 (Terrence Hendershott ed.).

GAL, MICHAL S. (2003), COMPETITION POLICY FOR SMALL MARKET ECONOMIES.

Gallagher, Ian (2011), Egyptian Police Use Facebook and Twitter to Track Down Protesters’ Names before “Rounding Them Up,” DAILY MAIL (London), Feb. 6, available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1354096/Egypt-protests-Police-use-Facebook-Twitter-track-protesters.html.

GAYNOR, MARK (2003), NETWORK SERVICES INVESTMENT GUIDE: MAXIMIZING ROI IN UNCERTAIN TIMES.

Gaynor, Mark, & Scott Bradner (2007), Statistical Framework to Value Network Neutrality, 17 MEDIA L. & POL’Y 24.

Genachowski, Julius (2010), Chairman, Federal Commc’n Comm’n, Remarks on Preserving Internet Freedom and Openness (Dec. 1), transcript, available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-303136A1.pdf).

Ghosh, Shubha (2004), Patents and the Regulatory State: Rethinking the Patent Bargain Metaphor after Eldred, 19 BERKELEY TECH. L. J. 1315.

Ghosh, Shubha (2008), Decoding and Recoding Natural Monopoly, Regulation, and Intellectual Property, 2008 U. ILL. L. REV. 1125.

Ghosh, A., & Meagher, K. (2004), Political Economy of Infrastructure Investment: A Spatial Approach. In NORTH AMERICAN ECONOMETRIC SOCIETY SUMMER MEETINGS AT BROWN UNIVERSITY, PROVIDENCE, USA.

Gifford, Daniel J., & Robert T. Kudrle (2010), The Law and Economics of Price Discrimination in Modern Economies: Time for Reconciliation?, 43 U. C. DAVIS L. REV.

(p.386) Giles, Jim (2005), Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head, NATURE, Dec. 15.

Gillis, Justin, & John Collins Rudolf (2010), Oil Plume Is Not Breaking Down Fast Enough, Study Says, N.Y. TIMES, Aug. 19, 2010, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/20/science/earth/20plume.html.

Godin, Benoît (2006), The Linear Model of Innovation: The Historical Construction of an Analytical Framework, 31(6) SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, & HUMAN VALUES 639.

GOMEZ, JOSE A. (2003), REGULATING INFRASTRUCTURE.

Gönenç, Rauf, Maria Maher, & Giuseppe Nicoletti (2001), The Implementation and the Effects of Regulatory Reform: Past Experience and Current Issues, 2001(32) OECD ECONOMIC STUDIES I.

Goodman, Ellen P. (2004), Spectrum Rights in the Telecosm to Come, 41 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 269.

Gordon, Wendy J. (1982), Fair Use as Market Failure: A Structural and Economic Analysis of the Betamax Case and Its Predecessors, 82 COLUMBIA LAW REVIEW 1600.

Gordon, Wendy J. (1993), A Property Right in Self-Expression: Equality and Individualism in the Natural Law of Intellectual Property, 102 YALE L. J. 1533.

Green, Jerry, & Suzanne Scotchmer (1995), On the Division of Profits between Sequential Innovators, 26 RAND J. ECON. 20.

H.R. Rep. No. 190, 67th Cong., 1st sess. 1 (1921).

Hahn, Robert, & Scott Wallsten (2006), The Economics of Network Neutrality, ECONOMISTS’ VOICE.

Hamelink, P. (1998), Environmental Policy and Fiscal Instruments in The Netherlands, in AIR POLLUTION IN THE 21ST CENTURY: PRIORITY ISSUES AND POLICY 969 (T. Schneider ed.).

Hamilton, Walter H. (1930), Affection with Public Interest, 39 YALE L. J. 1089.

Hanifan, L. J. (1916), The Rural School Community Center, 67 ANNALS OF THE AM. ACADEMY OF POL. & SOC. SCIENCE 130.

Hardin, Garrett (1968), The Tragedy of the Commons, 162 SCIENCE 1243.

HARDIN, RUSSELL (1997), ONE FOR ALL.

Harrington, William et al. (1998), Overcoming Public Aversion to Congestion Pricing, Discussion Paper 98–27, RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE, available at http://rff.org/RFF/Documents/RFF-DP-98–27.pdf.

Hausman, J. (1999), The Effect of Sunk Costs in Telecommunication Regulation, in THE NEW INVESTMENT THEORY OF REAL OPTIONS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS ECONOMICS (J. Alleman and E. Noam eds.).

Hausman, J., Ariel Pakes, & Gregory L. Rosston (1997), Valuation and the Effect of Regulation on New Services in Telecommunications, 1997 BROOKINGS PAPERS ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: MICROECONOMICS 1.

Haynes, Paul (2009), Before Going Any Further with Social Capital, Ingenio Working Paper Series No. 2009/02.

Hazlett, Thomas W. (2005), Spectrum Tragedies, 22 YALE J. ON REG. 242.

Heal, Geoffrey et al. (2001), Protecting Natural Capital through Ecosystem Service Districts, 20 STANFORD ENVTL. L. J. 333.

Heimbuch, Jaymi (2010), Going Bee-less, TREEHUGGER, April 19, 2010, available at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2010/04/going-bee-less-trials-of-self-pollinating-almond-trees-begin-in-california.php.

(p.387) HEINZERLING, LISA, & FRANK ACKERMAN (2005), PRICELESS: ON KNOWING THE PRICE OF EVERYTHING AND THE VALUE OF NOTHING.

Helpman, Elhanan (1998), Introduction, in GENERAL PURPOSE TECHNOLOGIES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH (Elhanan Helpman ed.).

Hemphill, C. Scott (2008), Network Neutrality and the False Promise of Zero-Price Regulation, 25 YALE J. ON REGULATION 135.

Hemphill, Scott, & Jeannie Suk (2009), The Law, Culture, and Economics of Fashion, 61 STAN. L. REV. 1147.

Henderson, Rebecca, Adam B. Jaffe, & Manuel Trajtenberg (1998), Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965–1988, 80 REV. ECON. & STAT. 119.

HENRICH, JOSEPH, ET AL. (2003), ECONOMIC MAN IN CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: BEHAVIORAL EXPERIMENTS, IN 15 SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES.

Hess, Charlotte, & Elinor Ostrom (2003), Ideas, Artifacts, and Facilities: Information as a Common-Pool Resource, 66 L. & CONTEMP. PROBLEMS 111.

Heverly, Robert (2003), The Information Semicommons, 18 BERKELEY TECH. L. J. 1127.

HILL, CHARLES W. L., & GARETH R. JONES (2008), STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH.

Hinsell, Saul (2009), The Broadband Gap: Why Do They Have More Fiber?, N.Y. TIMES, Mar. 12.

Hoffman, David A., & Salil K. Mehra (2010), Wikitruth through Wikiorder, 59 EMORY L. J. 151.

Hogendorn, Christiaan (2010), Spillovers and Network Neutrality, OPEN INTERNET COALITION, available at http://www.openinternetcoalition.com/files/final_Hogendorn_0108.pdf.

Holmlund, Cecilia M., & Monica Hammer (1999), Ecosystem Services Generated by Fish Population, 29 ECOLOGICAL ECON. 253.

Horrigan, John B. (2010), Broadband Adoption and Use in America, FCC Omnibus Broadband Initiative, Feb. 2010, available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-296442A1.pdf.

Hotelling, Harold (1938), The General Welfare in Relation to Problems of Taxation and of Railway and Utility Rates, 6 ECONOMETRICA 242.

Huddleston, Rep. (1921), Remarks, 61 Cong. Rec. 1988.

Hulten, Charles R. (1996), Infrastructure Capital and Economic Growth: How Well You Use It May Be More Important Than How Much You Have, NBER Working Paper No. 5847.

HUME, DAVID (1986), A TREATISE ON HUMAN NATURE (L.A. Shelby-Bigge ed.).

Inderst, Roman, & Greg Shaffer (2009), Market Power, Price Discrimination, and Allocative Efficiency in Intermediate-Goods Markets, 40 RAND J. OF ECON. 658.

INTERNATIONAL FINANCE PROJECT (1999), PROJECT FINANCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.

Internet Protocol: DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification, IETF RFC 791, Sept. 1981, available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0791.txt?number=791.

Isenberg, David (1998), Dawn of the Stupid Network, ACM NETWORKER, FEB./MAR. 1998, available at http://www.isen.com/papers/Dawnstupid.html.

Jaensirisak, S., et al. (2005), Explaining Variations in Public Acceptability of Road Pricing Schemes, 39(2) J. TRANSPORT ECON. & POL. 127.

Jefferson, Thomas (1813), Letter to Isaac McPherson, Monticello, Aug. 13.

JONES, CHARLES (1998), INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMIC GROWTH.

(p.388) Jones, William (1980), The Common Carrier Concept as Applied to Telecom: A Historical Perspective, filed with the FCC as a part of the Competitive Carriers Rulemaking, CC Docket No. 79-252 (1980), and as a part of IBM’s reply comments in Computer & Communications Industry Assoc. v. FCC, No. 80-1478 (filed 1982).

Justman, Moshe, & Morris Teubal (1996), Technological Infrastructure Policy (TIP): Creating Capabilities and Building Markets, in TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 51–52.

Kahan, Dan M., & Donald Braman (2006), Cultural Cognition and Public Policy, 24 YALE L. & POL’Y REV. 147.

KAHN, ALFRED E. (1998), THE ECONOMICS OF REGULATION: PRINCIPLES AND INSTITUTIONS.

KAHN, ALFRED E. (2001), WHOM THE GODS WOULD DESTROY, OR HOW NOT TO DEREGULATE.

Kalapesi, Carl et al. (2010), The Connected Kingdom: How the Internet Is Transforming the U.K. Economy, BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP, October, available at http://www.bcg.com/documents/file62983.pdf.

Katz, M. (1987), The Welfare Effects of Third-Degree Price Discrimination in Intermediate Goods Markets, 77 AMERICAN ECON. REV. 154–67.

Katz, Michael L., & Carl Shapiro (1985), Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility, 75 AM. ECON. REV. 424.

Katz, Michael L., & Carl Shapiro (1994), Systems Competition and Network Effects, 8(2) J. OF ECON. PERSPECTIVES 93.

Kayne, R. (2011), What Is a Packet Sniffer, WISEGEEK, available at http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-packet-sniffer.htm (last modified Feb. 24, 2011).

Kearney, Joseph D., & Thomas W. Merrill (1998), The Great Transformation of Regulated Industries Law, 98 COLUM. L. REV. 1323.

KELLOGG, MICHAEL K., JOHN THORNE, & PETER W. HUBER (1992), FEDERAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS LAW.

Kelly, Daniel (2011), Strategic Spillovers, 111 COLUMBIA L. REV.

KELTY, CHRISTOPHER M. (2008), TWO BITS: THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FREE SOFTWARE.

Kerner, Sean Michael (2008), Narrowband on the Decline in the U.S., InternetNews, Nov. 17, available at http://www.internetnews.com/stats/article.php/3785496/Narrowband-on-the-Decline-in-the-US.htm.

Kesan, Jay P. (2009), Transferring Innovation, 77 FORDHAM L. REV. 2169.

KIDDER, FRANK EUGENE (1899), BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND SUPERINTENDENCE.

Kieff, F. Scott (2001), Property Rights and Property Rules for Commercializing Inventions, 85 MINN. L. REV. 697.

Kitch, Edmund W. (1977), The Nature and Function of the Patent System, 20 J. L. & ECON. 265, 276–78.

Klein, Daniel B., & Gordon J. Fielding (1992), Private Toll Roads: Learning from the 19th Century, 46 TRANSPORTATION Q. 3.

Klein, Daniel, & John Majewski (2008), Turnpikes and Toll Roads in Nineteenth-Century America, EH.NET ENCYCLOPEDIA (Robert Whaples ed.), available at http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/Klein.Majewski.Turnpikes.

(p.389) Kline, S. (1991a), Models of Innovation and Their Policy Consequences, in JAPANESE/AMERICAN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (David Kingery ed.).

Kline, S. (1991b), Styles of Innovation and Their Cultural Basis, CHEMTECH, August.

Kline, S. J., & Nathan Rosenberg (1986), An Overview of Innovation, in THE POSITIVE SUM STRATEGY (Ralph Landau & Nathan Rosenberg eds.).

Knight, F. H. (1921), RISK, UNCERTAINTY, AND PROFIT.

Knudsen, Christian (2003), The Essential Tension in the Social Sciences: Between the “Unification” and “Fragmentation” Traps, in THE EVOLUTION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE (Hans Siggaard Jensen et al. eds.).

Komanoff, Charles (1994), Pollution Taxes for Roadway Transportation, 12 PACE ENVTL. L. REV. 121.

Komesar, Neil K. (1994), Imperfect Alternatives: Choosing Institutions in Law, Economics, and Public Policy.

KOMESAR, NEIL K. (2001), Law’s Limits: The Rule of Law and the Supply and Demand of Rights.

KRACKHARDT, DAVID (1994), ENDOGENOUS PREFERENCES: A STRUCTURAL APPROACH.

Krattenmaker, Thomas G., & Steven C. Salop (1986), Anticompetitive Exclusion: Raising Rivals’ Costs to Achieve Power over Price, 96 YALE L. J. 234.

Kremen, Claire et al. (2007), Pollination and Other Ecosystem Services Produced by Mobile Organisms: A Conceptual Framework for the Effects of Land-Use Change, 10 ECOLOGY LETTERS 299.

KUHN, THOMAS (1962), THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS.

Kysar, Douglas A. (2004), Climate Change, Cultural Transformation, and Comprehensive Rationality, 31 B.C. ENVTL. AFF. L. REV. 589.

Laffont, J. J., & J. Tirole (1991), The Politics of Government Decision Making: A Theory of Regulatory Capture, 106(4) QUARTERLY J. OF ECON. 1089–1127.

LANDES, WILLIAM M., & RICHARD POSNER (2003), THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW.

LANDES, WILLIAM M., & RICHARD A. POSNER (2004), THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW.

LANDSBURG, STEVEN E. (2008), PRICE THEORY AND APPLICATIONS.

Lazarus, Richard J. (2005), Human Nature, the Laws of Nature, and the Nature of Environmental Law, 24 VA. ENVTL. L. J. 231.

Le, Net (2004), Sunk Costs, Free-Riding Justifications, and Compulsory Licensing of Interfaces, 1(2) REV. OF ECON. RESEARCH ON COPYRIGHT ISSUES 29.

Le Grand, Julian (1991), The Theory of Government Failure, 21(4) BRITISH J. OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 423–42.

Leape, Jonathan (2006), The London Congestion Charge, 20(4) JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES 157–76.

Lee, Peter (2008), The Evolution of Intellectual Infrastructure, 83 WASH. L. REV. 39.

Lee, Peter (2009), Interface: The Push and Pull of Patents, 77 FORDHAM L. REV. 2225.

Lee, Robin S., & Tim Wu (2009), Subsidizing Creativity through Network Design: Zero Pricing and Net Neutrality, 23(3) J. OF ECON. PERSPECTIVES 61.

Lemley, Mark A. (1997), The Economics of Improvement in Intellectual Property Law, 75 TEX. L. REV. 989.

Lemley, Mark A. (2005), Property, Intellectual Property, and Free Riding, 83 TEX. L. REV. 1031.

(p.390) Lemley, Mark A. (2007), Should Patent Infringement Require Proof of Copying?, 105 MICH. L. REV. 1525.

Lemley, Mark (forthcoming 2012), The Myth of the Lone Inventor, 110 MICHIGAN L. REV.

Lemley, Mark A., & Lawrence Lessig (2001), The End of End-to-End: Preserving the Architecture of the Internet in the Broadband Era, 48 UCLA L. REV. 925.

Lemley, Mark A., & David McGowan (1998), Legal Implications of Network Economic Effects, 86 CALIF. L. REV. 479.

Lemley, Mark, Michael Risch, Ted Sichelman, & R. Polk Wagner (2011), Life after Bilski, 63 STANFORD L. REV. 1315.

Lenhart, Amanda, et al. (2004), Pew Internet & American Life Project, Content Creation Online.

LERNER, A. P. (1944), THE ECONOMICS OF CONTROL.

Lessig, Lawrence (2001a), Copyright’s First Amendment, 48 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 1057.

LESSIG, LAWRENCE (2001b), THE FUTURE OF IDEAS: THE FATE OF THE COMMONS IN A CONNECTED WORLD.

Lessig, Lawrence (2004a), Coase’s First Question, 27(3) REGULATION 38.

LESSIG, LAWRENCE (2004b), FREE CULTURE: HOW BIG MEDIA USES TECHNOLOGY AND THE LAW TO LOCK DOWN CULTURE AND CONTROL CREATIVITY.

Lessig, Lawrence (2005), Re-Marking the Progress in Frischmann, 89 MINN. L. REV. 1031.

Levin, Richard, Alvin Klevorick, Richard Nelson, & Sidney Winter (1987), Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development, 3 BROOKINGS PAPERS ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 783.

Levine, Mark (2009), SHARE MY RIDE , N.Y. Times, Mar. 5, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/08/magazine/08Zipcar-t.html.

Levinson, David (2005), The Evolution of Transport Networks, in HANDBOOK OF TRANSPORT STRATEGY, POLICY AND INSTITUTIONS VOL. 6 (Kenneth Button & David Hensher eds.).

LEVY, SIDNEY M. (1996), BUILD, OPERATE, TRANSFER: PAVING THE WAY FOR TOMORROW’S INFRASTRUCTURE.

Lichtman, Douglas (2000), Property Rights in Emerging Platform Technologies, 29 J. LEGAL STUD. 615, 617.

Liivak, Oskar (2010), Rethinking the Concept of Exclusion in Patent Law, 98 GEO. L. J. 1643.

Lincoln, Abraham (1838), The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions: Address before the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield, Ill. (Jan. 27), in ABRAHAM LINCOLN: HIS SPEECHES AND WRITINGS 76 (Roy P. Basler ed., 1946).

Lindsey, Robin (2006), Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Road Pricing? The Intellectual History of an Idea, 3(2) ECON. J. WATCH.

Lindsey, Robin, & Erik T. Verhoef (2000), Traffic Congestion and Congestion Pricing, Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper No. 101/3, available at http://dspace.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/1871/9420/1/00101.pdf.

Lipsey, R. G., & Kelvin Lancaster (1956), The General Theory of the Second Best, 24 REV. ECON. STUD. 11.

LITAN, ROBERT E., & ALICE M. RIVLIN (2001), BEYOND THE DOT.COMS: THE ECONOMIC PROMISE OF THE INTERNET.

Litman, Jessica (1990), The Public Domain, 39(4) EMORY L. J. 965.

Liu, K. C. (2008), Rationalising the Regime of Compulsory Patent Licensing by the Essential Facilities Doctrine, 7 INT’L REV. OF INTELL. PROP. & COMPETITION L. 757.

(p.391) LOCKE, JOHN (1975), AN ESSAY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING, BOOK II, CH. I, NO. 1 (Peter H. Nidditch ed.).

Loren, Lydia Pallas (2007), Building a Reliable Semicommons of Creative Works: Enforcement of Creative Commons Licenses and Limited Abandonment of Copyright, 14 GEO. MASON L. REV. 271.

Losey, John, & Mace Vaughn (2006), The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects, 56(4) BIOSCIENCE 311.

Luban, David (1995), The Social Responsibilities of Lawyers: A Green Perspective, 63 GEORGE WASHINGTON L. REV. 955.

Lunney, Glynn S., Jr. (2002), Fair Use and Market Failure: Sony Revisited, 82 B.U.L. REV. 975.

Lunney, Glynn S., Jr. (2008), Copyright’s Price Discrimination Panacea, 21 HARV. J. L. & TECH. 387.

Lynch, Sheila (1996), The Federal Advisory Committee Act: An Obstacle to Ecosystem Management by Federal Agencies?, 71 WASH. L. REV. 431.

MacKie-Mason, Jeffrey K., & Hal R. Varian (1995), Pricing Congestible Network Resources, 13(7) IEEE J. ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS 1141.

Madison, Mike J. (2005), Law as Design: Objects, Concepts, and Digital Things, 56 CASE W. RES. L. REV. 381.

Madison, Mike J. (2006), Social Software, Groups, and Governance, 2006 MICH. ST. L. REV. 153.

Madison, Mike J., Brett M. Frischmann, & Katherine Strandburg (2010), Constructed Commons in the Cultural Environment, 95 CORNELL L. REV. 657.

Mandel, Greg (2008), When to Open Infrastructure Access, 35 ECOLOGY L.Q. 205.

Mansfield, Edwin, et al. (1981), Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study, 91 ECON. J. 907.

Mansfield, Edwin (1986), Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study, 32(2) MGMT. SCIENCE 173.

Mansfield, Edwin (1988), Intellectual Property Rights, Technological Change, and Economic Growth, in INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND CAPITAL FORMATION IN THE NEXT DECADE 3, 8 (Charles Walker & Mark Bloomfield eds.).

Markey, Howard T. (1983), Why Not the Statute?, 65 J. PAT. OFF. SOC’Y 331.

Marsden, Christopher T. (2008), Net Neutrality: The European Debate, 12(2) J. INTERNET L. 1.

Maurer, Stephen M., & Suzanne Scotchmer (2002), The Independent Invention Defense in Intellectual Property, 69 ECONOMICA 535.

May, Anthony et al. (2004), Optimal Locations and Charges for Cordon Schemes, in ROAD PRICING: THEORY AND EVIDENCE (Georgina Santos ed.).

McAdams, Richard H. (1997), The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms, 96 MICH. L. REV. 338.

McCollum, Daniel W. (2003), Nonmarket Valuation in Action, in A PRIMER ON NONMARKET VALUATION (Patricia A. Champ et al. eds.).

McElligott, Sean (2009), Addressing Supply Side Barriers to Introduction of New Vaccines to the Developing WORLD, 35 AM. J. L. & MED. 415.

MCLEOD, KEMBREW, & PETER DICOLA (2010), CREATIVE LICENSE: THE LAW AND CULTURE OF DIGITAL SAMPLING.

MCNERNEY, REBECCA A. (1996), THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY.

Meade, James E. (1944), Price and Output Policy of State Enterprise, 54(215/216) ECON. J. 321.

MEADE, JAMES E. (1973), THE THEORY OF ECONOMIC EXTERNALITIES: THE CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND SIMILAR SOCIAL COSTS.

(p.392) Mehra, Salil K. (2011), Paradise Is a Walled Garden? Trust, Antitrust and Consumer Dynamism, 18 GEO. MASON L. REV. 889.

Merges, Robert P. (1992), Rent Control in the Patent District: Observations on the Grady-Alexander Thesis, 78 VA. L. REV. 359, 381.

Merges, Robert P. (2004), A New Dynamism in the Public Domain, 71 U. CHI. L. REV. 183 (2004).

Merges, Robert P., & Richard R. Nelson (1990), On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope, 90 COLUM. L. REV. 839.

Merges, Robert P., & Richard R. Nelson (1994), On Limiting or Encouraging Rivalry in Technical Progress: The Effect of Patent Scope Decisions, 25 J. ECON. BEHAV. & ORG. 1.

Meurer, Michael J. (2001), Copyright Law and Price Discrimination, 23 CARDOZO L. REV. 55.

MILL, JOHN STUART (1869), ON LIBERTY.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis, available at http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf.

Miller, Zane L. (2007), Urban Life and Urban Landscape, in READING LONDON at xvii (Erik Bond ed.).

Mimura, Carol (2010), Nuanced Management of IP Rights: Shaping Industry-University Relationships to Promote Social Impact, in WORKING WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (Rochelle Dreyfuss, Harry First, & Diane Zimmerman eds.).

MORRIS, WILLIAM, & MARY MORRIS (1988), MORRIS DICTIONARY OF WORD AND PHRASE ORIGINS (2d ed.).

Morton, Pete (1999), The Economic Benefits of Wilderness: Theory and Practice, 76 DENV. U. L. REV. 465.

Mowery, David (2005), The Bayh-Dole Act and High-Technology Entrepreneurship in U.S. Universities: Chicken, Egg, or Something Else?, in 16 ADVANCES IN THE STUDY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP INNOVATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH, UNIVERSITY ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: PROCESS, DESIGN, AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 39 (Gary D. Libecap ed.).

Mowery, David, & Arvids A. Ziedonis (2002), Academic Patent Quality and Quantity before and after the Bayh-Dole Act in the United States, 31 RES. POL’Y 399.

Mowery, David C., et al. (2001), The Growth of Patenting and Licensing by U.S. Universities: An Assessment of the Effects of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, 30 RES. POL’Y 99.

Mueller, Janice M. (2001), No “Dilettante Affair”: Rethinking the Experimental Use Exception to Patent Infringement for Biomedical Research Tools, 76 WASH. L. REV. 1.

Musgrave, Richard (2009), Merit Goods, in THE NEW PALGRAVE: A DICTIONARY OF ECONOMICS 452 (3d ed.).

MUSGRAVE, RICHARD, & PEGGY MUSGRAVE (1984), PUBLIC FINANCE IN THEORY AND PRACTICE (4th ed.).

Nachbar, Thomas B. (2008), The Public Network, 17 COMMLAW CONSPECTUS 67.

NAGLE, JOHN COPELAND, & J. B. RUHL (2006), THE LAW OF BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT (2nd ed.).

Nash, Jonathan Remy (2007), Trading Species: A New Direction for Habitat Trading Programs, 32 COLUM. J. ENVTL. L. 1.

Nash, Jonathan Remy (2008), Economic Efficiency versus Public Choice: The Case of Property Rights in Road Traffic Management, 49 B.C.L. REV. 673.

(p.393) Nash, Jonathan Remy, & Richard L. Revesz (2001), Markets and Geography: Designing Marketable Permit Schemes to Control Local and Regional Pollutants, 28 ECOLOGY L. Q. 569.

NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS (2006), STATE AND FEDERAL STANDARDS FOR MOBILE-SOURCE EMISSIONS (2006).

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1987), INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: FRAMEWORK FOR A RESEARCH AGENDA.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (2005), VALUING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: TOWARD BETTER ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING.

Nat’l Cable & Telecomm. Ass’n v. Brand X Internet Servs., 125 S. Ct. 2688 (2005), aff’g Inquiry Concerning High-Speed Access to the Internet Over Cable and Other Facilities, Internet Over Cable Declaratory Ruling, Appropriate Regulatory Treatment for Broadband Access to the Internet Over Cable Facilities, Declaratory Ruling and Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 17 F.C.C.R. 4798 (2002).

National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission (NSTPRSC) (2007), Transportation for Tomorrow: Report of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission 3–20 (December).

Nelson, Richard (1982), Government Stimulus of Technological Progress: Lessons from American History, in GOVERNMENT AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS 451 (Richard Nelson ed.).

Nelson, Richard R. (1987a), Roles of Government in a Mixed Economy, 6 J. POL’Y ANALYSIS & MGMT. 541.

Nelson, Richard (1987b), Understanding Technical Change as an Evolutionary Process, in LECTURES IN ECONOMICS.

Netanel, Neil W. (2005), Copyright and “Market Power” in the Marketplace of Ideas, in ANTITRUST, PATENTS AND COPYRIGHT 149 (Howard Shelanski & Francois Leveque eds.).

NETANEL, NEIL W. (2008), COPYRIGHT’S PARADOX.

Network Forensics, Solera Networks, available at http://www.soleranetworks.com/network-forensics/our-network-forensics-technology/capture (last visited Feb. 26, 2011).

Neuman, Janet (2007), Thinking Inside the Box: Looking for Ecosystem Services within a Forested Watershed, 22 J. LAND USE & ENVTL. L. 173.

Nimmer, Melville B. (1970), Does Copyright Abridge the First Amendment Guarantees of Free Speech and Press?, 17 UCLA L. REV. 1180.

Noam, Eli M. (1994), Beyond Liberalization II: The Impending Doom of Common Carriage, 18 TELECOMM. POL’Y 435. Sec. III.3.

NOAM, ELI M. (2001), INTERCONNECTING THE NETWORK OF NETWORKS.

NORTH, D. (1990), INSTITUTIONS, INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE.

NORTH, DOUGLASS C. (2005), UNDERSTANDING THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC CHANGE.

Nuechterlein, Jonathan E. (2009), Antitrust Oversight of an Antitrust Dispute, 7 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 19.

NUECHTERLEIN, JONATHAN E., & PHILIP J. WEISER (2005), DIGITAL CROSSROADS: AMERICAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY IN THE INTERNET AGE.

Oakland, W. H. (1987), Theory of Public Goods, in 2 HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC ECONOMICS 485 (Alan J. Auerbach & Martin Feldstein eds.).

Oberholzer-Gee, Felix, & Koleman Strumpf (2007), The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An Empirical Analysis, 115 JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 1–42.

OCHOA, ORLANDO A. (1996), GROWTH, TRADE, AND ENDOGENOUS TECHNOLOGY.

(p.394) Odlyzko, Andrew (2004a), The Evolution of Price Discrimination in Transportation and Its Implications for the Internet, 3 REV. OF NETWORK ECON. 323.

Odlyzko, Andrew (2004b), Privacy, Economics, and Price Discrimination on the Internet, in ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION SECURITY 187 (L. Jean Camp & Stephen Lewis eds.).

OECD (1962), THE MEASUREMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES: PROPOSED STANDARD PRACTICE FOR SURVEYS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.

OECD (2000), KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE LEARNING SOCIETY.

OECD (2006), INFRASTRUCTURE TO 2030: TELECOM, LAND TRANSPORT, WATER AND ELECTRICITY.

OECD (2008), ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND PATENTS.

OECD (2010), GLOBALISATION, TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT.

Ohm, Paul (2009), The Rise and Fall of Internet Surveillance, 2009 U. ILL. L. REV. 1417.

OLSON, MANCUR (1965), THE LOGIC OF COLLECTIVE ACTION.

O’Mahony, Siobhán, and Beth A. Bechky (2008), Boundary Organizations: Enabling Collaboration among Unexpected Allies, 53 ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY 422.

Opderbeck, David (2009), Deconstructing Jefferson’s Candle: Towards a Critical Realist Approach to Cultural Environmentalism and Information Policy, 49 JURIMETRICS 203.

Opinion, Innovation’s Golden Goose (2002), 2002 ECONOMIST TECH. Q.3.

O’Rourke, Maureen A. (2000), Toward a Doctrine of Fair Use in Patent Law, 100 COLUM. L. REV. 1177.

Ortiz-Moctezuma et al. (2010), Development of Transportation Infrastructure in the Context of Economic Growth, in DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND THE ENVIRONMENT.

OSTROM, ELINOR (1990), GOVERNING THE COMMONS: THE EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS FOR COLLECTIVE ACTION.

OSTROM, ELINOR (2005), UNDERSTANDING INSTITUTIONAL DIVERSITY.

Ostrom, Elinor (2007), A Diagnostic Approach for Going beyond Panaceas, 104 PROC. NAT’L ACAD. SCI. USA 15181.

Ostrom, Elinor (1998), Reflections on the Commons, in MANAGING THE COMMONS 95 (John Baden & Douglas S. Noonan eds.).

Padmore, Tim, & Hervey Gibson (1998), Modeling Regional Innovation and Competitiveness, in LOCAL AND REGIONAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION 45 (John De la Mothe & Gilles Paquet eds.).

PAPANDREOU, ANDREAS A. (1994), EXTERNALITY AND INSTITUTIONS.

Parasidis, Efthimios (2010), A Uniform Framework for Patent Eligibility, 85 TUL. L. REV. 323.

Patterson, L. Ray (1987), Free Speech, Copyright, and Fair Use, 40 VAND. L. REV. 1.

Pearce, David (1998), Auditing the Earth, ENVIRONMENT, March, at 23.

PEAT, F. D. (2002), FROM CERTAINTY TO UNCERTAINTY: THE STORY OF SCIENCE AND IDEAS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

PEGRUM, D. F. (1944), Incremental Cost Pricing: A Comment, 20 J. OF LAND AND PUBLIC UTILITY ECON. 60–63.

Peitz, Martin, & Patrick Waelbroeck (2004), The Effect of Internet Piracy on CD Sales: Cross-Section Evidence, CESIFO Working Paper No. 1122, January.

Peltzman, Sam (1976), Toward a More General Theory of Regulation, 19(2) J. OF L. AND ECON. 211–40.

PELTZMAN, SAM (1998), POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND GOVERNMENT REGULATION?

(p.395) Pickert, Kate (2009), Postcard from Hughson, TIME, Mar. 12, available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1884835,00.html.

PIGOU, ARTHUR CECIL (1920), THE ECONOMICS OF WELFARE.

PINK, DANIEL H. (2010), DRIVE.

Plowden, Stephen (2005), Memorandum, in ROAD PRICING: THE NEXT STEPS (House of Commons: Transport Committee).

Poe, Marshall (2006), The Hive, ATLANTIC ONLINE, September, available at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/09/the-hive/5118/

Poirier, Marc R. (2006), Modified Private Property: New Jersey’s Public Trust Doctrine, Private Development and Exclusion, and Shared Public Uses of Natural Resources, 15 SE. ENVTL. L. J. 71.

Poirier, Marc R. (2008), Natural Resources, Congestion, and the Feminist Future: Aspects of Frischmann’s Theory of Infrastructure Resources, 35 ECOLOGY L.Q. 179.

Pollack, Malla (2002), The Multiple Unconstitutionality of Business Method Patents: Common Sense, Congressional Consideration, and Constitutional History, 28 RUTGERS COMPUTER & TECH. L. J. 61.

Poole, Robert W. Jr. (1996), Private Toll Roads, in PRIVATIZING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS 165 (Simon Hakim et al. eds.)

Portes, Alejandro (1998), Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology, 24 ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY 1–24.

Posner, Richard A. (1986), Free Speech in an Economic Perspective, 20 SUFFOLK U. L. REV. 1.

Powell, Walter W. (2001), Networks of Learning in Biotechnology: Opportunities and Constraints Associated with Relational Contracting in a Knowledge-Intensive Field, in EXPANDING THE BOUNDARIES OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: INNOVATION POLICY FOR THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY 251, 263–65 (Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss et al. eds.).

Power, Alison G. (2010), Ecosystem Services and Agriculture: Tradeoffs and Synergies, PHILOS. TRANS. R. SOC. LOND. B. BIOL. SCI.

Preserving the Open Internet, 76 Fed. Reg. 59,192, 59,192 (Sept. 23, 2011) (to be codified at 47 C.F.R. pts. 0 and 8), available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-23/pdf/2011-24259.pdf.

President’s Info. Tech. Advisory Comm. (1999), Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future, available at http://www.ccic.gov/ac/report/pitac_report.pdf.

PUTNAM, ROBERT (2000), BOWLING ALONE: THE COLLAPSE AND REVIVAL OF AMERICAN COMMUNITY.

PUTNAM, ROBERT D. (1993), Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy.

Quelch, John (2009), Quantifying the Economic Impact of the Internet, WORKING KNOWLEDGE–HARV. BUS. SCH., Aug. 17, available at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6268.html.

Rai, Arti Kaur (1999), Regulating Scientific Research: Intellectual Property Rights and the Norms of Science, 94 NW. U. L. REV. 77.

Rai, Arti Kaur (2005), Proprietary Rights and Collective Action: The Case of Biotechnology Research with Low Commercial Value, in INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC GOODS AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN A GLOBALIZED INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY REGIME (Jerome Reichman and Keith Maskus, eds.).

Rainie, Lee (2010), Internet, Broadband, and Cell Phone Statistics, PEW INTERNET, Jan. 5, available at http://www.pewinternet.org/∼/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_December09_update.pdf.

(p.396) Ramsey, Frank P. (1927), A Contribution to the Theory of Taxation, 37(145) ECON. J. 47.

Ransom, Diana (2010), Earning Cash with YouTube Videos, WALL ST. J., June 18, available at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704122904575314851538643196.html?mod=WSJ_SmallBusiness_LEADNewsCollection.

Ratliff, James D., & Daniel L. Rubinfeld (2010), Online Advertising: Defining Relevant Markets, 6 J. COMPETITION L. & ECON. 653.

Reed, David P. et al. (1998), Commentaries on “Active Networking and End-to-End Arguments,” 12(3) IEEE NETWORK 66.

REGIONAL STUDIES ASSOCIATION (1989), BUILT ENVIRONMENT: VOLUME 15.

Reichman, J. H., & Paul F. Uhlir (2003), A Contractually Reconstructed Research Commons for Scientific Data in a Highly Protectionist Intellectual Property Environment, 66 L. & CONTEMP. PROBLEMS 315.

Reply Comments of Comcast Corp., In the Matter of Preserving the Open Internet, GN Docket No. 09-191, WC Docket No. 07-52 (Received Apr. 26, 2010).

Revesz, Richard L. (1999), Environmental Regulation, Cost-Benefit Analysis, and the Discounting of Human Lives, 99 COLUM. L. REV. 941.

Revesz, Richard L., & Robert N. Stavins (2007), Environmental Law, in HANDBOOK OF LAW AND ECONOMICS, VOL. 1 (A. Mitchell Polinsky & Steven Shavell eds.), available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/rstavins/Papers/Environmental_Law_and_Policy_Handbook_Chapter_by_Revesz_&_Stavins.pdf.

Rey, Patrick, & Jean Tirole (2007), A Primer on Foreclosure, reprinted in III HANDBOOK OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION (Mark Armstrong & Rob Porter eds.) 2145–2220.

Rich, Giles S. (1942), The Relation between Patent Practices and the Anti-Monopoly Laws—Part II, 24 J. Pat. Off. Soc’y 159 (1942), reprinted in 14 FED. CIR. B. J. 21 (2004).

Rob, Rafael, & Joel Waldfogel (2006), Piracy on the High C’s: Music Downloading, Sales Displacement, and Social Welfare in a Sample of College Students, 49(1) J. OF L. & ECON. 29.

Robinson, Glen O. (1991), Regulatory and Institutional Change, in AFTER THE BREAK-UP: ASSESSING THE POST-AT&T DIVESTITURE ERA (Barry G. Cole ed.).

ROBINSON, GLEN O. (2008), COMMUNICATIONS REGULATION.

Robinson, Glen O., & Dennis L. Weisman (2008), Designing Competition Policy for Telecommunications, 7 REV. OF NETWORK ECON. 509.

ROBINSON, JOAN (1933), THE ECONOMICS OF IMPERFECT COMPETITION.

Romer, Paul (1986), Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth, 94(5) J. OF POLITICAL ECON. 1002.

Romer, Paul M. (1996), Why, Indeed, in America? Theory, History, and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth, 86 AMERICAN ECON. REV., PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS.

Rose, Carol (1986), The Comedy of the Commons: Custom, Commerce, and Inherently Public Property, 53 U. CHICAGO L. REV. 711.

Rose, Carol (2003), Romans, Roads, and Romantic Creators: Traditions of Public Property in the Information Age, 66 L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 89.

ROSENBERG, NATHAN (1994), EXPLORING THE BLACK BOX: TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND HISTORY.

ROSSI, JIM (2005), REGULATORY BARGAINING & PUBLIC LAW.

Rudolf, John Collins (2010), Coral Die-Off Took Scientist by Surprise, N.Y. TIMES, Nov. 6, available at http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/06/coral-cataclysm-took-scientist-by-surprise.

(p.397) Ruggles, Nancy (1949), Recent Developments in the Theory of Marginal Cost Pricing, 17 REV. ECON. STUD. 107.

RUHL, J. B., STEVEN E. KRAFT, & C. L. LANT (2007), THE LAW AND POLICY OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES.

Ruhl, J. B., & James Salzman (2007), The Law and Policy Beginnings of Ecosystem Services, 22 J. LAND USE & ENVTL. L. 157.

Sag, Matthew (2010), The Google Book Settlement and the Fair Use Counterfactual, 55 N.Y.L. SCH. L. REV. 790.

Saltzer, Jerome H. et al. (1981), End-to-End Arguments in System Design, 1981 SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SYSTEMS 509.

Saltzer, Jerome H. et al. (1984), End-to-End Arguments in System Design, 2 ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER SYS. 277.

Salzman, James (1997), Valuing Ecosystem Services, 24 ECOLOGY L. Q. 887.

Salzman, James (2006), A Field of Green? The Past and Future of Ecosystem Services, 21 J. LAND USE & ENVTL. L. 133.

Salzman, James, & J. B. Ruhl (2000), Currencies and the Commodification of Environmental Law, 53 STAN. L. REV. 607.

Salzman, James, Barton H. Thompson Jr., & Gretchen C. Daily (2001), Protecting Ecosystem Services: Science, Economics, and Law, 20 STAN. ENVTL. L. J. 309.

Samuelson, Pamela (2006), Enriching Discourse on Public Domains, 55 DUKE L. J. 783.

Samuelson, Paul A. (1954), A Pure Theory of Public Expenditure, 36 REV. ECON. & STAT. 387.

Samuelson, Paul A. (1958), Aspects of Public Expenditure Theories, 40 REV. ECON. & STAT. 332.

Sashkin, Davina (2006), Failure of Imagination: Why Inaction on Net Neutrality Regulation Will Result in a de Facto Legal Regime Promoting Discriminatory and Consumer Harm, 15 COMMLAW CONSPECTUS 261.

Sawkar, Anu R. (2008), Are Storylines Patentable? Testing the Boundaries of Patentable Subject Matter, 76 FORDHAM L. REV. 3001.

Sax, Joseph L. (1970), The Public Trust Doctrine in Natural Resources Law: Effective Judicial Intervention, 68 MICH. L. REV. 471.

Schaafsma, Paul E. (2010), The Case for Financial Product Patents: What the Supreme Court got Right and Wrong in Bilski v. Kappos, and a Suggestion for Reasonable Line on Business Method Patents, 92 J. Pat. & Trademark Off. Soc’y 398.

Schatz, Thomas G. (1977), New Directions in Film Genre Studies (A Response to Charles F. Altman), in 2 FILM HISTORICAL-THEORETICAL SPECULATIONS 44.

SCHATZ, THOMAS G. (1981), HOLLYWOOD GENRES.

SCHERER, F. M. (1984), Innovation and Growth: Schumpeterian Perspectives.

SCHERER, F. M., AND D. Ross (1990), INDUSTRIAL MARKET STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE.

Schmalensee, Richard (1981), Output and Welfare Implications of Monopolistic Third-Degree Price Discrimination, 71(1) AM. ECON. REV. 242.

SCHMIDT, GORDON W. (2003), DYNAMICS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH: A CASE STUDY FOR THE ROMER MODEL.

Schultz, Jason, & Pamela Samuelson (2011), “Clues” for Determining Whether Business and Service Innovations Are Unpatentable Abstract Ideas, 15 LEWIS & CLARK L. REV. (forthcoming 2011).

(p.398) Scotchmer, Suzanne (1991), Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law, 5(1) J. OF ECON. PERSPECTIVES.

Scotchmer, Suzanne (1996), Protecting Early Innovators: Should Second-Generation Products Be Patentable?, 27 RAND J. ECON. 322.

Scotchmer, Suzanne (1998), Incentives to Innovate, PALGRAVE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LAW & ECONOMICS 273, 275.

SCOTCHMER, SUZANNE (2004), INNOVATION AND INCENTIVES.

Segal, David (2010), Should BP’s Money Go Where the Oil Didn’t?, N.Y. TIMES, Oct. 23, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/business/24claim.html.

Sen, Amartya (1993), Capability and Well-Being, in THE QUALITY OF LIFE (M. Nussbaum and A. Sen eds.) 30–53.

SEN, AMARTYA. (2009), THE IDEA OF JUSTICE.

Sen. Rep. No. 75, 67th Cong., 1st Sess. 1 (1921).Shane, Scott (2004), Encouraging University Entrepreneurship? The Effect of the Bayh-Dole Act on University Patenting in the United States, 19 J. BUS. VENTURING 127, 129.

SHAPIRO, CARL, AND HAL R. VARIAN (1998), INFORMATION RULES: A STRATEGIC GUIDE TO THE NETWORK ECONOMY.

Sicker, Douglas C., & Joshua L. Mindel (2002), Refinements of a Layered Model for Telecommunications Policy, 1 J. ON TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 69.

SIDAK, J. GREGORY, & DANIEL F. SPULBER (1998), DEREGULATORY TAKINGS AND THE REGULATORY CONTRACT.

Simarmata, Djamester A. (1998), Regulatory Reform and International Market Openness, in REGULATORY REFORM IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY.

SLAUGHTER, SHEILA, & Larry L. LESLIE (1997), ACADEMIC CAPITALISM: POLITICS, POLICIES, AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY.

SMALL, KENNETH A., ET AL. (1989), ROAD WORK: A NEW HIGHWAY PRICING AND INVESTMENT POLICY.

Smith, Aaron (2010), Home Broadband 2010, PEW INTERNET, Aug. 11, 2010, available at http://www.pewinternet.org/∼/media//Files/Reports/2010/Home%20broadband%202010.pdf.

Smith, Aaron, & Lee Rainie (2010), 8% of Online Americans Use Twitter, PEW INTERNET, Dec. 9, available at http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Twitter-update-2010.aspx.

Smith, Henry E. (2000), Semicommon Property Rights and Scattering in the Open Fields, 29 J. LEGAL STUD. 131.

Solow, R. M. (2000), Notes on Social Capital and Economic Performance, in SOCIAL CAPITAL: A MULTIFACETED PERSPECTIVE 6 (P. Dasgupta & I. Serageldin eds.).

SORENSEN, PAUL ET AL. (2008), MOVING LOS ANGELES: SHORT-TERM POLICY OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING TRANSPORTATION.

Speta, James B. (2002), A Common Carrier Approach to Internet Interconnections, 54 FCLJ 225.

Spulber, Daniel F. (1986), Second Best Pricing and Cooperation, 17(2) RAND J. OF ECON. 239.

Srinivas, Krishna Ravi (2010), Open Source Drug Discovery, in INCENTIVES FOR GLOBAL PUBLIC HEALTH: PATENT LAW AND ACCESS TO ESSENTIAL MEDICINES (Thomas Pogge et al. eds.).

Staff of House Comm. on Science (1998), 105th Cong., 1st sess., Unlocking Our Future: Toward a New National Science Policy 8 (Comm. Print 1998), available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/house/science /Cp105-b/science105b.pdf.

(p.399) Steinmueller, W. Edward (1996), Technological Infrastructure in Information Technology Industries, in TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE (M. Teubal, D. Foray, M. Justman, & E. Zuscovitch eds.).

Steins, Nathalie A., & Victoria M. Edwards (1999), Platforms for Collective Action in Multiple-Use Common-Pool Resources, 16 AGRIC. & HUMAN VALUES 241.

STERLING, CHRISTOPHER H., ET AL. (2008), SHAPING AMERICAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS.

STIGLER, G. J. (1966), THE THEORY OF PRICE.

Stigler, G. (1971), The theory of economic regulation, 2 BELL J. ECON. MAN. SCI. 3–21.

Stole, Lars A. (2007), Price Discrimination and Competition, in 3 HANDBOOK OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION 2221.

Stone, Brad, & Noam Cohen (2009), Social Networks Spread Defiance Online, N.Y. TIMES, June 16, at 11.

Strahilevitz, Lior Jacob (2000), How Changes in Property Regimes Influence Social Norms: Commodifying California’s Carpool Lanes, 75 IND. L. J. 1231.

Strandburg, Katherine J. (2011), Patent Fair Use 2.0, U.C. IRVINE L. REV. (forthcoming 2011).

Sutton, Paul C., & Robert Costanza (2002), Global Estimates of Market and Nonmarket Values Derived from Nighttime Satellite Imagery, Land Cover, and Ecosystem Services Valuation, 41 ECOLOGICAL ECON. 509.

Tassey, Gregory (1995), Infratechnologies and Economic Growth, in TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 59 (Morris Teubal et al. eds.).

TAYLOR, CHARLES (1995), PHILOSOPHICAL ARGUMENTS.

TAYLOR, JOHN G., & AKILA WEERAPANA (2009), ECONOMICS.

TAYLOR, PAUL W. (1986), RESPECT for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics.

TEUBAL, MORRIS ET AL. (1995), TECHNOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE.

Texas Transportation Institute (2010), Urban Mobility Report, available at http://tti.tamu.edu/documents/mobility_report_2010.pdf.

Thierer, Adam (2005), The Real Net Neutrality Debate: Price Flexibility versus Price Regulation, TECH. LIBERATION FRONT, Oct. 27, available at http://techliberation.com/2005/10/27/the-real-net-neutrality-debate-pricing-flexibility-versus-pricing-regulation/.

Thomas, John R. (1995), The Question Concerning Patent Law and Pioneer Inventions, 10 HIGH TECH. L. J. 35.

THOMSON, J. M. (1974), Modern Transport Economics.

THUMANN, ALBERT, & D. PAUL MEHTA (2008), HANDBOOK OF ENERGY ENGINEERING.

Tiebout, Charles M. (1956), A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures, 64(5) J. OF POL. ECON. 416.

TIROLE, JEAN (1988), THE THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION.

Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet Users, Internet World Stats, available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/top20.htm (last modified Aug. 21, 2010).

Transmission Control Protocol: DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification, IETF RFC 793 (Sept. 1981), available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc0793.txt?number=793.

Tribe, Laurence H., & Michael C. Dorf (1990), Levels of Generality in the Definition of Rights, 57 CHI. L. REV. 1057.

TUCKER, IRVIN B. (2008), MICROECONOMICS FOR TODAY.

Turner, R. Kerry, et al. (2003), Valuing Nature: Lessons Learned and Future Research Directions, 46 ECOLOGICAL ECON. 493.

(p.400) Turow, Joseph (2005), Have They Got a Deal for You: It’s Suspiciously Cozy in the Cybermarket, Washington Post, June 19.

Turow, Joseph, Lauren Feldman, & Kimberly Meltzer (2005), OPEN TO EXPLOITATION: AMERICAN SHOPPERS ONLINE AND OFFLINE, A Report from the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.

Tushnet, Rebecca (2009), Economies of Desire: Fair Use and Marketplace Assumptions, 51 WM. & MARY L. REV. 513.

U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Transportation Statistics Annual Report, Condition of U.S. Highway Bridges: 1990–2007 (2008), available at http://www.bts.gov/publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/2008/pdf/entire.pdf.

S Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Carpool Incentive Programs (2001), available at http://www.commutesolutions.com/letsride/Resources/commuterchoice/carpool.pdf.

S EPA, Ecological Research Program Multi-Year Plan FY 2008–2014 app. A (Feb. 2008) (Draft Review).

US EPA, Office of Water (1995), Controlling Nonpoint Source Runoff Pollution from Roads, Highways and Bridges, Aug. (EPA-841-F-95–008a).

US EPA, Transportation and Air Quality, available at http://www.epa.gov/oms.

VAIDHYANATHAN, SIVA (2001), COPYRIGHTS AND COPYWRONGS: THE RISE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND HOW IT THREATENS CREATIVITY.

Van Schewick, Barbara (2008), Architecture and Innovation: The Role of the End-to-End Arguments in the Original Internet, PhD Dissertation, Technical University Berlin 2005, MIT Press, Boston.

VAN SCHEWICK, BARBARA (2010), INTERNET ARCHITECTURE AND INNOVATION.

Varian, H. R. (1985), Price Discrimination and Social Welfare, 75 AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW 870–75.

Varian, Hal R. (1996), Differential Pricing and Efficiency, 1(2) FIRST MONDAY.

Vermont, Samson (2006), Independent Invention as a Defense to Patent Infringement, 105 MICH. L. REV. 475, 484.

Vetter, Greg R. (2007), Open Source Licensing and Scattering Opportunism in Software Standards, 47 B.C. L. REV. 225.

VISCUSI, W. KIP, JOSEPH E. HARRINGTON, & JOHN M. VERNON (2005), ECONOMICS OF REGULATION AND ANTITRUST (4th ed.).

VON HIPPEL, ERIC (2005), DEMOCRATIZING INNOVATION.

Waldfogel, Joel (2010), File Sharing and Sales Displacement in the iTunes Era, INFORMATION ECONOMICS & POLICY.

WALKER, GILBERT (1942), ROAD AND RAIL.

Waters, Richard (2010), Investors Wary of Hype for Skype, FINANCIALTIMES (London), Aug. 10, available at ProQuest, Document ID 2107145931.

Weinberg, Jonathan (1999), The Internet and “Telecommunications Services,” Universal Service Mechanisms, Access Charges, and Other Flotsam of the Regulatory System, 16 YALE J. ON REG. 211.

Weiser, Phillip J. (2003), The Internet, Innovation, and Intellectual Property Policy, 103 COLUM. L. REV. 534, 564–68.

Weisman, Dennis L., & Robert B. Kulick (2010), Price Discrimination, Two-Sided Markets, and Net Neutrality Regulation, 13 TUL. J. TECH. & INTELL. PROP. 81.

(p.401) Werbach, Kevin (2002), A Layered Model for Internet Privacy, 1 J. ON TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 37.

Werbach, Kevin (2004), Supercommons: Toward a Unified Theory of Wireless Communication, 82 TEXAS L. REV. 863.

Werbach, Kevin (2007), Only Connect, BERKELEY TECH. L. J., 1234.

Werbach, Kevin (2011), The Wasteland: Anticommons, White Spaces, and the Fallacy of Spectrum, 53 ARIZONA L. REV.

Whitt, Richard S. (2004), A Horizontal Leap Forward: Formulating a New Communications Public Policy Framework Based on the Network Layers Model, 56 FED. COMM. L. J. 587.

Whitt, Richard S. (2009), Adaptive Policymaking: Evolving and Applying Emergent Solutions for U.S. Communications Policy, 61 FED. COMM. L. J. 483.

Wigod, Aaron M. (2002), Comment, The AOL-Time Warner Merger: An Analysis of the Broadband Internet Access Market, 6 J. SMALL & EMERGING BUS. L. 349.

WILKIN, PETER (2001), THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATION.

Williamson, Oliver E. (1971), The Vertical Integration of Production: Market Failure Considerations, 61(2) AM. ECON. REV.

Wilson, Kevin G. (2000), Deregulating telecommunications: U.S. and Canadian telecommunications, 1840–1997.

Wilson, Robert (2002), Architecture of Power Markets, 70 ECONOMETRICA 1299.

Wireline Competition Bureau, Notice of Proposed Rule-Making, Received Oct. 22, 2009, available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/comment_search/input?z=ho0cw (under Proceeding Number, input “09–191” and under Name of Filer, input “Wireline Competition Bureau” and input “10/22/2009” under “Date Received”).

Wu, Tim (2003), Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination, 2 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 141.

Wu, Tim (2004), The Broadband Debate: A User’s Guide, 3 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 69.

WU, TIM (2011), THE MASTER SWITCH.

Wu, Tim, & Lawrence Lessig (2003), Letter to Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary, FCC, CS Docket No. 02-52 (Aug. 22), available at http://faculty.virginia.edu/timwu/wu_lessig_fcc.pdf.

Yen, Alfred C. (2003), Eldred, the First Amendment, and Aggressive Copyright Claims, 40 HOUSTON L. REV. 673.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2003), Rethinking the Commitment to Free, Local Television, 52 EMORY L. J. 1579.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2004), Would Mandating Broadband Network Neutrality Help or Hurt Competition? A Comment on the End-to-End Debate, 3 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 32.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2006), Network Neutrality and the Economics of Congestion, 95 GEO. L. J. 1947.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2007), Copyright and Public Good Economics: A Misunderstood Relation, 155 U. PA. L. REV. 635.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2008), Network Neutrality, Consumers, and Innovation, 2008 U. CHI. LEGAL F. 179.

Yoo, Christopher S. (2010), Innovations in the Internet’s Architecture That Challenges the Status Quo, 8 J. TELECOMM. & HIGH TECH. L. 79.

Yoshida, Yoshihiro (2000), Third-Degree Price Discrimination in Input Markets: Output and Welfare, 90(1) AM. ECON. REV. 240.

(p.402) Yu, Peter K. (2005), Intellectual Property and the Information Ecosystem, 2005 MICH. ST. L. REV. 1.

Yujie, Liu (2011), Beijing’s New Traffic Rules Surprise Some Drivers, CHINA DAILY, Jan. 5, available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2011–01/05/content_11798638.htm.

Zentner, Alejandro (2006), Measuring the Effect of File Sharing on Music Purchases, 49 J. OF LAW AND ECON. 63–90.

Zhao, Yidi (2011), Beijing Residents Rush to Register Cars on New Quota, BLOOMBERG NEWS, Jan. 3, available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011–01-02/beijing-residents-rush-to-register-new-cars-to-meet-china-s-quota-system.html.

Zickuhr, Kathryn, & Lee Rainie (2011), Report: Wikipedia Past and Present, PEW INTERNET, Jan. 13, available at http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Wikipedia/Report.aspx.

ZITTRAIN, JONATHAN (2008), THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET AND HOW TO STOP IT.