Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
School BullyingNew Perspectives on a Growing Problem$

David R. Dupper

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199859597

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199859597.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 27 February 2017

(p.101) References

(p.101) References

School Bullying
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Allen K. P. (2010). A bullying intervention system: Reducing risk and creating support for aggressive students. Preventing School Failure, 54, 199–209.

American Civil Liberties Union. ( n.d. ). The ACLU and freedom of religion and belief. Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/religion-belief/aclu-and-freedom-religion-and-belief

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2011, July 18). State anti-bullying laws. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (2011). Sexual orientation and homosexuality. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sexual-orientation.aspx

Ang R. P., & Goh D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 387–397.

Apter S. J., & Propper C. A. (1986). Ecological perspectives on youth violence. In S. J. Apter & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.), Youth violence: Programs and prospects (pp. 140–159). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Banyard V. L., Cross C., & Modecki K. L. (2006). Interpersonal violence in adolescence: Ecological correlates of self-reported perpetration. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 1314–1332.

Barboza G. E., Schiamberg L. B., Oehmke J., Korzeniewski S. J., Post L. A., & Heraux C.G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 101–121.

Bartkowski J. (1996). Beyond biblical literalism and inerrancy: Conservative Protestants and the hermeneutic interpretation of scripture. Sociology of Religion, 57, 259–272.

Belenardo S. J. (2001). Practices and conditions that lead to a sense of community in middle schools. NASSP Bulletin, 85, 1–7.

Benson J. (2011, July 11). Psychiatrist says video games are influencing youth, and not for the better. The Day. Retrieved from http://www.theday.com/article/20110602/NWS01/306029399

Beran T., & Li Q. (2007). The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1 (2), 15–33.

Blosnich J., & Bossarte R. (2011). Low-level violence in schools: Is there an association between school safety measures and peer victimization? Journal of School Health, 81, 107–113.

Blumenfeld W. J. (2006). Christian privilege and the promotion of “secular” and not-so “secular” mainline Christianity in public schooling and in the larger society. Equity & Excellence in Education, 39, 195–210. (p.102)

Borg M. (1999). The extent and nature of bullying among primary and secondary school- children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 137–153.

Boulton M., & Underwood K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320–330.

Boxer P., Edwards-Leeper L., Goldstein S. E., Musher-Eizenman D., & Dubow E. F. (2003). Exposure to “low-level” aggression in school: Associations with aggressive behavior, future expectations, and perceived safety. Violence and Victims, 18, 691–705.

Boyd D., & Marwick A. (2011, September 23). Bullying as true drama. The New York Times, A35.

Brody J. E. (2010, February 16). Empathy’s natural, but nurturing it helps. The New York Times, D7.

Cass C., & Anderson S. A. (2011, September 27). Poll: Young people say online meanness pervasive. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/27/poll-young-people-say-onl_n_982834.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Bullying among middle school and high school students—Massachusetts, 2009. MMWR, 60, 465–496.

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. (2011). Embedding bullying interventions into a comprehensive system of student and learning supports. A Center policy & practice brief. Los Angeles: Author.

Center for School Mental Health Assistance. (2002). Bullying resource packet. Baltimore: University of Maryland.

Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2011). Definitions of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.

Christenson P., & Ivancin M. (2006). The “reality” of health: Reality television and the public health. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Cohn A., & Canter A. (2003). Bullying: Facts for schools and parents. Retrieved from National Association of School Psychologists Web site: http://www.naspcenter.org

Coivin G., Tobin T., Beard K., Hadan S., & Sprague J. (1998). The school bully: Assessing the problem, developing interventions, and future research direction. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8, 293–319.

Cole A. H., Jr. (2006). Working with families from religious fundamentalist backgrounds. In C. Franklin, M. B. Harris, & P. Allen-Meares (Eds.), School services sourcehook: A guide for school-based professionals (471–499). New York: Oxford University Press.

Costello M. (2010a ). Bullying is a civil rights issue. Teaching tolerance. Montgomery, AL: Southern Poverty Law Center.

Costello M. (2010b ). Focus on the Family goes after LGBT students. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved from Teaching tolerance Web site: www.tolerance.org

Craig W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personal and Individual Differences, 24, 123–130.

Craig W. M., Pepler D., & Atlas R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International, 21, 22–36. (p.103)

Crick N. R., Nelson D. A., Morales J. R., Cullerton-Sen C., Casas J. F., & Hickman S.E. (2001). Relational victimization in childhood and adolescence: I hurt you through the grapevine. In J. Juvonen and S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 196–214). New York: Guilford Press.

Croucher R. (and others). (2009). Religious bullying. Retrieved from http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/22258.htm

Cunningham P. B., Henggeler S. W., Limber S. P., Melton G. B., and Nation M. A. (2000). Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetropolitan and rural middle school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 432–442.

Cushman C. (2010). The problem with politicized bullying policies. Cititzen Link. Retrieved from http://www.citizenlink.com/2010/06/14/the-problem-with-politicized-bullying-policies/

Darling N. (2010). Teasing and bullying, boys and girls. Retrieved from www.psychologytoday.com/print/49693

D’Augelli A., Grossman A., Salter N., Vasey J., Starks M., & Sinclair K. (2005). Predicting the suicide attempts of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 35, 646–660.

David-Ferdon C., & Hertz M. F. (2009). Electronic media and youth violence: A CDC issue brief for researchers. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control.

Dawkins J. L. (1996). Bullying, physical disability and the pediatric patient. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 603–612.

DeHue F., Bolman C., & Völlink T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters’ experiences and parental perception. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 217–223.

Delmonico D. L., & Griffin E. J. (2008). Cybersex and the e-teen: What marriage and family therapists should know. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 34, 431–444.

Devine J. F. (1996). Maximum security: The culture of violence in inner-city schools. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

DeVoe J. F., Kaffenberger S., and Chandler K. (2005). Student reports of bullying results: From the 2001 school crime supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/2005310.pdf

Diaz E. M., Kosciw J. G., & Greytak E.A. (2010). School connectedness for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: In-school victimization and institutional supports. The Prevention Researcher, 17, 15–17.

Doll B., Song S., Champion A., & Jones K. (2011). Classroom ecologies that support or discourage bullying. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American Schools (2nd ed., pp. 147–158). New York: Routledge.

Draper E. (2010, August 29). Focus on Family says anti-bullying efforts in schools push gay agenda. The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_15928224?IADID=Search-www.denverpost.com-www.denverpost.com

Duncan R. D. (2011). Family relationships of bullies and victims. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American Schools (2nd ed., pp. 191–204). New York: Routledge.

Dupper D. R. (2010). A new model of school discipline: Engaging students and preventing behavior problems. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dupper D. R., & Meyer-Adams N. (2002). Low-level violence: A neglected aspect of school culture. Urban Education, 37, 350–364.

(p.104) Durlak J. A., Taylor R. D., Kawashima K., Pachan M. K., DuPre E. R., Celio C. I., et al. (2007). Effects of positive youth development programs on school, family, and community systems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39, 269–286.

Eckholm E. (2011a, December 28). Battling anew over the place of religion in public schools. New York Times, A10.

Eckholm E. (2011b, September 13). In suburb, battle goes public on bullying of gay students. New York Times, A1.

Eliot M., Cornell D., Gregory A., & Fan X. (2010). Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 533–553.

Espelage D. L. (2004). An ecological perspective to school-based bullying prevention. The Prevention Researcher, 11, 3–6.

Espelage D., Stein N., Rose C., & Elliot J. (2009, April). Middle school bullying & sexual violence: Unique & shared predictors. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference, San Diego, CA.

Fagan A. A., Hawkins J. D., & Catalano R. F. (2008). Using community epidemiologic data to improve social settings: The Communities That Care prevention system. In M. Shin (Ed.), Toward positive youth development: Transforming schools and community programs (pp. 292–312). Oxford, UK; New York: Oxford University Press.

Fairbanks S., Simonsen B., & Sugai G. (2008). Classwide secondary and tertiary tier practices and systems. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 44–52.

Faris R., & Felmlee D. (2011). Status struggles: Network centrality and gender segregation in same- and cross-gender aggression. American Sociological Review, 76, 48–73.

Farmer T. W., Petrin R. A., Robertson D. L., Fraser M. W., Hall C. M., Day S. H., et al. (2010). Peer relations of bullies, bully-victims, and victims: The two social worlds of bullying in second-grade classrooms. Elementary School Journal, 110, 364–392.

Farrington D. (1993). Understanding and preventing bullying. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and Justice: A review of research (Vol. 17, pp. 381–458). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Farrington D. P., & Ttofi M. M. (2010). School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization. Report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/229377.pdf

Fox J. A., Elliot D. S., Kerlikowske R. G., Newman S. A., & Christenson W. (2003). Bullying prevention is crime prevention. Washington, DC: Fight Crime: Invest in Kids. Retrieved from http://www.fightcrime.org/state/usa/reports/bullying-prevention-crime-prevention-2003

Franks L. (2010, March 31). How to stop a bully. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2010/03/31/how-to-stop-a-bully.html

Freiberg H. J., & Lapointe J. M. (2006). Research-based programs for preventing and solving discipline problems. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 735–786). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. (p.105)

Freiberg H. J., & Stein T. A. (1999). Measuring, improving and sustaining healthy learning environments. In H. J. Freiberg (Ed.), School climate: Measuring, improving and sustaining healthy learning environments. London: Falmer Press.

Frey K. S., Edstrom L. V., & Hirschstein M. K. (2010). School bullying: A crisis or an opportunity? In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 403–415). New York: Routledge.

Frey K. S., Carlson Jones D., Hirschstein M. K., & Edstrom L. V. (2011). Teacher support of bullying prevention: The good, the bad, and the promising. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 266–277). New York: Routledge.

Furlong M. J., Chung A., Bates M., & Morrison R. L. (1995). Who are the victims of school violence? A comparison of student non-victims and multi-victims. Education and Treatment of Children, 18, 282–298.

Galloway D., & Roland E. (2004). Is the direct approach to reducing bullying always the best? In P. K. Smith, D. Pepler, & K. Rigby (Eds.), Bullying in schools: How successful can interventions be? (pp. 37–53). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Garbarino J., & de Lara E. (2003). Words can hurt forever. Educational Leadership, 60 (6), 18–21.

Gastic B. (2008). School truancy and the disciplinary problems of bullying victims. Educational Review, 60 (4), 391–404.

Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). ( n.d. ). Institutional heterosexism in our schools: A guide to understanding and undoing it. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved on October 9, 2011 from www.glsen.org

Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). (2010). The 2009 national climate survey: Executive summary. New York: Author.

Gini G. (2008). Associations between bullying behavior, psychosomatic complaints, emotional, and behavioral problems. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 44, 492–497.

Goldstein A. P. (1999). Low-level aggression. Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Good C. P., McIntosh K., & Gietz C. (2011, Sept./Oct). Integrating bullying prevention into school-wide positive behavior support. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44, 48–56.

Goodemann C., Zammitt K. A., & Hagedorn M. ( in press ). The wolf in sheep’s clothing: Student harassment veiled as bullying. Children & Schools.

Goodwin B. (2011). Bullying is common—And subtle. Educational Leadership, 69, 82–83.

Gore-Oleksiw K. A. (2011). Bullying – no longer just in schools, West Hartford’sproactive approach. Retrieved on October 30, 2011 from http://www.westhartfordnews.com/articles/2011/06/16/news/doc4df92a57051e4166359924.txt

Gould J. E. (2011, August 5). Seth’s law: Can a bullied boy leave California a legal legacy? Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2086521,00.html

Graham S. (2009). Some myths and facts about bullies and victims. In S. Hymel & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying at school and online (special edition of Education.com). Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/bullying-myths-facts/?page=3 (p.106)

Greene M. B. (2006). Bullying in schools: A plea for measure of human rights. Journal of Social Issues, 62, 63–79.

Gruber J. E., & Fineran S. (2008). Comparing the impact of bullying and sexual harassment victimization on the mental and physical health of adolescents. Sex Roles, 59, 1–13.

Guerra N. G., Williams K. R., & Sadek S. (2011). Understanding bullying and victimization during childhood and adolescence: A mixed methods study. Child Development, 82, 295–310.

Hamburger M. E., Basile K. C., & Vivolo A. M. (2011). Measuring bullying victimization, perpetration, and bystander experiences: A compendium of assessment tools. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Hamilton M. L., & Richardson V. (1995). Effects of the culture in two schools on the process and outcomes of staff development. Elementary School Journal, 95, 367–385.

Harris Interactive and GLSEN. (2005). From teasing to torment: School climate in America. A survey of students and teachers. New York: GLSEN.

Hart E. L., & Parmeter S. H. (1992). Writing in the margins: A lesbian and gay inclusive course. In C. M. Hurlbert & S. Totten (Eds.), Social issues in the English classroom (pp. 154–173). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED349574.)

Hawkins J. D., & Catalano R. F. (1992). Communities that care: Action for drug abuse prevention. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.

Haynie D. L., Nansel T., Eitel P., Davis-Crump A., Saylor K., Yu K., et al. (2001). Bullies, victims, and bully/victims: Distinct groups of at-risk youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 21, 29–49.

Hazler R. J. (1994). Bullying breeds violence: You can stop it. Learning, 22, 38–41.

Higgins J. (2011, November 12). Jewish family sues Green schools over bullying of girl. Retrieved from http://www.ohio.com/news/local/jewish-family-sues-green-schools-over-bullying-of-girl-1.245047

Hill C., & Kearl H. (2011). Crossing the line: Sexual harassment at school. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.

Hinduja S., & Patchin J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6, 89–112.

Hinduja S., & Patchin J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the school yard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hinduja S., & Patchin J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 206–221.

Hinduja S., & Patchin J. (2011). Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. Preventing School Failure, 55, 71–78.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J.W. (2012). State Cyberbullying Laws: A brief review of state cyberbullying laws and policies, accessed September 18, 2012, http://www.cyberbullying.us/Bullying_and_Cyberbullying_Laws.pdf

Hoffman J. (2010, June 28). Online bullies pull schools into fray. The New York Times. A1.

Holladay J. (2010, Fall). Cyberbullying: The stakes have never been higher for students—or schools. Teaching Tolerance, 38, 43–46.

(p.107) Holt M., Keyes M., & Koening B. (2011). Teachers’ attitudes toward bullying. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 119–131). New York: Routledge.

Hsiao-chuan H. (2011, January 1). School bullying just reflects society. Taipei Times. Retrieved from

Hu W. (2011, August 31). Bullying law puts New Jersey schools on spot. The New York Times, A1.

Hulsether M. (2007). Religion, culture and politics in the twentieth century United States. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hyman I. A. (1990). Reading, writing and the hickory stick: The appalling story of physical and psychological abuse of American school children. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

Hyman I., & Perone D. (1998). The other side of school violence: Educator policies and practices that may contribute to school misbehavior. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 7–27.

Hyman I. A., & Snook P. (2002). My Worst School Experience Scale (MWSE). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

Hyman I. A., Weiler E., Probone D., Romano L., Britton G., & Shancok A. (1997). Victims and victimizers: The two faces of school maltreatment. In A. Goldstein & J. Conoley (Eds.), School maltreatment intervention: A practical handbook (pp. 426–459). New York: Guilford.

Hyman I. A., Zelikoff W., & Clarke J. (1988). Psychological and physical abuse in the schools: A paradigm for understanding post-traumatic stress disorder in children and youth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 243–267.

Hymel S., Rocke-Henderson N., & Bonanno R. A. (2005). Moral disengagement: A framework for understanding bullying among adolescents [Special international issue on victimization]. Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 1–11.

India Tracy Campaign. (2005). Earthward. Retrieved from http://www.earthward.org/india.shtml

Institute of Education Sciences. (2011). Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Interfaith Report. (2008, November). Beatbullying. UK: Author. Retrieved from http://www.beatbullying.org/index.html

Irvine M., & Tanner R. (2007, October). Sex abuse a shadow over U.S. schools. Education Week, 27 (9), pp. 1, 16–19.

Ivarsson T., Broberg A. G., Arvidsson T., & Gillberg. C. (2005). Bullying in adolescence: Psychiatric problems in victims and bullies as measured by the Youth Self Report (YRS) and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59, 365–373.

Jacobson R. B. (2010). On bullshit and bullying: Taking seriously those we educate. Journal of Moral Education, 39, 437–448.

Janssen K. (2010, July 29). Chicago Public Schools crackdown on cyberbullies. Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved from http://suntimes.com/news/education/2546114,CST-NWS-bully29.article

(p.108) Janssen I., Craig W. M., Boyce W. F., & Pickett W. (2004). Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 113, 1187–1194.

Jenson J. M. (2006). Advances and challenges in preventing childhood and adolescent problem behavior. Social Work Research, 30, 131–134.

Josephson Institute. (2010). Largest study ever shows half of all high school students were bullies and nearly half were the victims of bullying during the past year. Retrieved on April 10, 2011 from http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/2010/installment01_report-card_bullying-youth-violence.html

Juvonen J., & Graham S. (2004). Research-based interventions on bullying. In C. E. Sanders & G. D. Phye (Eds.), Bullying: Implications for the classroom (pp. 229–255). London: Elsevier Academic Press.

Kallestad J. H., & Olweus D. (2003, October 1). Predicting teachers’ and school’s implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: A multilevel study. Prevention & Treatment, 6, Article 21. Retrieved from http://journals.apa.org/prevention

Kaltiala-Heino R., Rimpela M., Rantanen P., & Rimpela. A. (2000). Bullying at school—An indicator of adolescents at risk for mental disorders. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 661–674.

Kaufman G. (2011, September 27). Cyberbullying, sexting widespread, MTV/AP survey reveals. Retrieved from http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1671547/cyberbullying-sexting-mtv-ap-survey.jhtml

Kazdin A., & Rotella C. (2009, August 11). Bullies: They can be stopped, but it takes a village. Slate. Retrieved from www.slate.com/id/2249424

Kerbs J. J., & Jolley J. M. (2007). The joy of violence: What about violence is fun in middle school? American Journal of Criminal Justice, 32, 12–29.

Klomek A. B., Marracco F., Kleinman M., Schonfeld I. S., & Gould M. S. (2007). Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 40–49.

Knox E., & Conti-Ramsden G. (2003). Bullying risks of 11-year-old children with specific language impairment: Does school placement matter? International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 38, 1–12.

Koenig D., & Daniels R. H. (2011). Bully at the blackboard. Teaching Tolerance, 40 (Fall), 58–61.

Kosciw J. G., Diaz E. M., & Greytak E. A. (2008). 2007 National school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN.

Kowalski R. M., & Limber S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S22–S30.

Levesque R. J. R. (2001). Culture and family violence: Fostering change through human rights law (Law and public policy, Vol. 4). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Limber S. P. (2002, May). Addressing youth bullying behaviors. Proceedings from the American Medical Association Educational Forum on Adolescent Health: Youth Bullying. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association. Retrieved from www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/39/youthbullying.pdf

(p.109) Limber S. P., & Nation M. M. (1998). Bullying among children and youth. In J. L. Arnette & M. C. Walsleben (Eds.), Combating fear and restoring safety in schools [Bulletin] (pp. 4–5). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Linsley J. (2001). Working with gay and lesbian youth. New Social Worker, 8, 8–11.

Low S. M., Smith B. H., Brown E. C., Fernandez K., Hanson K., & Haggerty K. P. (2011). Design and analysis of a randomized controlled trial of Steps to Respect: A school-based bullying prevention program. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 278–290). New York: Routledge.

Lumeng, J.C., Forrest, P., Appugliese, D.P. Kaciroti, N., Corwyn, R.F. & Bradley, R.H. (2010). Weight Status as a Predictor of Being Bullied in Third Through Sixth Grades. Pediatrics, e1301. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/125/6/e1301.full.html

Macgillivray I. K. (2004). Sexual orientation and school policy: A practical guide for teachers, administrators, and community activists. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Marcus K. L. (2011, May 27). IJCR blasts religious bullying. Institute for Jewish and Community Research. Retrieved from http://www.jewishresearch.org/v2/2011/press-releases/05-05-2011.html

Martin C. E. (2008, July 10). Counter cyberbullies with compassion. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/layout/set/print/content/view/print/230982

McEvoy A. (2005, September). Teachers who bully students: Patterns and policy implications. Paper presented at the Hamilton Fish Institute’s Persistently Safe Schools Conference, Philadelphia. Retrieved from http://standupforstudents.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/teachers_who_bully_students.239164537.pdf

McQuade III, S. C., & Sampat N. (2008). Survey of internet and at-risk behaviors. Report of the Rochester Institute of Technology. Rochester, NY: Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1850/7652

Meyer-Adams N., & Conner B. T. (2008). School violence: Bullying behaviors and the psychosocial school environment in middle schools. Children & Schools, 30, 211–221.

Moe J. L., Leggett E. S., & Perera-Diltz D. (2011). School counseling for systemic change: Bullying and suicide prevention for LGBTQ youth. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas11/Article_81.pdf

Nansel T., Overpeck M., Pilla R. S., Ruan W.J., Simmons-Morton B., & Schmidt P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth. Journal of American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100.

National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP). (2011). Health risks and needs of gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents. ( National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners’ position statement.) Retrieved August 10, 2011 from http://www.napnap.org/PNPResources/Practice/PositionStatements.aspx

National Mental Health Association. (2002). What does gay mean? How to talk with kids about sexual orientation and prejudice. Retrieved from www.nmha.org/whatdoesgaymean

(p.110) Neiman S. (2011). Crime, violence, discipline, and safety in U.S. public schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2009–10 (NCES 2011–320). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Nishina A. (2004). A theoretical review of bullying: Can it be eliminated? In C. E. Sanders & G. D. Phye (Eds.), Bullying: Implications for the classroom (pp. 35–62). London: Elsevier Academic Press.

Nishioka V., Coe M., Burke A., Hanita M., & Sprague J. (2011). Student-reported overt and relational aggression and victimization in grades 3–8. (Issues and Answers Report, REL 2011–No. 114). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL). (2001). Schoolwide prevention of bullying. Retrieved from http://www.nwrel.org/request/dec01/intro.html

NSPCC. ( n.d. ). The NSPCC working definition of sexual bullying. Retrieved on July 10, 2011, from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/resourcesforteachers/classroomresources/sexual_bullying_definition_wdf68769.pdf

O’Brennan L. M., Bradshaw C. P., & Sawyer A. L. (2009). Examining developmental differences in the social-emotional problems among frequent bullies, victims, and bully/victims. Psychology in the Schools, 46, 100–115.

O’Connor A. (2011, December 5). Sending of sexual images by minors isn’t as prevalent as expected, study finds. New York Times, A15.

Ollove M. (2010, April 28). Bullying and teen suicide: How do we adjust school climate? The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Society/2010/0428/Bullying-and-teen-suicide-How-do-we-adjust-school-climate

Olweus D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. New York: Blackwell.

Olweus, D. (2001). Olweus’ core program against bullying and antisocial behavior: A teacher handbook. Bergen, Norway: Author.

Olweus D., & Limber S. P. (2010). Bullying in school: Evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 124–134.

Olweus D., Limber S. P., Flerx V., Mullin N., Riese J., & Snyder M. (2007). Olweus Bullying prevention program: School-wide guide. Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Olweus D., Limber S., & Mihalic S. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention: Vol. 9. The bullying prevention program. Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Orpinas, P., & Horne, A. M. (2006). Bullying prevention: Creating a positive school climate and developing social competence. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Parent Teacher Association of Connecticut Inc. (2000). Take action against bullying. Retrieved on August 28, 2011, from http://www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/SVP-0056/

Parsons L. (2005). Bullied teacher: Bullied student—How to recognize the bullying culture in your school and what to do about it. Markham, Canada: Pembroke Publishers Limited.

Patchin J. W., & Hinduja S.2010. Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 80, 614–621. (p.111)

Paul A. M. (2011, June 20). Life after high school. Time Magazine. Retrieved on August 2, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2076739,00.html

People for the American Way. ( n.d. ). Big bullies: How the religious right is trying to make schools safe for bullies and dangerous for gay kids. Retrieved on August 10, 2011, from http://www.pfaw.org/rww-in-focus/big-bullies-how-the-religious-right-trying-to-make-schools-safe-for-bullies-and-dangero

Pepler D. (2001, May). Peer group dynamics and the culture of violence. In S. Hymel (Chair), Culture of violence. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Royal Society of Canada (Academy II) and the Canadian Society for Studies in Education, Quebec City, Canada.

Peters S. L. (2011, September 29). Dogs help schools lick bullies. USA TODAY. Retrieved from http://yourlife.usatoday.com/parenting-family/story/2011-09-28/Dogs-help-schools-lick-bullies/50592574/1

Petrosino A., Guckenburg S., DeVoe J., & Hanson T. (2010). What characteristics of bullying, bullying victims, and schools are associated with increased reporting of bullying to school officials? (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2010–No. 092). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. (2012). U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Retrieved on January 10, 2012, from http://religions.pewforum.org/maps

Pew Research Center. (2010). Generations 2010. Pew Internet & American Life Project (a project of the Pew Research Center). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on December 5, 2011, from http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Generations-2010.aspx

Porter W., Plog A., Jens K., Garrity C., Sager N., & Jimerson S. (2010). Bully-proofing your elementary school: Creating a caring community. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 431–440). New York: Routledge.

Putnam R. D., & Campbell D. E. (2010). American grace: How religion divides and unites us. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Ragozzino K., & O’Brien M. U. (2009). Social and emotional learning and bullying prevention. Chicago: CASEL. Retrieved from http://casel.org/in-schools/bullying/

Rigby K. (1995). What schools can do about bullying. Professional Reading Guide for Educational Administrators, 17, 1–5.

Rigby K. (2002). New perspectives on bullying. London & Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Rivers I., Chesney T., & Coyne I. (2011). Cyberbullying. In C. P. Monks & I. Coyne (Eds.), Bullying in different contexts (pp. 211–230). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Robers S., Zhang J., & Truman J. (2010). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2010 (NCES 2011-002/NCJ 230812). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011002.pdf

(p.112) Rodgers W. (2009, May 7). Religious bullying is a problem around the world. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from www.csmonitor.com/layout/set/print/content/view/print/245997

Rodkin P. C. (2011). Bullying and the power of peers. Educational Leadership, 69, 10–16.

Rodkin P. C., & Hodges E. V. E. (2003). Bullies and victims in the peer ecology: Four questions for psychologists and school professionals. School Psychology Review, 32, 384–400.

Roland E. (2002). Bullying, depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Educational Research, 44, 55–67.

Rosen L. D., Cheever N. A., & Carrier L. M. (2008). The association of parenting style and child age with parental limit setting and adolescent MySpace behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 459–471.

Rosenbluth B. (2002). Expect respect: A school-based program promoting safe and healthy relationships for youth. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.

Russell S. T., & Joyner K. (2002). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1276–1281.

Russell S. T., Seif H., & Truong N. L. (2001). School outcomes of sexual minority youth in the United States: Evidence from a national study. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 111–127.

Sacks J., & Salem R. S. (2009). Victims without legal remedies: Why kids need schools to develop comprehensive anti-bullying policies. Albany Law Review, 72, 147–190.

Salin D. (2003). Ways of explaining workplace bullying: A review of enabling, motivating and precipitating structures and processes in the work environment. Human Relations, 56, 1213–1232.

Salmivalli C., Kärnä A., & Poskiparta E. (2010). From peer putdowns to peer support: A theoretical model and how it translated into a national anti-bullying program. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 441–454). New York: Routledge.

Salmivalli C., Lagerspetz K., Bjorkqvist K., Osterman K., & Kaukiainen A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15.

Salmivalli C., Voeten M., & Poskiparta E. (2011). Bystanders matter: Associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 668–676.

Sanders C. J. (2010, October 2). Why anti-gay bullying is a theological issue: And the moral imperative of anti-bullying preaching, teaching, and activism. Religion Dispatches. Retrieved on July 11, 2011, from http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/sexandgender/3479/why_anti-gay_bullying_is_a_theological_issue

Schrock A., & Boyd D. (2011). Problematic youth interaction online: Solicitation, harassment, and cyberbullying (pp. 368–396). In K. B. Wright & L. M. Webb (Eds.), Computer-mediated communication in personal relationships. New York: Peter Lang.

Schwartz J. (2010, October 3). Bullying, suicide, punishment. New York Times, WK1.

Shah N. (2011, November 2). Federal lawmakers weigh bullying-prevention proposals. Education Week, 31 (10), pp. 14 & 17. (p.113)

Shakeshift C., Barber E., Hergenrother M., Johnson Y. M., Mandel L. S., & Sawyer J. (1995). Peer harassment in schools. Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 1, 30–44.

Simonsen B., Sugai G., & Negron M. (2008). Schoolwide positive behavior supports: Primary systems and practices. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 40, 32–40.

Slovak K., & Singer J. B. (2011). School social workers’ perceptions of cyberbullying. Children & Schools, 33, 5–16.

Smith P. K. (2011). Bullying in schools: Thirty years of research. In C. P. Monks & I. Coyne (Eds.), Bullying in different contexts (pp. 36–60). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smith P. K., Ananiadou K., & Cowie H. (2003). Interventions to reduce school bullying. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 591–599.

Smith P. K., & Shu S. (2000). What good schools can do about bullying. Findings from a survey in English schools after a decade of research. Childhood, 7, 193–212.

Smokowski P. R., & Kopasz K. H. (2005). Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Children and Schools, 27, 101–109.

Sourander A., Klomek A. B., Ikonen M., Lindroos J., Luntamo T., Koskelainen M., et al. (2010). Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 720–728.

Sparks S. D. (2011, November). Many teenagers can’t distinguish harassment lines, research shows. Education Week, 31 (11), pp. 1, 16–17.

Srabstein J. C., & Leventhal B. L. (2010). Prevention of bullying-related morbidity and mortality: A call for public health policies. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88, 403–403A.

Stein N. D., & Mennemeier K. A. (2011). Addressing the gendered dimensions of harassment and bullying: What domestic and sexual violence advocates need to know. Harrisburg, PA: The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence & The National Sexual Violence Resource Center. Retrieved on December 5, 2011, from http://www.vawnet.org

Stout H. (2010, April 30). Antisocial networking? The New York Times, ST10.

Sullivan E., & Keeney E. (2008). Teachers talk: School culture, safety, and human rights. New York: National Economic and Social Rights Initiative (NESRI) and Teachers Unite.

Swearer S. M., & Doll B. (2001). Bullying in schools: An ecological framework. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2, 7–24.

Swearer S. M., & Espelage D. L. (2011). Expanding the social-ecological framework of bullying among youth. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 3–10). New York: Routledge.

Swearer S. M., Espelage D. L., & Napolitano S. A. (2009). Bullying prevention and intervention: Realistic strategies for schools. New York: Guilford.

Swearer S., Espelage D. L., Vaillancourt T., & Hymel S. (2010). What can be done about school bullying? Linking research to educational practice. Educational Researcher, 39, 38–47.

(p.114) Swearer S., Limber S., & Alley R. (2009). Developing and implementing an effective anti-bullying policy. In S. M. Swearer, D. L. Espelage, & S. A. Napolitano (Eds.), Bullying prevention and intervention: Realistic strategies for schools (pp. 39–52). New York: The Guilford Press.

Sylvester R. (2011). Teacher as bully: Knowingly or unintentionally harming students. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 77, 42–45.

Szalacha L. A. (2003). Safer sexual diversity climates: Lessons learned from an evaluation of Massachusetts safe schools program for gay and lesbian students. American Journal of Education, 110, 58–88.

Szalavitz M. (2010, April 17). How not to raise a bully: The early roots of empathy. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 2, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1982190,00.html

Toomey R. B., Ryan C., Diaz R. M., & Russell S. T. (2011). High school gay–straight alliances (GSAs) and young adult well-being: An examination of GSA presence, participation, and perceived effectiveness. Applied Developmental Science, 15, 175–185.

Troop-Gordon W., & Kopp J. (2011). Teacher-child relationship quality and children’s peer victimization and aggressive behavior in late childhood. Social Development, 20, 536–561.

Ttofi M. M., & Farrington D. P. (2009). What works in preventing bullying: Effective elements of anti-bullying programs. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 1, 13–24.

Twemlow S. W., & Fonagy P. (2005). The prevalence of teachers who bully students in schools with differing levels of behavioral problems. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 2387–2389.

Twemlow S. W., Fonagy P., & Sacco F. C. (2004). The role of the bystander in the social architecture of bullying and violence in schools and communities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1036, 215–232.

Twemlow S. W., Fonagy P., Sacco F., & Brethour J. (2006). Teachers who bully students: A hidden trauma. International Journal for Social Psychiatry, 52, 187–198.

Twemlow S. W., & Sacco F. (2007). The prejudices of everyday life, with observations from field trials. In H. Parens, A. Mahfouz, S. W. Twemlow, & D. E. Scharff (Eds.), The future of prejudice: Psychoanalysis and the prevention of prejudice (pp. 237–254). Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

UCLA Center for Mental Health Services in Schools. (2011). Addressing bullying: State guidance to districts and schools is both helpful and a missed opportunity. Retrieved on November 3, 2011, from http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/bullying.pdf

Underwood M. M., Rish-Scott M., & Springer J. (2011, September/October). Bullying and suicide risk: Building resilience. Social Work Today, 11 (5), pp. 10–15.

Underwood M. K., & Rosen L. H. (2011). Gender & bullying. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., 13–22). New York: Routledge.

Underwood M., Springer J., & Scott M. (2011). Lifelines intervention. Center City, MN: Hazelden Publishing.

Ungar M. (2011). The social ecology of resilience: Addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81, 1–17.

Unnever J., & Cornell D. (2004). Middle school victims of bullying: Who reports being bullied? Aggressive Behavior, 30, 373–388.

(p.115) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.,a). Best practices in bullying prevention and intervention. Stop bullying now resource kit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on June 10, 2011, from www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.,b). Bullying among children and youth on perceptions and differences in sexual orientation. Stop bullying now resource kit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on June 12, 2011, from www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ( n.d.,c ). Bullying among children and youth with disabilities and special needs. Stop bullying now resource kit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on June 12, 2011, from www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ( n.d.,d ). Children who bully. Stop bullying now resource kit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on June 12, 2011, from www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ( n.d.,e ). Myths about bullying. Stop bullying now resource kit. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved on June 12, 2011, from www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov

Vaillancourt T., Hymel S., & McDougall P., (2003). Bullying is power: Implications for school-based intervention strategies. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19, 157–176.

Vaillancourt T., Hymel S., & McDougall P. (2011). Why does being bullied hurt so much? Insights from neuroscience. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 23–33). New York: Routledge.

Vaillancourt T., McDougall P., Hymel S., & Sunderani S. (2010). Respect or fear? The relationship between power and bullying behavior. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 211–222). New York: Routledge.

Vargas-Moll I. (1991). A descriptive study of school induced stressors among Hispanic students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (01A), 0110. (UMI No. AAG9218121)

Vaughn B. E., & Santos A. J. (2007). An evolutionary/ecological account of aggressive behavior and trait aggression in human children and adolescents. In P. H. Hawley, T. D. Little, & P. C. Rodkin (Eds.), Aggression and adaptation: The bright side to bad behavior (pp. 31–64). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Viadero D. (2010, May 19). Studies probe “ecology” of bullying. Education Week, 29 (32), pp. 1, 18–19.

Vreeman R. C., & Carroll A. E. (2007). A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 161, 78–88.

Wang M. C., Haertel G. D., & Walberg H. J. (1997). Learning influences. In H. J. Walberg & G. D. Haertel (Eds.), Psychology and educational practice (pp. 199–211). Berkeley, CA: McCuthan.

Walton G. (2004). Bullying and homophobia in Canadian schools. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 1, 23–36.

Wang J., Iannotti R. J., & Nansel T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368–375.

(p.116) Whitted K. S., & Dupper D. R. (2008). Do teachers bully students? Findings from a survey of students in an alternative school setting. Education and Urban Society, 40, 329–341.

Wisconsin Clearinghouse for Prevention Resources. ( n.d. ). Bullying: What we know. Retrieved on June 2, 2011, from http://wch.uhs.wisc.edu

Wiser M. (2011, August 21). Iowa schools will pilot new bullying policy. Sioux City Journal. Retrieved on September 8, 2011, from http://siouxcityjournal.com/news/state-and-regional/iowa/iowa-schools-will-pilot-new-bullying-policy/article_7cc5a717-e1da-560e-bfa9-d5f7ab63f6a9.html

Wolak J., Finkelhor D., Mitchell K., & Ybarra M. (2008). Online “predators” and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment. American Psychologist, 63, 111–128.

Woolfolk Hoy A., & Weinstein C. S. (2006). Student and teacher perspectives on classroom management. In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 181–219). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ybarra M. L., Diener-West M., & Leaf P. J. (2007). Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: Implications for school intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S42–S50.

Ybarra M., Espelage D. L., & Martin S. (2011). Unwanted sexual & harassing experiences: From school to text messaging. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer, Bullying in North American schools (2nd ed., pp. 62–72). New York: Routledge.

You S., Furlong M. J., Felix E., Sharkey J. D., Tanigawa D., & Green J. G. (2008). Relations among school connectedness, hope, life satisfaction, and bullying victimization. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 446–460.

Zelikoff W. (1990). A retrospective study of school related stressors of educators. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (08A), 2690. (UMI No. AAG9100360)

Zubrzycki J. (2011, October 19). Lawmakers take aim at bullying: New measures adopted in nearly half the states. Education Week, 31 (8), pp. 1 & 16.