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War, Peace, and Human NatureThe Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views$
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Douglas P. Fry

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199858996

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199858996.001.0001

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Aggression and Conflict Resolution Among the Nomadic Hadza of Tanzania as Compared with Their Pastoralist Neighbors

Aggression and Conflict Resolution Among the Nomadic Hadza of Tanzania as Compared with Their Pastoralist Neighbors

Chapter:
(p.278) 14 Aggression and Conflict Resolution Among the Nomadic Hadza of Tanzania as Compared with Their Pastoralist Neighbors
Source:
War, Peace, and Human Nature
Author(s):

Marina L. Butovskaya

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199858996.003.0014

This chapter examines cultural norms related to aggression and conflict management in the Hadza, who are nomadic hunter-gatherers, and recent transformations resulting from ethno-tourism and contacts with neighboring groups such as interethnic marriages and socialization in the multiethnic environment of boarding schools. Aggression and conflict management among the Hadza are compared to that observed in a neighboring society, the Datoga, who are semi-nomadic pastoralists. The data on the Hadza and the Datoga confirm the idea that aggression is a flexible adaptation, not an obligate behavior. Traditional Hadza may be classified as egalitarian, tolerant, and autonomous people. They tend to cope with conflicts by avoidance and tolerance, as members of most nomadic forager societies do. In conflict situations, the Hadza prefer to retire, and most men and women have never killed anybody. The Datoga are more aggressive than the Hadza. They view ridicule and joking as overt aggression. Individual violence among the Datoga has been restricted by the system of fines and ultimately by ostracizing the habitual aggressors. Violence among Datoga spouses is highly asymmetrical and is virtually always directed against women.

Keywords:   conflict management, hunter-gatherers, ethno-tourism, interethnic marriages, socialization, Datoga, semi-nomadic pastoralists

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