Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Abortion Under ApartheidNationalism, Sexuality, and Women's Reproductive Rights in South Africa$

Susanne M. Klausen

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199844494

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199844494.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.285) Bibliography

(p.285) Bibliography

Abortion Under Apartheid
Oxford University Press

Newspapers and Periodicals

  • Alpha

  • ARAG Newsletter

  • British Medical Journal

  • Cape Argus

  • Cape Herald

  • Cape Times

  • Cape Times Magazine

  • Critical Health

  • Dagbreek en Sondagnuus

  • Daily Dispatch

  • Daily Express

  • Daily Mail

  • Daily News

  • Die Beeld

  • Die Burger

  • Die Kerkbode

  • Die Landstem

  • Die Oosterlig

  • Die Transvaler

  • Die Vaderland

  • Eastern Province Herald

  • Evening Post

  • Financial Mail

  • The Friend

  • The Guardian

  • The Independent

  • Medical Proceedings

  • Natal Mercury

  • Natal Witness

  • Pretoria News

  • Rand Daily Mail

  • Rapport

  • Scope (p.286)

  • The Star

  • South African Medical Journal (SAMJ)

  • Sunday Express

  • Sunday Post

  • Sunday Times

  • Sunday Tribune

  • Total Freedom

  • Washington Post

  • Weekend Post

  • Westville News

Archival Collections

Abortion Reform Action Group (ARAG) Records, Killie Campbell Africana Library, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban.

Abortion Reform Action Group (ARAG) Archive, University of Cape Town Manuscripts and Archives, Cape Town.

Derk Crichton Criminal Case: Procuring an Abortion (26 Counts), Durban Archives Repository, TBD/RSC/LEER, 1/1211.

Derk Crichton Papers, Campbell Collections, Killie Campbell Africana Library, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Dr. Louis Franklin Freed Papers, Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

General Register Office, Report of the Royal Commission on Population, 1944–1949, British National Archives, Kew, Reference RG 24.

Groote Schuur Annual Reports, National Library of South Africa, Cape Town, Shelf I #3264.

Helen Suzman Papers, 1947–1995, William Cullen Library, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

National Archives Repository of South Africa, Pretoria, SAB LEER vol. 2973, ref. 1107, 1952.

National Archives Repository (public records of former Transavaal province), Pretoria, TAB MHG LEER 6141/56.

O’Malley Archives. Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory. http://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv02424/04lv02730/05lv03188/06lv03216.htm.

State v. Nelson Mandela and 9 Others (Rivonia Trial), Collection AD1844, Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand.

Interviews and Personal Communications

Anonymous Lifeline volunteer. Interview by author. Durban, May 11, 2011.

Crichton, Derk. Interview by author. Hermanus, December 27, 2010.

de Groote, Herman. Interview by Rebecca Hodes. Cape Town, March 16, 2011.

Denny, Dr. Lynette. Interview by author. Cape Town, June 30, 2008.

Former Inanda students. Interviews conducted by Meghan Healy-Clancy. Johannesburg, June 1, 2009.

Former Inanda teacher. Interview by Meghan Healy-Clancy. Kalk Bay, May 6, 2009.

Hofmeyr, Beatie. Interview by author. Cape Town, June 30, 2008.

Matthee, Dan. Interview by author. Durban, November 12, 2009.

Mokgokong, Dr. Sam. Telephone interview by author. June 6 and July 2, 2011.

(p.287) Molope, Kagiso. Email message to author. June 12, 2012.

Pitsoe, Dr. Samuel Boetie. Telephone interview by author. July 2, 2011.

Pohl Crichton, Susan. Telephone interview by author. May 31, 2008.

Pohl Crichton, Susan. Interview by author. Durban, November 12, 2009.

Pohl Crichton, Susan. E-mail message to author. June 18, 2010.

Redman, Linda. Interview by author. Durban, November 12, 2009.

Roos, Neil. Email message to author. December 21, 2012.

Saville, Dr. Kenneth. Telephone interview by author November 10, 2009 and in Benoni, November 16, 2009.

Shaw, Douglas. Interview by author. Durban, November 26, 2009.

Strauss, S. A. S. Interview by author. Pretoria, July 27, 2011.

Suzman, Helen. Inteview by author. Johannesburg, June 22, 2008.

Theron, Dr. Gerhard. Interview by Rebecca Hodes. Cape Town, March 29, 2011.

Trollip, Nan. Interview by author. Johannesburg, February 1997.

Watts, James. Interview by author. Kwa-Zulu Natal, December 2 and 31, 2009.

Wicomb, Zoe. Email message to author. October 11, 2011.

Government Records and Publications

Abortion Act, 1967, c. 87, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1967/87/section/1.

Abortion and Sterilization Act, 1975.

Abortion and Sterilization Bill, 1973.

Abortion and Sterilization Bill, 1974.

Annual Report of the Department of Public Health, for the Year Ended June 30 1936, Pretoria, 1936.

Fourth Interim Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Certain Organizations, Pretoria, 1974.

Immorality (Amendment) Act, 1969, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Immorality_Amendment_Act,_1969, accessed May 18, 2013.

Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Family, part VII: Women and Mothers that Work, Geoff Cronje, chairman, November 30, 1960.

Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Abortion and Sterilization Bill, Pretoria, 1974.

Report of the Commission on Mixed Marriages, Pretoria, 1939.

Report of the Select Committee on the Abortion and Sterilization Bill, Pretoria, 1973.

South Africa House of Assembly Debates, 1937-1982.

Published Sources

Akudinobi, Jude G. “Libidinal Quicksand: Imperial Fictions, African Femininity, and Representation.” In Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses, edited by Obioma Nnaemeka, 135–64. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2005.

Aggarwal, V. P., and J. K. G. Mati. “Epidemiology of Induced Abortion in Nairobi, Kenya.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in East Central Africa 1, no. 2 (1982): 54–57.

Ahlberg, Beth Maina. Women, Sexuality and the Changing Social Order: The Impact of Government Policies on Reproductive Behavior in Kenya. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach, 1991.

Akinla, Oladele. “Abortion in Africa.” In Abortion in a Changing World, edited by Robert E. Hall, 291–301. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

(p.288) Albertyn, Catherine. “Drugs and Moral Panic.” In Crime and Power in South Africa: Critical Studies in Criminology, edited by D. Davis and M. Slabbert, 106-24. Cape Town: David Philip, 1985.

——— . “Reproductive Health and the Right to Choose—Policy and Law Reform on Abortion.” In Engendering the Political Agenda: A South African Case Study, edited by Catherine Albertyn, Beth Goldblatt, Shireen Hassim, Likhapha Mbatha and Sheila Meintjes, 43–82. Johannesburg: University of Witwatersrand, Centre for Applied Legal Studies, 1999.

Anarfi, John K. “The Role of Local Herbs in the Recent Fertility Decline in Ghana: Contraceptives or Abortifacients?” In The Sociocultural and Political Aspects of Abortion: Global Perspectives, edited by Alaka Malwade Basu, 139–52. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2003.

Annual Status Report on Maternal Newborn and Child Health in Africa. Addis Ababa: African Union Commission, 2013. Available at http://www.carmma.org/sites/default/files/PDF-uploads/MNCH_2013_Status_Report_Eng.pdf.

Anthias, Floya, and Nira Yuval Davis, eds. Woman-Nation-State. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1989.

Arends, Katrina, Barbara Klugman, and Marion Stevens. “Developing Women’s Health Policy in South Africa from the Grassroots.” Reproductive Health Matters 3, no. 6 (November 1995): 122–31.

Arnfred, Signe. Sexuality and Gender Politics in Mozambique: Rethinking Gender in Africa. Woodbridge: James Currey, 2011.

Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice. “A New Vision for Advancing our Movement for Reproductive Health, Reproductive Rights, and Reproductive Justice,” 2005. Available at http://strongfamiliesmovement.org/assets/docs/ACRJ-A-New-Vision.pdf.

Badassy, Prinisha. “A Severed Umbilicus: Infanticide and the Concealment of Birth in Natal—An Historical Perspective, 1860-1935.” Ph.D dissertation, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, 2010.

Baker, Jean, and Shanyisa Khasiani. “Induced Abortion in Kenya: Case Histories.” Studies in Family Planning 23, no. 1 (January 1992): 34–44.

Bashford Alison, and Philippa Levine, eds. The Oxford World History of Eugenics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Beinart, William. Twentieth-Century South Africa. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Berger, Iris. Threads of Solidarity: Women in South African Industry, 1900–1980. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Bernstein, Hilda. The World That Was Ours, rev. ed. London: Robert Vicat, 1989.

Billig, Michael. Psychology, Racism, Fascism. Birmingham: A.F and R. Publications, 1979.

Bledsoe, Caroline, and Barney Cohen, eds. Social Dynamics of Adolescent Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993.

Bleek, Wolf. “Did the Akan Resort to Abortion in Pre-Colonial Ghana?” Africa 60, no. 1 (January 1990): 121–31.

——— . “Lying Informants: A Fieldwork Experience from Ghana.” Population and Development Review 13, no. 2 (1987): 314–22.

Bleek, Wolf, and N. K. Asante-Darko. “Illegal Abortion in Southern Ghana: Methods, Motives and Consequences.” Human Organization 45, no. 4 (Winter 1986): 333–43.

(p.289) Boikanyo, E., M. Gready, B. Klugman, H. Rees, and M. Zaba. “When Is Yes Really Yes? The Experiences of Contraception and Contraceptive Services Amongst Groups of South African Women.” In Report of a Study Conducted for the Women’s Health Project, Centre for Health Policy. Johannesburg: Department of Community Health, 1993.

Boland, Reed, and Laura Katzive. “Development of Laws on Induced Abortion: 1998–2007.” International Family Law Planning Perspectives 34 (2008): 110–20.

Bonner, Philip. “ ‘Desirable or Undesirable Basotho Women?’ Liquor, Prostitution and the Migration of Basotho Women to the Rand, 1920-1945.” In Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, edited by Cherryl Walker, 221–50. London: James Currey, 1990.

——— . “The Russians on the Reef, 1947-1957: Urbanization, Gang Warfare and Ethnic Mobilization.” In Apartheid’s Genesis, 1935-1962, edited by Philip Bonner, Peter Delius, and Deborah Posel, 160–94. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1993.

Bourne, Aleck. A Doctor’s Creed: The Memoirs of a Gynaecologist. London: Gollancz, 1962.

Bourne, David. “Abortions in England and Wales on South African Residents.” South African Medical Journal 74, no. 2 (July 1988): 87–88.

Bozzoli, Belinda. “Marxism, Feminism and South African Studies.” Journal of Southern African Studies 9, no. 2 (April 1983): 137–71.

——— , with the assistance of Mmantho Nkotsoe. Women of Phokeng: Consciousness, Life Strategy, and Migrancy in South Africa, 1900-1983. London: James Currey, 1991.

Bradford, Helen. “Herbs, Knives and Plastic: 150 Years of Abortion in South Africa.” In Science, Medicine, and Cultural Imperialism, edited by Teresa Meade and Mark Walker, 120–47. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1991.

——— . “Not a Nongqawuse Story: An anti-Heroine in Historical Perspective.” In Basus’iimbokodo, bawel’imilambo/They Remove Boulders and Cross Rivers: Women in South African History, edited by Nomboniso Gasa, 43–90. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council, 2007.

——— . “ ‘We Are Now the Men’: Women’s Beer Protests in the Natal Countryside, 1929.” In Class, Community and Conflict, edited by Belinda Bozzoli, 292–323. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987.

——— . “Women, Gender and Colonialism: Rethinking the History of the British Cape Colony and Its Frontier Zones, C. 1806-70.” Journal of African History 37, no. 3 (1996): 351–70.

Breytenbach, Breyten. The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist. New York: Farrar Strauss & Giroux, 1983.

Briggs, Laura. Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Brink, Elsabe. “Man-Made Women: Gender, Class and the Ideology of the Volksmoeder.” In Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, edited by Cherryl Walker, 273–92. Cape Town: David Philip, 1990.

Brookes, Barbara. Abortion in England, 1900-1967. London: Croom Helm, 1988.

Brown, Barbara. “ ‘Facing the Black Peril’: The Politics of Population Control in South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 13, no. 2 (January 1987): 256–73.

Burman, Sandra, and Rebecca Fuchs. “When Families Split: Custody in Divorce.” In Growing Up in a Divided Society: The Contexts of Childhood in South Africa, edited by Sandra Burman and Pamela Reynolds, 115–38. Johannesburg: Ravan (p.290) Press, in association with the Centre for Cross-Cultural Research on Women, Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford University, 1986.

Burman, Sandra, and Martine Huvers. “Church Versus State? Divorce Legislation and Divided South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 12, no. 1 (October 1985): 116–35.

Burman, Sandra, and Margaret Naude. “Bearing a Bastard: The Social Consequences of Illegitimacy in Cape Town, 1896-1939.” Journal of Southern African Studies 17, no. 3 (September 1991): 373–413.

Burman, Sandra, and Patricia van der Spuy. “The Illegitimate and the Illegal in a South African City: The Effects of Apartheid on Births out of Wedlock.” Journal of Social History 29, no. 3 (Spring 1996): 613–35.

Butler, Jeffrey, Rolbert I. Rotberg, and John Adams. The Black Homelands of South Africa: The Political and Economic Development of Bophuthatswana and Kwa-Zulu. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Caldwell, John C, and Pat Caldwell. “The South African Fertility Decline.” Population and Development Review 19, no. 2 (June 1993): 225-62.

Campbell, Catherine. “Learning To Kill? Masculinity, the Family and Violence in Natal.” Journal of Southern African Studies 18, no. 3 (September 1992): 614–28.

Cawthra, Gavin. Brutal Force: The Apartheid War Machine. London: International Defense and Aid Fund for Southern Africa, 1986.

Chaudhuri, Nupur, and Margaret Strobel, eds. Western Women and Imperialism: Complicity and Resistance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Chimere-Dan, Orieji. “Population Policy in South Africa.” Studies in Family Planning 24, no. 1. (January/February 1993): 31–39.

Cock, Jacklyn. Maids and Madams: Domestic Workers Under Apartheid. London: Women’s Press, 1989.

Coeytaux, F. M. “Induced Abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa: What We Do and Do Not Know.” Studies in Family Planning 19, no. 3 (1988): 186–90.

Coleman, Max, ed. A Crime Against Humanity: Analyzing the Repression of the Apartheid State. Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee of South Africa, 1998.

Connelly, Matthew. Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Cook, Rebecca, and Bernard Dickens. “Development of Commonwealth Abortion Laws.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 28, no. 3 (July 1979): 424–57.

Cope, June. A Matter of Choice: Abortion Law Reform in Apartheid South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: Hadeda Books/University Of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 1993.

Cornwell, Gareth. “George Webb Hardy’s The Black Peril and the Social Meaning of ‘Black Peril’ in Early Twentieth-Century South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 22, no. 3 (September 1996): 441–53.

Correa, Sonia. Population and Reproductive Rights: Feminist Perspectives from the South. London: Zed, 1994.

Crichton, Derk. “Ureteric Injuries in Gynecological Surgery.” South African Medical Journal 39, no. 8 (August 1965): 686–91.

Crichton, Derk. “Gender Reassignment Surgery for Male Primary Transsexuals.” South African Medical Journal, vol. 83, no. 5 (May 1993): 347–49.

Crichton, Derk, and Desmond Quinlan. “Avoidable Obstetric Deaths in Hospital Practice.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 69, no. 2 (April 1962): 239–47.

(p.291) Dampier, Helen. “ ‘Everyday Life’ in Boer Women’s Testimonies of the Concentration Camps of the South African War, 1899-1902.” In Crime and Empire 1840-1940: Criminal Justice in Local and Global Context, edited by Graeme Dunstall and Barry Godfrey, 202–23. Cullompton: Willan, 2005.

Danforth, Jessica. “Reproductive Justice—For Real, For Me, For You, For Now,” November 10, 2010. Available at http://www.nativeyouthsexualhealth.com/pressreleases.html.

Davin, Anna. “Imperialism and Motherhood.” History Workshop Journal 5, no. 1 (Spring 1978): 9–65.

Davis, Angela. Women, Race, and Class. New York: Random House, 1981.

de Beer, Cedric. The South African Disease: Apartheid Health and Health Services. Trenton, NJ: African World Press, 1984.

de Clercq, J. L. W. “Attitudes Towards Family Planning and Related Issues in Esikhawini Township.” Richards Bay: University of Zululand, 1980.

Delius, Peter, and Clive Glaser. “Sexual Socialisation in South Africa: A Historical Perspective.” African Studies 61, no. 1 (July 2002): 27–54.

de Villiers, J. N. “The Indications for Therapeutic Abortion: An Obstetrician’s Point of View.” South African Medical Journal 42, no. 1 (July 1968): 718–21.

Digby, Anne. “ ‘The Bandwagon of Golden Opportunities’? Health Care in South Africa’s Bantustan Periphery.” South African Historical Journal 64, no. 4 (December 2012): 827–51.

Donham, Donald L. “Freeing South Africa: The ‘Modernization’ of Male-Male Sexuality in Soweto.” Cultural Anthropology 13, no. 1 (February 1998): 3–21.

Drew, Allison. “ ‘1922 and All That’: Facts and the Writing of South African Political History.” In History Making and Present Day Politics: The Meaning of Collective Memory in South Africa, edited by Hans Erik Stolten, 334–50. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2007.

Dubow, Saul. “The Elaboration of Segregationist Ideology.” In Segregation and Apartheid in Twentieth-Century South Africa, edited by William Beinart and Saul Dubow, 145–75. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

Dugard, John. Human Rights and the South African Legal Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.

du Toit, Marijke. “The Domesticity of Afrikaner Nationalism: Volksmoeders and the ACVV, 1904-1929.” Journal of Southern African Studies 29, no. 1 (March 2003): 155–76.

——— . “Women, Welfare and the Nurturing of Afrikaner Nationalism: A Social History of the Afrikaans Christelike Vroue Vereniging, c. 1870-1939.” Ph.D dissertation, University of Cape Town, 1996.

Edmunds, Marianna. “Population Dynamics and Migrant Labour in South Africa.” In And the Poor Get Children: Radical Perspectives on Population Dynamics, edited by Karen L. Michaelson, 154–79. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1981.

Elder, Glen. Hostels, Sexuality, and the Apartheid Legacy: Malevolent Geographies. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2003.

——— . “Of Moffies, Kaffirs and Perverts: Male Homosexuality and the Discourse of the Moral Order in the Apartheid State.” In Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality, edited by David Bell and Gill Valentine, 50–59. New York: Routledge, 1995.

——— . “The South African Body Politic: Space, Race and Heterosexuality.” In Places through the Body, edited by Heidi J. Nast and Steve Pile, 114–22. New York: Routledge, 1998.

(p.292) Epprecht, Marc. “Sexuality, Africa, History.” American Historical Review 114, no.5 (December 2009): 1258–72.

——— . “The ‘Unsaying’ of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity.” Journal of Southern African Studies 24, no. 4 (December 1998): 631-51.

Erlank, Natasha. “ ‘Plain Clean Facts’ and Initiation Schools: Christianity, Africans and ‘Sex Education’ in South Africa, c. 1910-1940.” Agenda 18, no. 62 (January 2004): 76–83.

——— . “Sexuality in South Africa and South African Historical Writing.” South African Review of Sociology 39, no. 1 (January 2008): 156–74.

Etherington, Norman. “Natal’s Black Rape Scare of the 1870s.” Journal of Southern African Studies 15, no. 1 (October 1988): 36–53.

Eyong, Charles Takoyoh. “Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development in Africa: Case Study on Central Africa.” Tribes and Tribals 1 (2007): 121–39.

Facility Assessment of Termination of Pregnancy Services in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Johannesburg: Ipas, 2004. Available at http://www.ipas.org/en/Resources/Ipas%20Publications/A-facility-assessment-of-termination-of-pregnancy-services-in-Limpopo-Province—South-Afri.aspx.

First, Ruth. 117 Days: An Account of Confinement and Interrogation Under the South African 90-Day Detention Law. London: Penguin Books, 1965.

Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1: An Introduction. Translated by Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon, 1978.

Freed, Louis Franklin. Crime in South Africa: An Integralist Approach. Cape Town: Juta, 1963.

——— . The Problem of European Prostitution in Johannesburg. Cape Town: Juta, 1949.

Freeman, Victoria. “Attitudes Toward ‘Miscegenation’ in Canada, the United States, New Zealand and Australia, 1860–1914.” Native Studies Review 16, no. 1 (2005): 41–69.

Fugard, Athol. Statements After An Arrest Under the Immorality Act. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Furlong, Patrick. “Improper Intimacy: Afrikaans Churches, the National Party and the Anti-Miscegenation Laws.” South African Historical Journal 31, no.1 (November 1994): 55–79.

——— . The Mixed Marriages Act: An Historical and Theological Study. Cape Town: Cape Town Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town, 1983.

Gaitskell, Deborah. “ ‘Christian Compounds for Girls’: Church Hostels for African Women in Johannesburg, 1907-1970.” Journal of Southern African Studies 6, no. 1 (October 1979): 44–69.

——— . “ ‘Wailing for Purity’: Prayer Unions, African Mothers and Adolescent Daughters, 1912-40.” In Industrialisation and Social Change in South Africa: African Class Formation, Culture, and Consciousness, 1870-1930, edited by Shula Marks and Richard Rathbone, 338–57. London: Longman, 1982.

Gaitskill, Deborah, and Elaine Unterhalter. “Mothers of the Nation: A Comparative Analysis of Nation, Race and Motherhood in Afrikaner Nationalism and the African National Congress.” In Woman-Nation-State, edited by Floya Anthias and Nira Yuval Davis, 58–78. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1989.

Garenne, Michel, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, Terri Collins, and Shirley Ngwenya. “Understanding Marital and Premarital Fertility in Rural South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 2 (June 2001): 277–90.

(p.293) Gasa, Nomboniso, ed. Women in South African History. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council, 2007.

Geiger, Susan. “Women and African Nationalism.” Journal of Women’s History 2, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 227–44.

Gevisser, Mark. “A Different Fight for Freedom: A History of South African Lesbian and Gay Organization from the 1950s to the 1990s.” In Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa, edited by Mark Gevisser and Edwin Cameron, 14–87. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.

——— . Lost and Found in Johannesburg: A Memoir. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2014.

Gevisser, Mark, and Edwin Cameron, eds. Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.

Giliomee, Hermann. The Afrikaners: Biography of a People. London: Hurst, 2003.

Ginburg, Rebecca. “ ‘Come in the Dark’: Domestic Workers and Their Rooms in Apartheid-Era Johannesburg, South Africa.” In People, Power, Places: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, edited by Sally McMurray and Annmarie Adams, 83–100. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2000.

Ginsburg, Faye, and Rayna Rapp, eds. Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Glaser, Clive. Bo-Tsotsi: The Youth Gangs of Soweto 1935-1976. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2000.

Goldberg, David. The Racial State. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002.

Goodwin, June, and Ben Schiff. Heart of Whiteness: Afrikaners Face Black Rule in the New South Africa. New York: Scribner, 1995.

Gordon, Linda. The Moral Property of Women: A History of Birth Control Politics in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Gordon, Suzanne. A Talent for Tomorrow: Life Stories of South African Servants. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985.

Gouws, Amanda, and Shireen Hassim. “Who’s Afraid of Feminism? South African Democracy at 20: An Introduction.” Agenda 28, no. 2 (April 2014): 4–6.

Goyaux, Nathalie, Frédérique Yacé-Soumah, Christiane Welffens-Ekra, and Patrick Thonneau. “Abortion Complications in Abidjan (Ivory Coast).” Contraception 60, no. 2 (August 1999): 107–10.

Gray, Madi. “Race Ratios: The Politics of Population Control in South Africa.” In Poverty and Population Control, edited by Lars Bondestam and Staffan Bergström, 137–55. London: Academic Press, 1980.

Grim, Francis. Revolution by Stealth. Monument Park: Heart Publishers in collaboration with the Association for the Preservation of Moral Norms, 1969. Located in ARAG Records, File 44, ARAG, Published Material, 1970-1976, Killie Campbell Africana Library, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban.

Grimes, David A., et al. “Unsafe Abortion: The Preventable Pandemic.” The Lancet 368, no. 9550 (November 2006): 1908–19.

Grossman, Atina. Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920-1950. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Grosman, Daniel, et al. “Surgical and Medical Second Trimester Abortion in South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study.” MBC Health Services Research 11, no. 224 (2011): 1–9.

Grundlingh, Albert. “ ‘Are We Afrikaners Getting too Rich?’ Cornucopia and Change in Afrikanerdom in the 1960s.” Journal of Historical Sociology 21, nos. 2-3 (June/September 2008): 143–65.

(p.294) Guttmacher Institute. Facts about Abortion in Africa, 2012. Available at http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/IB_AWW-Africa.pdf.

Guttmacher, Sally, Farzana Kapadia, Jim Te Water Naude, and Helen de Pinho. “Abortion Reform in South Africa: A Case Study of the 1996 Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act.” International Family Planning Perspectives 24, no. 4 (December 1998): 191–94.

Gwatkin, Davidson. “Political Will and Family Planning: The Implications of India’s Emergency Experience.” Population and Development Review 5, no. 1 (March 1979): 29–59.

Hachten, W. A., and C. A. Giffard. Total Onslaught. The South African Press under Attack. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

Hansen, Karen Tranberg. “Dressing Dangerously: Miniskirts, Gender Relations, and Sexuality in Zambia.” In Fashioning Africa: Power and the Politics of Dress, edited by Jean Allman, 166–85. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Harries, Patrick. Work, Culture, and Identity: Migrant Laborers in Mozambique and South Africa, c.1860-1910. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.

Harrison, Abigail, and Elizabeth Montgomery. “Life Histories, Reproductive Histories: Rural South African Women’s Narratives of Fertility, Reproductive Health and Illness.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 2 (June 2001): 311–28.

Hartmann, Betsy. Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control, rev. ed. Boston: South End Press, 1995.

Hassim, Shireen. “Family, Motherhood and Zulu Nationalism: The Politics of the Inkatha Women’s Brigade.” Feminist Review, no. 43 (Spring 1993): 1–25.

——— . “Nationalism, Feminism and Autonomy: The ANC in Exile and the Question of Women.” Journal of Southern African Studies 30, no. 3 (September 2004): 433–55.

——— . Women’s Organizations and Democracy in South Africa: Contesting Authority. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006.

Haussman, Melissa. Abortion Politics in North America. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005.

Hellman, Ellen. Rooiyard: A Sociological Survey of an Urban Native Slum Yard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948.

Herzog, Dagmar. Sex after Fascism: Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Hess, Rosanna F. “Women’s Stories of Abortion in Southern Gabon, Africa.” Journal of Transcultural Nursing 18, no. 1 (January 2007): 41–48.

Hessini, Leila. “Abortion and Islam: Policies and Practice in the Middle East and North Africa.” Reproductive Health Matters 15, no. 29 (May 2007): 75–84.

Hetherington, Penelope. “Women in South Africa: The Historiography in English.” International Journal of African Historical Studies, 26, no. 2 (1993): 241–69.

Heyns, Michiel. “A Man’s World: White South African Gay Writing and the State of Emergency.” In Writing South Africa: Literature, Apartheid, and Democracy, 1970-1995, edited by Derek Attridge and Rosemary Jolly, 108–22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hirschman, Charles. “The Making of Race in Colonial Malaya: Political Economy and Racial Ideology.” Sociological Forum 1, no. 2 (April 1986): 330–61.

Hodes, Rebecca. “Abortion Politics in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” In Global Abortion Politics, edited by Shannon Stettner. Forthcoming.

(p.295) ——— . “The Medical History of Abortion in South Africa, c. 1970-2000.” Journal of Southern African Studies, 39, no. 3 (2013): 527–42.

Hodges, Sarah. “South Asia’s Eugenic Past.” In The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics, edited by Alison Bashford and Philippa Levine, 228–42. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Hofmeyr, Beatie and Anonymous Co-Author. “South Africa: A Bulletin from Within.” In Sisterhood Is Global: The International Women’s Movement Anthology, edited by Robin Morgan, 618–20. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984.

Hofmeyr, Isabel. “Building a Nation from Words: Afrikaans Language, Literature and ‘Ethnic Identity,’ 1902-1924.” In The Politics of Race, Class, and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa, edited by Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido, 95–123. London and New York: Longman, 1987.

Horwitz, Simonne. Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto: A History of Medical Care, 1941–1990. Johannesburg: Wits University Press, 2013.

Huigen, S. “Blanke Angst voor Zwart Gevaar: De ldeologie van Jacob Lubs ‘Het Zwarte Gevaar’ (1913).” Antipode 1 (1993): 9–21.

Hull, Elizabeth. “The Renewal of Community Health under the KwaZulu ‘Homeland’ Government.” South African Historical Journal 64, no. 1 (March 2012): 22–40.

Hunt, Nancy Rose. “ ‘Le Bebe en Brousse’: European Women, African Birth Spacing and Colonial Intervention in Breast Feeding in the Belgian Congo.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 21, no. 3 (January 1988): 401–32.

Hunter, Mark. “Cultural Politics and Masculinities: Multiple-Partners in Historical Perspective in KwaZulu-Natal.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 7, no. 4 (July-August 2005): 389–403.

——— . “Masculinities, Multiple-Sexual-Partners, and AIDS: The Making and Unmaking of Isoka in KwaZulu-Natal.” Transformation 54 (2004): 123–53.

Hunter, Monica. Reaction to Conquest: Effects of Contact with Europeans on the Pondo of South Africa. London: Oxford University Press, 1936.

Hyslop, Jonathan. “White Working-Class Women and the Invention of Apartheid: ‘Purified’ Afrikaner Nationalist Agitation for Legislation Against ‘Mixed’ Marriages, 1934-9.” Journal of African History 36, no. 1 (January 1995): 57–81.

“Implementation of the New South African Abortion Law: A Six-Month Overview from Hospital Reports.” Reproductive Health Matters 6, no. 11 (May 1998): 145–48.

“In South Africa, A Liberal Abortion Law Doesn’t Guarantee Access.” The Nation, January 21, 2013. Available at http://www.thenation.com/article/171949/south-africa-liberal-abortion-law-doesnt-guarantee-access#.

Ivaska, Andrew. “ ‘Anti-mini Militants Meet Modern Misses’: Urban Style, Gender, and the Politics of ‘National Culture’ in 1960s Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.” In Fashioning Africa: Power and the Politics of Dress, edited by Jean Allman, 104–21. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Jayawardena, Kumari. Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed, 1988.

Jewkes, Rachel, Helen Rees, Kim Dickson, Heather Brown, and Jonathan Levin. “The Impact of Age on the Epidemiology of Incomplete Abortions in South Africa After Legislative Change.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 112, no. 3 (March 2005): 355–59.

Jewkes, Rachel, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Robert Morrell, an Kristin Dunkle. “Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South (p.296) Africa: Findings of a Cross-sectional Study”. In PLoS One, December 2011, 6, 12, 1–11: e29590.

Jewkes, Rachel, et al. Preventing Rape and Violence in South Africa: Call for Leadership in A New Agenda For Action. Pretoria: Gender and Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council, 2009.

——— . “Why are Women Still Aborting Outside Designated Facilities in Metropolitan South Africa?” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 112, no. 9 (September 2005): 1236–42.

Jochelson, Karen. Colour of Disease: Syphilis and Racism in South Africa, 1880–1950. Oxford: Palgrave, in association with St. Antony’s College, 2001.

Johnson-Hanks, J. “The Lesser Shame: Abortion among Educated Women in Southern Cameroon.” Social Science and Medicine 55, no. 8 (2002): 1337–49.

Joseph, Helen. Side by Side: The Autobiography of Helen Joseph. London: Zed, 1986.

Jowell, Joanne. On the Other Side of Shame: An Extraordinary Account of Adoption and Reunion. Johannesburg: Pan Macmillan South Africa, 2008.

“Just Call ‘Jane.’ ” In Abortion to Reproductive Freedom: Transforming a Movement, edited by Margaret Fried, 93-100. Boston: South End Press, 1990.

Kanogo, Tabitha. African Womanhood in Colonial Kenya, 1900–50. Oxford: James Currey, 2005.

Karstadt, B. “Injectable Long-acting Progestogens for Contraception.” South African Medical Journal 44, no. 4 (April 1970): 480–81.

Kaufman, Carol E. “Reproductive Control in Apartheid South Africa.” Population Studies 54, no. 1 (January 2000): 105–14.

——— . “Reproductive Control in South Africa.” Policy Research Division Working Paper Series, no. 97. New York: Population Council, 1997.

Keegan, Timothy. “Gender, Degeneration and Sexual Danger: Imagining Race and Class in South Africa, ca. 1912.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 3 (September 2001): 459–77.

Kim-Puri, H. J. “Conceptualizing Gender-Sexuality-State-Nation: An Introduction.” Gender and Society 19, no. 2 (April 2005): 137–59.

Kinghorn, Johann. “Modernization and Apartheid: The Afrikaner Churches.” In Christianity in South Africa: A Political, Social, and Cultural History, edited by Richard Elphick and Rodney Davenport, 135–54. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Kiragu, Karungari, and Laurie S. Zaban. “Contraceptive Use Among High School Students in Kenya.” International Family Planning Perspectives 21, no 3 (September 1995): 107-13.

Klausen, Susanne M. Race, Maternity, and the Politics of Birth Control in South Africa, 1910-39. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

——— . “Sex, Shame and Suicide: Policing White Male Heterosexuality in South Africa during Apartheid.” Paper presented at the Northeast Workshop on Southern Africa, University of Vermont, October 18, 2014.

Kline, Wendy. Bodies of Knowledge: Sexuality, Reproduction, and Women’s Health in the Second Wave. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Klugman, Barbara. “Decision-Making on Contraception Amongst a Sample of Urban African Working Women.” MA thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 1988.

——— . “The Political Economy of Population Control in South Africa.” BA thesis, University of Witwatersrand, 1980.

——— . “The Politics of Contraception in South Africa.” Women’s Studies International Forum 13, no. 3 (January 1990): 261–71.

(p.297) ——— . “Population Policy in South Africa: A Critical Perspective.” Development Southern Africa 8, no. 1 (February 1991): 19–34.

Klugman, Barbara, Marion Stevens, Alex van der Heever, and Meryl Federl. From Words to Action: Sexual and Reproductive Rights, Health Policies and Programming in South Africa 1994–1998. Johannesburg: Women’s Health Project and Centre for Health Policy, the University of the Witwatersrand, 1998.

Klugman, Barbara, and Sanjani Jane Varkey. “From Policy Development to Policy Implementation: The South African Choice on Termination Act.” In Advocating for Abortion Access: Eleven Country Studies, edited by Debbie Budlender and Barbara Klugman, 251-82. Johannesburg: The Women’s Health Project, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, 2001.

Klugman, Barbara, and Renay Weiner. Women’s Health Status in South Africa. Paper presented at the Centre for Health Policy, Department of Community Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 1992.

Kuzwayo, Ellen. Call Me Woman. London: Women’s Press, 1985.

Lategan, Bernard. “Preparing and Keeping the Mindset Intact: Reasons and Forms of the Theology of the Status Quo.” In Maintaining Apartheid or Promoting Change? The Role of the Dutch Reformed Church in a Phase of Increasing Conflict in South Africa, edited by Wolfram Weisse and Carel Anthonissen, 53–66. New York: Waxmann, 2004.

le Roux, Pieter. “Growing Up an Afrikaner.” In Growing Up in a Divided Society: The Contexts of Childhood in South Africa, edited by Sandra Burman and Pamela Reynolds, 184–207. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, in association with the Centre for Cross-Cultural Research on Women, Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford University, 1986.

Lever, Henry, ed. Readings in South African Society. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 1978.

Levine, Philippa. Prostitution, Race and Politics: Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Lewis, Desiree. “Gender Myths and Citizenship in Two Autobiographies by South African Women.” Agenda 15, no. 40 (January 1999): 38–44.

Lock, Margaret, and Patricia A. Kaufert. “Introduction.” In Pragmatic Women and Body Politics, edited by Margaret Lock and Patricia A. Kaufert, 1–27. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Longmore, Laura. The Dispossessed: A Study of the Sex-life of Bantu Women In and Around Johannesburg. London: Jonathan Cape, 1959.

Lopez, Iris. Matters of Choice: Puerto Rican Women’s Struggle for Reproductive Freedom. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

Lubbe, Henriëtte. “The Myth of ‘Black Peril’: Die Burger and the 1929 Election.” South African Historical Journal 37, no. 1 (November 1997): 107–32.

Lubbe, J. J. “A Tale of Fear and Faith.” In 1948 Plus Fifty Years: Theology, Apartheid and Church: Past, Present and Future, edited by J. W. Hofmeyr, Christo Lombaard, and P. J. Maritz, 29–50. Pretoria: Institute for Missiological and Ecumencial Research, University of Pretoria, 2001.

Luker, Kristin. Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Lunn, Helen. “Hippies, Radicals and Sounds of Silence: Cultural Dialectics at Two South African Universities, 1966-1976.” Ph.D dissertation, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, 2010.

Macqueen, Ian. “Re-Imagining South Africa: Black Consciousness, Radical Christianity and the New Left, 1967-1977.” PhD dissertation, University of Sussex, 2011.

(p.298) Magaziner, Daniel. “Pieces of a (Wo)man: Feminism, Gender and Adulthood in Black Consciousness, 1968-1977.” Journal of Southern African Studies 37, no. 1 (March 2011): 45–61.

Mager, Anne Kelk. Gender and the Making of a South African Bantustan: A Social History of the Ciskei, 1945-1959. Oxford: James Currey, 1999.

Maharaj, Pranitha. “Male Attitudes to Family Planning in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Evidence from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 2 (June 2001): 245–57.

Makeba, Miriam, with James Hall. Makeba: My Story. New York: New American Library, 1987.

Mamdani, Mahmood. The Myth of Population Control: Family, Caste and Class in an Indian Village. New York: Monthly Review Press, 197.

Manganyi, N. C. Being-Black-in-the-World. Johannesburg: Spro-cas/Ravan Press, 1973.

Mani, Lata. Contentious Traditions: The Debate on ‘Sati’ in Colonial India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Manicom, Linzi. “Ruling Relations: Rethinking State and Gender in South African History.” Journal of African History 33, no. 3 (1992): 441–65.

Maré, Gerhard. Declassified: Moving Beyond the Dead-End of Race in South Africa. Auckland Park: Jacana, 2014.

Marks, Shula. Not Either an Experimental Doll: The Separate Worlds of Three South African Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Marks, Shula, and Neil Andersson. “Issues in the Political Economy of Health in Southern Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 13, no. 2 (January 1987): 177–86.

——— . “Apartheid Health in the 1980s.” Social Science and Medicine 27, issue 7 (1988): 667–81.

Marks, Shula and Deborah Potts. “Fertility in Southern Africa: The Quiet Revolution.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 2 (June 2001): 189–205.

Martens, Jeremy. “Settler Homes, Manhood and ‘Houseboys’: An Analysis of Natal’s Rape Scare of 1886.” Journal of Southern African Studies 28, no. 2 (June 2002): 379–400.

Mason, John Edwin. Social Death and Resurrection: Slavery and Emancipation in South Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.

Mass, Bonnie. Population Target: The Political Economy of Population Control in Latin America. Toronto: Canadian Women’s Educational Press: Latin American Working Group, 1976.

Maxwell, W. H. “The Treatment of Abortion.” Journal of the Medical Association of South Africa 1, no. 1 (January 1927): 40-42.

Mayne, Alan. “ ‘The Dreadful Scourge’: Responses to Smallpox in Sydney and Melbourne, 1881-2.” In Disease, Medicine and Empire, edited by Roy MacLeod and Milton Lewis, 219–41. London and New York: Routledge, 1988.

McKittrick, Meredith. “Faithful Daughter, Murdering Mother: Transgression and Social Control in Colonial Namibia.” Journal of African History 40, no. 2 (July 1999): 265–83.

McClintock, Anne. “Family Feuds: Gender, Nationalism and the Family.” Feminist Review, no. 44 (Summer 1993): 61–80.

——— . Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Context. New York: Routledge, 1995.

——— . “ ‘No Longer in a Future Heaven’: Women and Nationalism in South Africa.” Transition, no. 51 (1991): 104–23.

McDonald, Peter D. The Literature Police: Apartheid Censorship and its Cultural Consequences. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

(p.299) McLaren, Angus. Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885–1945. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1990.

McLaren, Angus, and Arlene Tigar McLaren. The Bedroom and the State: The Changing Practices and Politics of Contraception and Abortion in Canada, 1880–1997, 2nd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Merrett, Christopher. A Culture of Censorship: Secrecy and Intellectual Repression in South Africa. Cape Town: David Philip, 1994.

Mitchell, Ellen, Amata Kwizera, Momade Usta, and Hailemichael Gebreselassie. “Choosing Early Pregnancy Termination Methods in Urban Mozambique.” Social Science & Medicine 71, no. 1 (July 2010): 62–70.

Molope, Kagiso. Dancing in the Dust. Toronto: TSAR, 2002.

Moodie, T. Dunbar. The Rise of Afrikanerdom: Power, Apartheid, and the Afrikaner Civil Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

——— , with Vivienne Ndatshe. Going for Gold: Men, Mines, and Migration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).

Moodley, J., and V. S. Akinsooto. “Unsafe Abortions in a Developing Country: Has Liberalisation of Laws on Abortions made a Difference?” African Journal of Reproductive Health 7, no. 2 (August 2003): 34–38.

Mooney, Katie. “Die Eendstert Euwel and Societal Responses to White Youth Subcultural Identities on the Witwatersrand, 1934-1964.” Ph.D dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, 2006.

——— . “Ducktails, Flick-Knives and Pugnacity: Subcultural and Hegemonic Masculinities in South Africa, 1948-1960.” Journal of Southern African Studies 24, no. 4 (December 1998): 753–74.

Morrell, Robert. “Of Boys and Men: Masculinity and Gender in Southern African Studies.” Journal of Southern African Studies 24, no. 4 (1998): 605–30.

——— . “Masculinity in South African History: Towards a Gendered Approach to the Past.” South African Historical Journal 37, no. 1 (November 1997): 167–77.

Mosse, George. “Nationalism and Respectability: Normal and Abnormal Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century.” Journal of Contemporary History 17, no. 2 (January 1982): 221–46.

——— . Nationalism and Sexuality: Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe. New York: H. Fertig, 1985.

——— . Toward the Final Solution. A History of European Racism. New York: H. Fertig, 1978.

N. G. Kerk. Ras, Volk en Nasie en Volkere Verhoudinge in die Lig van die Skrif. NG Kerk Uitgewers, 1974.

Ngwena, Charles G. “Reforming African Abortion Laws and Practice: The Place of Transparency.” In Abortion Law in Transnational Perspective: Cases and Controversies, edited by Rebecca Cook, Joanna N. Erdman, and Bernard M. Dickens, 166–86. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014.

Nicol, Willem. “Accompanying the Flock: The Development of the Dutch Reformed Church.” In Maintaining Apartheid or Promoting Change? The Role of the Dutch Reformed Church in a Phase of Increasing Conflict in South Africa, edited by Carel Anthonissen and Wolfram Weisse, 115–22. New York: Waxmann, 2004.

Niehaus, Isak. “Towards a Dubious Liberation: Masculinity, Sexuality and Power in South African Lowveld Schools, 1953-1999.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26, no. 3 (September 2000): 387–407.

Noble, Vanessa. “Doctors Divided: Gender, Race, and Class Anomalies in the Production of Black Medical Doctors in Apartheid South Africa, 1948–1994.” Ph.D dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005.

(p.300) Norgren, Tiana. Abortion Before Birth Control: The Politics of Reproduction in Postwar Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Nyanzi, Stella, Barbara Nyanzi, and Kalina Bessie. “ ‘Abortion? That’s for Women!’ Narratives and Experiences of Commercial Motorbike Riders in South-Western Uganda.” African Journal of Reproductive Health 9, no. 1 (April 2005): 142–61.

Obbo, Christine. “Sexuality and Economic Domination in Uganda.” In Woman-Nation-State, edited by Nira Yuval-Davis and Floya Anthias, 71–91. London: Macmillan, 1989.

O’Meara, Dan. Forty Lost Years: The Apartheid State and the Politics of the National Party, 1948-1994. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1996.

Oosthuizen, G. C. “Termination of Pregnancy—a DRC Viewpoint.” In The Great Debate: Abortion in the South African Context, edited by G. C. Oosthuizen, G. Abbott, and M. Notelovitz, 60–66. Cape Town: Howard Timmins, 1974.

Parker, Andrew, Mary Russo, Doris Sommer, and Patricia Yaegar, eds. Nationalisms and Sexualities. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Patterson, Sheila. Colour and Culture in South Africa: A Study of the Status of the Cape Coloured People within the Social Structure of the Union of South Africa. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1953.

Pauw, B. A. The Second Generation: A Study of the Family among Urbanized Bantu in East London, 2nd ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Pauw, Ilse. “The Mind of a Family Murderer.” Health24, December 17, 2010. Available at http://www.health24.com/mind/Other/1284-1303,23119.asp.

Petchesky, Rosalind. Abortion and Woman’s Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom, rev. ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990.

Phillips, Howard. “The Importance of Being Earnest About Epidemics, or Why Historians of South Africa Should Take Plagues Seriously.” Presentation at the New Directions in the Histories of Health, Healing, and Medicine in African Contexts Workshop, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, August 19-21, 2012.

Phoofolo, Pule. “Female Extramarital Relationships and their Regulation in Early Colonial Thembuland, South Africa, 1875-95.” Journal of Family History 30, no. 1 (January 2005): 3–47.

Platzky, Laurine, and Cherryl Walker. The Surplus People: Forced Removals in South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985.

Posel, Deborah. “The Language of Domination, 1978-1983.” In The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa, edited by Shula Marks and Stanley Trapido, 419-44. London: Longman, 1987.

——— . The Making of Apartheid, 1948-61: Conflict and Compromise. Oxford: Clarendon Press, and New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

——— . “The Meaning of Apartheid Before 1948: Conflicting Interests and Forces Within the Afrikaner Nationalist Alliance.” Journal of Southern African Studies 14, no. 1 (October 1987): 123–39.

——— . “Sex, Death and the Fate of the Nation: Reflections on the Politicization of Sexuality in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 75, no. 2 (2005): 125–53.

——— . “State, Power and Gender: Conflict over the Registration of African Customary Marriage in South Africa c. 1910-1970.” Journal of Historical Sociology 8, no. 3 (September 1995): 223-56.

——— . “What’s in a Name? Racial Categorisations Under Apartheid and Their Afterlife.” Transformation 47 (2001): 50–74.

(p.301) Potts, Deborah, and Shula Marks. “Fertility in Southern Africa: The Quiet Revolution.” Journal of Southern African Studies 27, no. 2 (June 2001): 189–205.

Preston-Whyte, Eleanor. “Between Two Worlds: A Study of the Working Life, Social Ties and Interpersonal Relationships of African Women Migrants in Domestic Service in Durban.” Ph.D dissertation, University of Natal, 1969.

——— . “Women Migrants and Marriage.” In Essays on African Marriage in Southern Africa, edited by Eileen Jensen Krige and John Comaroff, 158–73. Cape Town: Juta, 1981.

Ramphele, Mamphela. “The Dynamics of Gender Within Black Consciousness Organisations: A Personal View.” In Bounds of Possibility: The Legacy of Steve Biko and Black Consciousness, edited by Barney Pityana, Mamphela Ramphele, Malusi Mpumlwana, and Lindy Wilson, 214–27. Cape Town: David Philip, 1991.

——— . Laying Ghosts to Rest: Dilemmas of the Transformation in South Africa. Cape Town: Tafelberg, 2008.

——— . Mamphela Ramphele: A Life. Cape Town: D. Philip, 1995.

Reagan, Leslie. “Crossing the Border for Abortions: California Activists, Mexican Clinics, and the Creation of a Feminist Health Agency in the 1960s.” Feminist Studies 26, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 323–45.

——— . When Abortion Was a Crime: Women, Medicine, and the Law in the United States, 1867-1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Renne, Elisha P. “The Pregnancy that Doesn’t Stay: The Practice and Perception of Abortion by Ekiti Yoruba Women.” Social Science & Medicine 42, no. 4 (February 1996): 483–94.

Retief, Glen. “Keeping Sodom out of the Laager: State Repression of Homosexuality in Apartheid South Africa.” In Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa, edited by Mark Gevisser and Edwin Cameron, 99–114. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Riddle, John. Eve’s Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Robertson, Claire. “Never Underestimate the Power of Women: The Transforming Vision of African Women’s History.” Women’s Studies International Forum 11, no. 5 (1988): 439–53.

Roos, Neil. “Education, Sex and Leisure: Ideology, Discipline and the Construction of Race among South African Servicemen during the Second World War.” Journal of Social History 44, no. 3 (Spring 2011): 811–35.

——— . “Work Colonies and South African Historiography.” Social History 36, no. 1 (February 2011): 54–76.

Rose, Brian, and Bryan Chilvers. The Broken Link. Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel Bpk, 1969.

Rowbotham, Sheila. A New World for Women: Stella Browne, Socialist Feminist. London: Pluto, 1977.

Russell, Diana. Behind Closed Doors in White South Africa: Incest Survivors Tell Their Stories. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.

Sadie, Jan. L. “The Political Arithmetic of the South African Population.” Journal of Racial Affairs 1, no. 4 (1950): 3–8.

Salo, Elaine, and Desiree Lewis. “Birth Control, Contraception and Women’s Rights.” Agenda 9, no. 17 (January 1993): 59-68.

Sanger, Margaret. Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton, 1938.

Sarkin, Jeremy. “Patriarchy and Discrimination in Apartheid South Africa’s Abortion Law.” Buffalo Human Rights Law Review 4 (1998): 141–84.

(p.302) Saunders, Christopher, and Nicholas Southey. Historical Dictionary of South Africa, 2nd. ed. Lanham, MD, and London: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

Schapera, Isaac. “Cultural Changes in Tribal Life.” In The Bantu-Speaking Tribes of South Africa: An Ethnological Survey, edited by Isaac Schapera, 357–87. London: G. Routledge, 1937.

——— . “Premarital Pregnancy and Native Opinion: A Note on Social Change.” Africa 6, no. 1 (January 1933): 59–89.

Scher, J. “The Mechanism of Death in, and the Treatment of, Septic Abortion.” South African Medical Journal 37, no. 11 (November 1963): 1109–13.

Schmidt, Elizabeth. Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Schoen, Johanna. Choice and Coercion: Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion in Public Health and Welfare. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Searle, G. R. The Quest for National Efficiency: A Study in British Politics and Political Thought, 1899-1914. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Seidman, Gay. “ ‘No Freedom without the Women’: Mobilization and Gender in South Africa, 1970-1992.” Signs 18, no. 2 (Winter 1993): 291–320.

Semmel, Bernard. Imperialism and Social Reform: English Social-Imperial Thought, 1895-1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960.

Serfontein, J. H. P. Apartheid, Change and the NG Kerk. Emmarentia: Taurus, 1982.

——— . Brotherhood of Power: An Expose of the Secret Afrikaner Broederbond. London: Rex Collings, 1979.

Shapiro, H. A. “Abortion.” Medical Proceedings 17, no. 15 (July 1971): 221-22.

Sharp, Ruby G. “Tribute to a Great Teacher.” South African Medical Journal 56, no. 12 (December 1979): 1059–1074.

Shweni, Phila Michael, Jack Margolis, and T. Samuel Monokoane, “Abortions: The King Edward VIIl Hospital Experience.” O & G Forum, July 1992, 22–26.

Simons, H. J. African Women: Their Legal Status in South Africa. London: C. Hurst, 1968.

Singh, S., et al. Abortion Worldwide: A Decade of Uneven Progress. New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2009.

Smith, Nico. “The Church as a Captive of an Ideology: The Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Suid Afrika in the Clutches of a Secret Organization—the Afrikaner Broederbond.” In Maintaining Apartheid or Promoting Change? The Role of the Dutch Reformed Church in a Phase of Increasing ConfLict in South Africa, edited by Wolfram Weisse and Carel Anthonissen, 67–98. New York: Waxmann, 2004.

Solinger, Rickie. The Abortionist: A Woman Against the Law. New York: Macmillan, 1994.

Soloway, Richard A. Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Soske, Jon, Arianna Lissoni, and Natasha Erlank. “One Hundred Years of the ANC: Debating Struggle History after Apartheid.” In One Hundred Years of the ANC: Debating Liberation Histories Today, edited by Jon Soske, Arianna Lissoni, Natasha Erlank, Noor Nieftagodien, and Omar Badsha, 29–54. Johannesburg: Wits University Press and South African History Online, 2012.

Sparks, Alistair. The Mind of South Africa. London: William Heinemann, 1990.

Spear, Jennifer. “Colonial Intimacies: Legislating Sex in French Louisiana.” William and Mary Quarterly 60, no. 1 (January 2003): 75–98.

Stambach, Amy. “Curl Up and Dye: Civil Society and the Fashion-Minded Citizen.” In Civil Society and the Political Imagination in Africa: Critical Perspectives, edited (p.303) by John Comaroff and Jean Comaroff, 251–66. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Stanley, Liz. Mourning Becomes . . . Post/Memory and Commemoration of the Concentration Camps of the South African War 1899-1902. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.

Stannus, H. S. “Notes on Some Tribes of British Central Africa.” Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 40 (1910): 285–335.

Steenkamp, V. “Traditional Herbal Remedies Used by South African Women for Gynaecological Complaints.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86, no. 1 (May 2003): 97–108.

Stepan, Nancy. The Idea of Race in Science: Great Britain 1800-1960. London: Macmillan, 1982.

Stevens, Marion. “No Reason to Celebrate.” Nursing Update, September 2012, 48–49.

Stevenson, R. E. “The Early History of King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban.” South African Medical Journal 35, no. 12 (December 2, 1961): 1004–1005.

Stoler, Ann Laura. “Making Empire Respectable: The Politics of Race and Sexual Morality in 20th-Century Colonial Cultures.” American Ethnologist 16, no. 4 (November 1989): 634–60.

——— . Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault’s History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995.

——— . “Sexual Affronts and Racial Frontiers: European Identities and the Cultural Politics of Exclusion in Colonial Southeast Asia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 34, no. 3 (July 1992): 514–51.

Stone, Judith. When She Was White: The True Story of a Family Divided by Race. New York: Hyperion, 2007.

Strauss, S. A. S. “Therapeutic Abortion in South African Law.” South African Medical Journal 42, no. 1 (July 1968): 710–14.

——— . “Therapeutic Abortion: Two Important Judicial Pronouncements.” South Afrian Medical Journal, 46, no. 3 (March 1972): 275-79.

Sullivan, Rodney. “Cholera and Colonialism in the Philippines, 1899-1903.” In Disease, Medicine and Empire, edited by Roy MacLeod and Milton Lewis, 285–300. London and New York: Routledge, 1988.

Szobar Patricia. “Telling Sexual Stories in the Nazi Courts of Law: Race Defilement in Germany, 1933 to 1945.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 11, nos. 1 and 2 (January/April 2002): 131–63.

Thomas, Lynn. Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Thompson, Leonard. The Political Mythology of Apartheid. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Twine, Janet. “ ‘I’m Just an Ordinary Nurse’: A Life History of Matron Bongiwe Bolani.” BA Honours Thesis, University of Natal, 1997.

Tyler, Edward. “Current Studies in Contraception: The Use of a Long-acting Progestogen by Injection.” South African Medical Journal 42, no. (March 1968): 257–59.

Urdang, Stephanie. Fighting Two Colonialisms: Women in Guinea-Bissau. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.

Van Bogaert, L. “ ‘Failed’ Contraception in a Rural South African Population.” South African Medical Journal 93, no. 11 (November 2003): 860.

van der Westhuizen, Christi. White Power and the Rise and Fall of the National Party. Cape Town: Zebra, 2007.

(p.304) van Onselen, Charles. “The Witches of Suburbia: Domestic Service on the Witwatersrand, 1890–1914.” In Studies in the Social and Economic History of the Witwatersrand 1886-1914, vol. 2, New Nineveh, 45–60. Johannesburg: Longman, 1982.

Varkey, S., S. Fonn, and M. Ketlapile. “The Role of Advocacy in Implementing the South African Abortion Law.” Reproductive Health Matters 8, no. 16 (2000): 103–11.

Vincent, Louise. “Bread and Honour: White Working Class Women and Afrikaner Nationalism in the 1930s.” Journal of Southern African Studies 26, no. 1 (March 2000): 61–78.

——— . “Shaking a Hornets’ Nest: Pitfalls of Abortion Counseling in a Secular Constitutional Order—A View from South Africa.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 14, no. 2 (February 2012): 125–38.

——— . “South Africa’s Abortion Values Clarification Workshops—An Opportunity to Deepen Democratic Communication Missed.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 46, no. 3 (June 2011): 264–77.

Vukani Makhosikazi Collective. South African Women on the Move. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1985.

Waetjen, Thembisa. Workers and Warriors: Masculinity and the Struggle for Nation in South Africa. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Walker, Cherryl. “Conceptualizing Motherhood in Twentieth-Century South Africa.” Journal of Southern African Studies 21, no. 3 (September 1995): 417–37.

——— . “Gender and the Development of the Migrant Labour System c.1850-1930: An Overview.” In Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945, edited by Cherryl Walker, 168-96. London: James Currey, 1990.

——— , ed. Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945. Cape Town: David Philip, 1990.

——— . Women and Resistance in South Africa. London: Onyx, 1982.

——— . The Women’s Suffrage Movement in South Africa. Cape Town: Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town, 1979.

Walker, Liz. “‘My Work is to Help the Woman Who Wants to Have a Child, Not the Woman Who Wants to Have an Abortion’: Discourses of Patriarchy and Power among African Nurses in South Africa.” African Studies 55 (1996): 43–67.

Ware, Vron. Beyond the Pale: White Women, Racism, and History. London and New York: Verso, 1992.

Weeks, Jeffrey. Coming Out: Homosexual Politics from the Nineteenth Century to the Present. London and New York: Quartet Books, 1977.

Wells, Julia. We Now Demand! The History of Women’s Resistance to Pass Laws in South Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1994.

Welsh, David. The Rise and Fall of Apartheid. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball, 2009.

White, Deborah Gray. Ar’n’t I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York: Norton, 1985.

Wicomb, Zoe. You Can’t Get Lost in Cape Town. London: Virago, 1987.

Wilkins, Ivor, and Hans Strydom, eds. The Broederbond. New York: Paddington, 1979.

Wilson, Monica. “Xhosa Marriage in Historical Perspective.” In Essays on African Marriage in Southern Africa, edited by Eileen Jensen Krige and John Comaroff, 133–47. Cape Town: Juta, 1981.

Wipper, Audrey. “African Women, Fashion, and Scapegoating.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 6, no. 2 (January 1972): 329–49.

Woods, Donald. Biko. New York: Paddington Press, 1978.

(p.305) World Health Organization. The Prevention and Management of Unsafe Abortion: Report of a Technical Working Group (WHO/MSM/92.5) Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.

——— . Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of the Incidence of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2008, 6th ed. Geneva: Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2011.

Xaba, Thokozani. “Masculinity and its Malcontents: The Confrontation Between ‘Struggle Masculinity’ and ‘Post-Struggle Masculinity’ (1990-1997).” In Changing Men in Southern Africa, edited by Robert Morrell, 105-24. Scottsville: University of Natal Press, 2001.

Young, Robert. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race. London and New York: Routledge, 1995.

Yuval-Davis, Nira, and Floya Anthias, eds. Woman-Nation-State. London: Macmillan, 1989. (p.306)