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Building the Federal SchoolhouseLocalism and the American Education State$

Douglas S. Reed

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199838486

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199838486.001.0001

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(p.293) Bibliography

(p.293) Bibliography

Source:
Building the Federal Schoolhouse
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Note on Sources: Unless otherwise noted, all archival material from Alexandria City Public Schools may be found at the Alexandria City Public Schools Record Center, in Alexandria, Virginia. The materials there are organized chronologically. Wherever possible, I have indicated the box number in which the item may be found.

Cases Cited

Adams v. Richardson, 51 Supp. 636 (1972)

Adams v. Richardson, 356 F. Supp. 92 (1973)

Almond v. Day, 89 S.E.2d 851 (1955)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (Brown I)

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (Brown II)

City of Alexandria v. County of Fairfax, 212 Va. 437 (1971)

Connecticut v. Spellings, 453 F. Supp. 2d 459 (D. Conn. 2006)

Connecticut v. Spellings, 549 F. Supp. 2d 161 (D. Conn. 2008)

Connecticut v. Duncan 612 F.3d 107 (2nd Cir. 2010)

Evers v. Jackson Municipal Separate School District, 232 F. Supp. 241 (1964)

Evers v. Jackson Municipal Separate School District 357 F.2d 653 (5th Cir. 1966)

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968)

Griffin v. Board of Supervisors of Prince Edward County, 339 F.2d 486 (4th Cir. 1964)

Griffin v. State Board of Education, 239 F. Supp. 560 (1965)

Griffin v. State Board of Education, 296 F. Supp. 1178 (E.D. Va. 1969)

Irby v. Fitz-Hugh 693 F. Supp. 424 (1988)

Jones v. School Board of City of Alexandria, Virginia, unpublished. Reprinted at Race Relations Law Reporter 4, no. 1 (1959): 29–36

Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974)

Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923)

Mills v. District of Columbia 348 F. Supp. 866 (D DC 1972)

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 343 F. Supp. 279 (1972)

Sando v. Alexandria City School Board, 330 F. Supp. 773 (1971)

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 402 U.S. 1 (1971)

School Board of City of Newport News v. Atkins, 246 F.2d 325 (4th Circ.) (1957) (p.294)

Sources Cited

Abedi, Jamal. “The No Child Left Behind Act and English Language Learners: Assessment and Accountability Issues.” Educational Researcher 33, no. 1 (2004): 4–14.

Advancement Project, Alexandria United Teens and Tony Roshan Samara. “Obstacles to Opportunity: Alexandria Virginia Students Speak Out.” George Mason University, Alexandria, VA: Tenants and Workers United, October, 2007. http://virginia-organizing.org/sites/default/files/Obstacles2Opportunity-Final.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2014.

Albohm, John C. Integration: Constructive Steps Taken Since March 11, 1963. April 25, 1963. Folder “Leonard S. Brown Conference,” April 25, 1963.

Albohm, John C. Letter to Eloise Severinson, Regional Civil Rights Director, HEW. July 8, 1971. School Board Minutes—July 7, 1971.

Albohm, John C. Letter to Eloise Severinson, Regional Civil Rights Director, HEW. July 30, 1971. School Board Minutes—August 4, 1971, Box 030114.

Albohm, John C. Letter to Harry R. Elmore, Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction. January 29, 1965. Folder “Compliance—Rules, Regulations,” Desegregation File Cabinet.

Albohm, John C. Letter to R. Worth Peters, Regional Representative, Office of Education, Region 3. April 2, 1965. Folder “Compliance—Rules, Regulations,” Desegregation File Cabinet.

Albohm, John C. Letter to Walter H. Rogers, Jr. January 3, 1964. Folder “School Board Roundtable Meeting.” January 3, 1964.

Albohm, John C. Memorandum Re: Alternate Plan for Pupil Distribution, Grades 7 Through 12. April 15, 1971. School Board Minutes, Box #030113.

Albohm, John C. Tuition Grant Study Committee. October 2, 1964. Work Session October 2, 1964.

Albohm, John C., and Raymond F. Sanger. “Disruption and Discipline.” In Internal: For the Teachers and Administrators of the Alexandria Public Schools, 1–3: Alexandria City Public Schools, 1970. Copy available in School Board Minutes, December 12, 1970, Box #030113.

Alexandria Association for Retarded Children, Mrs. T. Edward Braswell, “Letter to T.C. Williams, June 28,” School Board Minutes, Regular Meeting, July 21, 1961.

Alexandria Citizens Committee for Colored Voters. Letter to Alexandria City School Board. April 16, 1962. School Board Minutes, April 16, 1962.

Alexandria Citizens Committee for Colored Voters. Resolutions Adopted. November 21, 1962. School Board Minutes, November 21 1962.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Ad Hoc Committee on Learning Environment, Minutes of October 29, 1975 Meeting. Desegregation Cabinet, Ad Hoc Committee on the Learning Environment Folder.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Agenda for Work Session. September 12, 1963. Folder “Work Session.”

Alexandria City Public Schools. Approved Applications for Tuition Grants. October 20, 1959. School Board Minutes, Executive Session, October 20, 1959.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Assurance of Compliance with Department of Health, Education and Welfare Regulation Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (HEW Form 441). January 8, 1965. Folder “Compliance—Rules, Regulations,” Desegregation File Cabinet,

Alexandria City Public Schools. Changes in List of Approved Scholarship Applications First Semester 1964–1965. December 16, 1964. School Board Minutes, December 16., 1964.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Checks Presented for Payment at School Board Meeting. June 16, 1960. School Board Minutes, June 16, 1960.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Enrollment, Membership, Racial Breakdown. September 29, 1972. School Board Minutes—October 18, 1972, Box 17-084.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for First Semester 1961–1962. January 13, 1961. School Board Minutes, January 13, 1961.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for First Semester 1962–1963. December 19, 1962. School Board Minutes, December 19, 1961. (p.295)

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for First Semester 1963–1964. December 18, 1963. School Board Minutes, December 18, 1963.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for Second Semester 1960–1961. May 10, 1961. School Board Minutes, May 10, 1961.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for Second Semester 1961–1962. June 13, 1962. School Board Minutes, June 13, 1962.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for Second Semester 1962–1963. May 15, 1963. School Board Minutes, May 15, 1963.

Alexandria City Public Schools. List of Approved Scholarship Applications for Second Semester 1963–1964. May 20, 1964. School Board Minutes, May 20, 1964.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Memorandum to High School Principals. November 23, 1963. Folder “Work Session,”

Alexandria City Public Schools. Memorandum to Members of the School Board, Re: Title III Proposal on Exploring Designs for Gifted Students, November 29, 1973. School Board Minutes, December 12, 1973.

Alexandria City Public Schools. “Modified Open Enrollment, Charles Barrett PTA Q & A—Attachment B: ACPS Enrollment Trends by School.” 2010. http://www.acps.k12.va.us/budgets/moe/cb-b-projections-no-moe.pdf. Accessed June 18, 2013.

Alexandria City Public Schools. “Policy for Appraisal and Placement of Students in Special Education.” December 19, 1973. School Board Minutes, December 19, 1973, Box 20-768.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Preliminary Report of the Special Education Advisory Committee, May 1973. School Board Minutes, June 6, 1973, Box 19-001.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Program for Irregular Classes or Underachievers. September 14, 1960. School Board Minutes, September 14, 1960.

Alexandria City Public Schools. A Proposal for an In-Service Training Program in the Alexandria City Public Schools under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. July 18, 1966.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Racial Composition of Schools—Students and Faculty. July 19, 1966. Desegregation File Cabinet.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Receipts. December 16, 1964. School Board Minutes, December 16, 1964.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Report of the Alexandria School Board, Five-Year Plan for Special Education. June 6, 1973. School Board Minutes, June 6, 1973, Box 19-001.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Report of the Study Committee on the Underachiever in the City Schools of Alexandria, Virginia. 1960. School Board Minutes, Regular Meeting, May 12, 1960.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Scholarship Applications Ready for School Board Action, First Semester. January 14, 1960. School Board Minutes, January 14, 1960.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Scholarship Applications, First Semester 1959–1960. December 10, 1959. School Board Minutes, December 10, 1959.

Alexandria City Public Schools. Scholarship Applications, Second Semester 1959–1960. May 12, 1960. School Board Minutes, May 12, 1960.

Alexandria City Public Schools. School Zones 1959–60—1964–1965. 1959–1965. Desegregation cabinet, “Pre-Aiken Files.” Copy also in author's possession.

Alexandria City Public Schools. T.C. Williams Faculty Meeting, April 4, 2010, video, 2010. http://acpsk12va.granicus.com/MediaPlayer.php?publish_id=52. Accessed March 8, 2012.

Alexandria City Public Schools. “T.C. Williams High School—Transformation: 2010 Persistently Low Achieving (PLA) Designation.” 2011. http://www.acps.k12.va.us/tcw-transformation/pla.php. Accessed December 17, 2011.

Alexandria City Public Schools. T.C. Williams High School Faculty Meeting. March 3, 2010. Department of Accountability, http://www.acps.k12.va.us/mes/presentations/20100303-tcw-faculty.pdf. Accessed February 16, 2014].

Alexandria City Public Schools. Test Results of City Testing Program, May 1959 through Sept. 1959. November 16, 1960. School Board Minutes, November 16, 1960. (p.296)

Alexandria City Public Schools. Total Number of Students Who Entered and Left the Public School System during the Summer of 1974, in Pre-Akin Files–Desegregation–Parent Survey, 1974. School Desegregation Cabinet.

Alexandria City Public Schools, Montoring and Evaluation Services. “English as a Second Language (ESL) Evaluation Report.” Alexandria, VA: Alexandria City Public Schools, February, 1999. Available at: http://www.acps.k12.va.us/mes/reports/19990201_esl_full.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2013.

Alexandria City Public Schools, Office of the Superintendent. Minutes of Conference Held in Dr. Albohm’s Office on July 20, 1971—2:15pm. July 20, 1971. Desegregation Cabinet.

Alexandria City Public Schools, Psychological Services. An Analysis of the Intellectual Strengths and Weaknesses of an Educationally Deprived 8th Grade Class. February 12, 1964. School Board Minutes, February 12, 1964.

Alexandria City Public Schools, Psychological Services. Description of a Project for Upgrading Education in One Section of the City of Alexandria, Virginia. July 8, 1964. Folder “Work Sessions,”

Alexandria City Public Schools, Psychological Services. An Inquiry into the Assimilation of Students Transferred to Nearby Schools in the City of Alexandria, 1963–1964. February 1, 1964. Folder “Work Session.”

Alexandria City School Board. Agenda—Regular Meeting. March 1, 1972. School Board Minutes—March 1, 1972, Box 15-709.

Alexandria City School Board. Executive Session Minutes. February 4, 1959.

Alexandria City School Board. Exective Session Minutes. October 19, 1959.

Alexandria City School Board. Executive Session Minutes. September 8, 1960.

Alexandria City School Board. Executive Session Minutes. June 13, 1962.

Alexandria City School Board. George Washington High School—Incident of December 10, 1970. December 12, 1970. School Board Minutes, Box # 030113.

Alexandria City School Board. Items Carried Over from the Board Meeting of February 21, 1973. February 22, 1973. School Board Minutes—February 21, 1973, Box 17-2087.

Alexandria City School Board. Minutes—Regular Meeting. May 19, 1971. Box #030113.

Alexandria City School Board. Regular Meeting—April 18—Transcription. April 18, 1973. School Board Minutes, Box 18-1074.

Alexandria City School Board. Regular Meeting—Minutes. July 7, 1971.

Alexandria City School Board. Regular Meeting Minutes. September 2, 1959. School Board Minutes, September, 1959.

Alexandria City School Board, School Board Minutes—May 19, 1971, Box 030113, May 19, 1971.

Alexandria City School Board. School Board Minutes—Executive Session—Proceeedings. March 21, 1973. School Board Minutes—March 21, 1973, Box 18-674. Alexandria City School Board. School Board Minutes—February 23, 1972. Box 15-556. February 23, 1972.

Alexandria City School Board. School Board Minutes, Regular Meeting. August 9, 1960. School Board Minutes, August 9, 1960.

Alexandria City School Board. Superintendent’s Report. December 19, 1962. School Board Minutes, December 19, 1962.

Alexandria City School Board. Transcript of February 20 Meeting. February 20, 1974. School Board Minutes, February 20, 1974, Box 20-1711.

Alexandria City School Board. Transcript of Regular Meeting. March 1, 1972. School Board Minutes, March 1, 1972. Box 15-709.

Alexandria City School Board. Transcript of Regular Meeting. November 15, 1972. School Board Minutes—November 15, 1972, Box 17-665.

Alexandria City School Board Public Hearing, March 14. June 6, 1973. School Board Minutes, March 14, Box 18-285.

Alexandria Council on Human Relations. Letter to Alexandria City School Board. July 18, 1962. School Board Minutes, July 18, 1962. (p.297)

Alexandria Gazette. “School Cross Burning Incidents Under Investigation by Police.” Alexandria Gazette, November 2, 1970.

Alexandria Gazette Packet. “How Transparent is the School Board; Secret meetings and lack of public input prompt criticism of the Backroom Five” Connection Newspapers, May 30 2007. Available from www.connectionnewspapers.com/news/2007/may/30/how-transparent-is-the-board/. Accessed June 17, 2013.

Alexandria Gazette Packet. “School Superintendent Dumped.” Alexandria Gazette Packet, May 24, 2007. Available from www.connectionnewspapers.com/news/2007/may/24/school-superintendent-dumped/. Accessed June 13, 2013.

Alexandria Gazette Packet. “Some Remain Concerned Over Principal Shift.” Connection Newspapers, April 28 2004. Available from http://www.connectionnewspapers.com/news/2004/apr/28/some-remain-concerned-over-principal-shift/. Accessed June 13, 2013.

Alexandria Nonviolent Action Group. Letter to Alexandria City School Board. April 16, 1962. Executive Session Minutes.

Allen, Mike. “Class Sizes Draw Some Attention; Other Issues Await New School Board.” Washington Post, May 15, 1997.

Allen, Rick. “Alexandria Plans Push to Help Minority Students in Math, Reading.” Washington Post, August 22, 1985.

Allen, Rick. “Program Set for Youngest Gifted.” Washington Post, September 12, 1985.

Austin, R. J. “School Board Selection Methods and Fiscal Powers in the United States and Virginia—Preliminary Staff Report.” Richmond, VA: House Privileges and Elections Subcommittee Studying Selection of School Board Members, December 5, 1984.

Bachinski, E. J. “Knife Planted in Killing, Alexandria Court Told.” Washington Post, June 13, 1970.

Bachinski, E. J., and Michael Hodge. “Youth Slain, Disorder Hits Alexandria.” Washington Post, May 30, 1970.

Bain, Chester W. Annexation in Virginia: The Use of the Judicial Process for Readjusting City-County Boundaries. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1966.

Bahrampour, Tara. “Alexandria May Seek New Head Of Schools.” Washington Post, May 15, 2007.

Bahrampour, Tara. “Alexandria School Board Will Have New Look, Priorities; Eight of Nine Current Members are Not Seeking Re-Election.” Washington Post, April 20, 2006.

Bahrampour, Tara. “Divided School Board Agrees to Work on Team-Building.” Washington Post, May 31, 2007.

Bahrampour, Tara. “New School Board Aims for Firmness, No Rancor; Alexandria Officials Not Afraid to Challenge Superintendent, Past Decisions.” Washington Post, October 31, 2006.

Bahrampour, Tara. “Schools Chief on Alexandria Board Agenda; Vote on Renewing Perry’s Contract May Follow Closed Session, Sources Say.” Washington Post, November 16, 2004.

Bahrampour, Tara. “Schools Chief’s Supporters Decry Decision.” Washington Post, May 23, 2007.

Baldwin, Donald. “Letters to the Editor: Busing and School Discipline.” Washington Post, June 4, 1972.

Barnes, Bart. “Court Ruling Imperils Virginia Tuition Grants.” Washington Post, December 6, 1964.

Bates, Steve. “Academic Mixing Stirs Pot in Alexandria.” Washington Post, January 31, 1993.

Bates, Steve. “Alexandria Superintendent is One of Two Seeking Similar Job in Ohio District.” Washington Post, May 12, 1994.

Bates, Steve. “Alexandria Votes to Offer Civilization Honors Courses.” Washington Post, January 8, 1993.

Bates, Steve. “Budget Woes Threaten Alexandria School Plan.” Washington Post, November 1, 1992.

Bates, Steve. “Controversy Is Part of Masem’s Legacy to Alexandria’s Schools.” Washington Post, June 9, 1994.

Bates, Steve. “For Ninth-Graders Only.” Washington Post, September 2, 1993.

Bates, Steve. “More Parents are Challenging School Quality.” Washington Post, April 20, 1993.

Bates, Steve. “School Policy Riles Alexandria Parents.” Washington Post, March 28, 1993.

Bates, Steve. “Top Alexandria Students Challenge Policy Change.” Washington Post, December 18, 1992. (p.298)

Bates, Steve. “Urged to Cut Budget, Alexandria School Chief Seeks Increase.” Washington Post, February 20, 1993.

Berg, Herb. In-Person Interview, June 25, 2010.

Berkowitz, Edward D. “Politics of Mental Retardation During the Kennedy Administration.” Social Science Quarterly 61, no. 1 (June 1980): 128–143.

Blair, William. “Implications of the Central High School Plan In Its Relationship of the Athletic Program in Alexandria.” May 5, 1971. School Board Minutes—May 5.

Blanton, Carlos Kevin. The Strange Career of Bilingual Education in Texas, 1836–1981. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2004.

Branch, Carla. “Education Secretary Duncan, Redskin Legend Darrell Green Set Tone for New School Year.” Alexandria News, September 2, 2010. Published electronically September 2. http://www.alexandrianews.org/2010/schools/education-secretary-duncan-redskin-legend-darrell-greene-set-tone-for-new-school-year/18844/. Accessed January 30, 2014.

Branch, Carla. “Rebecca Perry: What Really Happened—Actions and Reactions.” Alexandria News, Archives 2008. http://alexandrianews.org/2008/top-stories/rebecca-perry-what-really-happened-actions-and-reactions/104/. Accessed January 18, 2014.

Braswell, T. Edward. Alexandria Association for Retarded Children. Letter to T.C. Williams, June 28. July 21, 1961. School Board Minutes, Regular Meeting, July 21, 1961.

Briffault, Richard. “The Local School District in American Law.” In Beseiged: School Boards and the Future of Education Politics, edited by William G. Howell, 24–55. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2005.

Burchard, Hank, and Carl W. Sims. “2 Police Firings Demanded.” Washington Post, October 12, 1969.

Burgundy Farm Country Day School. “Audio History”. http://www.burgundyfarm.org/gallery/Integration_at_Burgundy.mp3. Accessed January 29, 2014.

Burke, Harold, and J. Thomas Butler. Memo to Instructional Committee, Alexandria School Board, RE Special Education Status Report, September 11. September 11, 1973. School Board Minutes, October 3, 1973, Box 19-1665.

Campbell, Donald T. “Assessing the Impact of Planned Social Change.” Journal of MultiDisciplinary Evaluation 7, no. 15 (February 2011): 3–43.

Carlton, Emmitt. “The School Board Must Not Be for Sale.” Washington Post, August 26, 1993.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “Policy Basics: Where Do Our Federal Tax Dolllars Go?” April 12, 2013. Available at http://www.cbpp.org/files/4-14-08tax.pdf. Accessed January 26, 2014.

Chandler, Michael Alison. “Wake-Up Slap for T.C. Williams.” Washington Post, June 18, 2010.

“Changes in List of Approved Scholarship Applications First Semester 1964-1965,” School Board Minutes, December 16, December 16, 1964

City of Alexandria. Annual Report, 2001—City Schools. 2001. http://alexandriava.gov/uploadedFiles/Homepage_Quicklinks/info/annual_report_2001/ar2001_city_schools.pdf. Accessed February 15, 2014.

City of Alexandria, Office of City Manager. Annual Report, 1971–1976.

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City of Alexandria, Office of Historic Alexandria. Alexandria Legacies—City Employees Oral History Project, “Interview with Vola Lawson, Retired City Manager.” May 21, 2009. Available at: http://alexandriava.gov/uploadedFiles/historic/info/history/OHAOralHistoryLawson.pdf. Accessed February 15, 2014.

City of Alexandria, Office of Planning and Zoning. “City of Alexandria Awarded for Mixed Income Housing Redevelopment.” City of Alexandria, Alexandriava.gov, 2005. http://alexandriava.gov/planning/info/default.aspx?id=9814. Accessed May 23, 2012.

Cohen, David K. and Susan L. Moffitt, The Ordeal of Equality: Did Federal Regulation Fix the Schools? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009) (p.299)

Cohen, Richard M., and Maurine McLaughlin. “Alexandria Turmoil Strains Old School Ties.” Washington Post, March 2, 1969.

Collier, Virginia P. “How Long? A Synthesis of Research on Academic Achievement in a Second Language.” TESOL Quarterly 23, no. 3 (Sept 1989): 509–531.

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Crothers, A. Glenn. “The 1846 Retrocession of Alexandria: Protecting Slavery and the Slave Trade in the District of Columbia.” In In the Shadow of Freedom: The Politics of Slavery in the National Capital, edited by Paul Finkelman and Donald R. Kennon, 141–168. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2011.

Cue, Eduardo. “Alexandria School Chief John Bristol Has Become a Johnny-on-the-Spot.” Washington Post, March 23, 1978.

Cue, Eduardo. “Alexandria Urged to Shut Two Schools.” Washington Post, February 2, 1978.

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Digilio, Alice, and Peter Baker. “65 Pct. Pass Va. 6th-Grade Literacy Test.” Washington Post, June 28, 1990.

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Dougherty, Kerry. “Equal Education: Search for Answers.” Washington Post, December 13, 1978.

DuFault, Dr. Nap C., “Request of the Northern Virginia Association for Retarded Children for Adequate Educational Provisions for the Mentally Retarded,” Alexandria City School Board. School Board Minutes, Regular Meeting, February 20, 1963.

Duke, Daniel L., and Brianne Reck. “The Evolution of Educational Accountability in the Old Dominion.” In Educational Leadership in an Age of Accountability: The Virginia Experience, edited by Daniel L. Duke, Margaret Grogan, Pamela D. Tucker and Walter F. Heinecke, 36–67. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

Dunbar, Denise. “Monthly Chat: Interview with David Speck.” Alexandria Times, November 1 2012. Available at http://alextimes.com/2012/11/monthly-chat-interview-with-david-speck/ Accessed January 29, 2014.

Edwards, Paul G. “Alexandria Blacks Criticize Schools.” Washington Post, June 8, 1972.

Edwards, Paul G. “Alexandria School Talk Set Today.” Washington Post, April 1, 1971.

Edwards, Paul G. “Busing Foe Named to School Board.” Washington Post, October 11, 1972.

Edwards, Paul G. “Discipline Is Made Issue in Alexandria.” Washington Post, November 26, 1970, M1.

Edwards, Paul G. “Discipline Urged in Schools.” Washington Post, November 5, 1970, A36.

Edwards, Paul G. “Eleven Black Students Suspended After Protest.” Washington Post, March 28, 1971. (p.300)

Edwards, Paul G. “Fires Set at Alexandria’s GW High as Black Students List Demands.” Washington Post, March 26, 1971.

Edwards, Paul G. “GW Principal Hit in New Racial Unrest.” Washington Post, March 31 1971.

Edwards, Paul G. “Jury Splits 11 to 1, Ends Hanna Trial.” Washington Post, November 29, 1970.

Edwards, Paul G. “Lobbying a Key to Victory for Alexandria Busing Foe.” Washington Post, October 16, 1972.

Edwards, Paul G. “Melee Disrupts School.” Washington Post, September 9, 1971.

Edwards, Paul G. “School Proposal Attacked.” Washington Post, January 25, 1973.

Edwards, Paul G. “Schools Drop Grouping in Alexandria.” Washington Post, August 3, 1972.

Edwards, Paul G. “Two Top Alexandria Officials Back Putting Black on Board.” Washington Post, January 11, 1973.

Edwards, Paul G. “Youths Express Outrage in Memorial to Gibson.” Washington Post, January 22, 1971.

Ely, James W. The Crisis of Conservative Virginia. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.

Engelhardt and Engelhardt, Inc. Public Elementary School Needs—City of Alexandria, Virginia. January, 1973. School Board Minutes—January 17, 1973, Box 17-1410.

Feinberg, Lawrence. “Alexandria Desegregation: Problems Persist.” Washington Post, January 22, 1979.

Feinberg, Lawrence. “Alexandria Makes Little Progress Toward School Balance.” Washington Post, March 5, 1972.

Filson, Susan. “Integated Schools Want ‘The Best’.” Washington Post, April 17, 1966.

Fisher, Marc. “3 R’s for Today: Rigid, Regressive and Unresponsive.” Washington Post, May 6, 2004.

Foley, Neil. The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Freeman, Rebecca. “Reviewing the Research on Language Education Programs.” In Bilingual Education: An Introductory Reader, edited by Ofelia García and Colin Baker, 3–18. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2007.

Fuller, Bruce, Joseph Wright, Kathryn Gesicki, and Erin Kang. “Gauging Growth: How to Judge No Child Left Behind?” Educational Researcher 36, no. 5 (June–July 2007): 268–278.

Gándara, Patricia, and Megan Hopkins, eds. Forbidden Language: English-Learners and Restrictive Language Policies. New York: Teachers College Press, 2010.

García, Ofelia, and Jo Anne Kleifgen. Educating Emergent Bilinguals. New York: Teachers College Press, 2010.

Gates, Robbins L. The Making of Massive Resistance. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1962.

Goldenberg, Claude. “Teaching English Language Learners.” American Educator 32, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 8–44.

Graham, Hugh Davis. The Uncertain Triumph. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Gray Commission. “Report of the Commission on Public Education to the Governor of Virginia.” Senate Document No. 1, November 11, 1955.

Munsey, Everard. “Slum Residents Suffer with Cold, Filth, Vermin,” Washington Post, October 24, 1960

Munsey, Everard. “Slum Dwellers Face Choice: Risk Fire or Freeze,” Washington Post, December 16, 1960.

Hakuta, Kenji. Mirror of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Hanover Research. “2011–12 TC Williams Transformation Process.” Washington, DC: Hanover Research, November, 2012. http://eboard.acps.k12.va.us/attachments/3b83a2fc-e663-4cc4-8c95-cfac84f62763.pdf. Accessed January 18, 2014.

Harris, John F. “Plan to Elect School Boards Advances to Virginia House.” Washington Post, January 17, 1991.

Henig, Jeffrey R. The End of Exceptionalism in American Education: The Changing Politics of School Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2013. (p.301)

Hess, Frederick M. “Reform, Resistance. . . Retreat? The Predictable Politics of Accountability in Virginia.” Brookings Papers on Educational Policy 2002, no. 1 (2002): 69–122.

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