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Unlocking the BrainVolume 2: Consciousness$
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Georg Northoff

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199826995

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826995.001.0001

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Glutamate, GABA, and “Inner Time and Space Consciousness”

Glutamate, GABA, and “Inner Time and Space Consciousness”

(p.91) Chapter 17 Glutamate, GABA, and “Inner Time and Space Consciousness”
Unlocking the Brain

Georg Northoff

Oxford University Press

Schizophrenic patients show disruption in their “inner time consciousness,” with extremely short “duration blocs” as well as decreased local and global temporal continuity of their neural activity as seemingly modulated by abnormal GABA. In contrast, patients with depression can be characterized by abnormal “inner time and space consciousness” temporal dysbalance between past, present, and future, as well as spatial dysbalance between body and environment; this may be closely related to the observed abnormal changes in glutamate in these patients.

Keywords:   glutamate, neuronal excitation, inner time consciousness, inner space consciousness, GABA, space, neuronal inhibition, vegetative state, anesthesia, difference-based coding, sparse coding, depression, schizophrenia

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