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Unlocking the BrainVolume 1: Coding$
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Georg Northoff

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199826988

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.001.0001

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Predictive Coding and Difference-Based Coding

Predictive Coding and Difference-Based Coding

Chapter:
(p.145) Chapter 7 Predictive Coding and Difference-Based Coding
Source:
Unlocking the Brain
Author(s):

Georg Northoff

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.003.0007

Taking different examples as starting points, the chapter aims to show that predictive coding and thus the prediction errors are possible only on the basis of encoding neural activity in terms of spatial and temporal differences; that is, difference-based coding. The chapter therefore concludes that predictive coding presupposes difference-based coding rather than stimulus-based coding. To put it differently, predictive coding may be considered one specific instance (e.g., with regard to the comparison between predicted and actual inputs) of difference-based coding that is supposed to apply to any kind of neural activity throughout the whole brain and its various states, including both resting state and stimulus-induced activity.

Keywords:   predictive coding, visual cortex, motor cortex, actual input, predicted input, common code, mirror neurons, reversed inference, difference-based coding

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