Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Digital CitiesThe Internet and the Geography of Opportunity$

Karen Mossberger, Caroline J. Tolbert, and William Franko

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199812936

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199812936.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 23 February 2017

(p.329) References

(p.329) References

Source:
Digital Cities
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

AAPOR Cell Phone Task Force. 2010. New Considerations for Survey Researchers When Planning and Conducting RDD Telephone Surveys in the U.S. With Respondents Reached Via Cell Phone Numbers. American Association for Public Opinion Research. http://www.aapor.org/Reports1.htm.

Aaron, Craig. 2008. “The Promise of Municipal Broadband.” The Progressive. http://www.progressive.org/mag/aaron0808.html.

Ajzen, Icek. 1991. “The Theory of Planned Behavior.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 (2): 179–211.

ALA. 2010. Job-Seeking in U.S. Public Libraries. Chicago: Office for Research & Statistics, American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/research/initiatives/plftas/issuesbriefs/jobseeking.cfm.

———. 2011. ALA Library Fact Sheet 6. American Library Association. http://www.ala.org/ala/professionalresources/libfactsheets/alalibraryfactsheet06.cfm.

Alex-Assensoh, Yvette. 1997. “Race, Concentrated Poverty, Social Isolation, and Political Behavior.” Urban Affairs Review 33 (2): 209–227.

Allard, Scott, and Benjamin Roth. 2010. Strained Suburbs: The Social Service Challenges of Rising Suburban Poverty. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_allard_roth.aspx.

Barreto, Matt A. 2010. Ethnic Cues: The Role of Shared Ethnicity in Latino Political Participation. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Barseghian, Tina. 2011. “For At-Risk Youth, Is Learning Digital Media a Luxury?” KQED, National Public Radio.

Bartik, Timothy J. 2003. Local Economic Development Policies. Upjohn Institute Working Papers. http://research.upjohn.org/up_workingpapers/91/.

Bayer, Patrick, Stephen L. Ross, and Giorgio Topa. 2008. “Place of Work and Place of Residence: Informal Hiring Networks and Labor Market Outcomes.” Journal of Political Economy 116 (6): 1150–1196.

Becker, Samantha, Michael D. Crandall, Karen E. Fisher, Bo Kinney, Carol Landry, and Anita Bocha. 2010. Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Museum and Library Services.

Benkler, Yochai. 2010. “Ending the Internet's Trench Warfare.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/21/opinion/21Benkler.html.

Bennett, Larry. 2010. The Third City: Chicago and American Urbanism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Berkman Center. 2010. Next Generation Connectivity: A Review of Broadband Internet Transitions and Policy from Around the World. The Berkman Center for the Internet and Society at Harvard University. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/sites/cyber.law.harvard.edu/files/Berkman_Center_Broadband_Final_Report_15Feb2010.pdf. (p.330)

Berry, Jeffrey M., Kent E. Portney, and Ken Thomson. 1993. The Rebirth of Urban Democracy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

Bertot, John Carlo, Paul T. Jaeger, Lesley A. Langa, and Charles R. McClure. 2006. “Public Access Computing and Internet Access in Public Libraries: The Role of Public Libraries in E-Government and Emergency Situations.” First Monday 11 (9). http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_9/bertot/index.html.

Berube, Alan, and Elizabeth Kneebone. 2006. Two Steps Back: City and Suburban Poverty Trends 1999–2005. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://dspace.cigilibrary.org/jspui/handle/123456789/5867.

Bettencourt, Luis M. A., and Geoffrey B. West. 2011. “Bigger Cities Do More with Less: New Science Reveals Why Cities Become More Productive and Efficient as They Grow.” Scientific American Magazine. Sept., 52–53.

Bimber, Bruce A. 2003. Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blackburn, Bradley. 2011. “Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Social Media Spreads News, Raises Relief Funds.” ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/japan-earthquake-tsunami-drive-social-media-dialogue/story?id=13117677#.T0J6Tcyjrgw.

Boulianne, Shelley. 2009. “Does Internet Use Affect Engagement? A Meta-Analysis of Research.” Political Communication 26 (2): 193–211.

Boyce, Angie. 2002. “Online Job Hunting: A Pew Internet Project Data Memo.” Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Press-Releases/2002/Online-Job-Hunting-A-Pew-Internet-Project-Data-Memo.aspx.

Briggs, Xavier de Souza. 2005. The Geography of Opportunity: Race and Housing Choice in Metropolitan America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

———. 2008. Democracy as Problem-Solving. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Brookings Institution. 2007. MetroNation: How U.S. Metropolitan Areas Fuel American Prosperity. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2007/1106_metronation_berube.aspx.

———. 2010. State of Metropolitan America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/metro/StateOfMetroAmerica.aspx.

Brown, Katie, Scott W. Campbell, and Rich Ling. 2011. “Mobile Phones Bridging the Digital Divide for Teens in the US?” Future Internet 3 (2): 144–158.

Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Adam Saunders. 2010. Wired for Innovation. How Information Technology Is Reshaping the Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bushwick, Sophie. 2011. “The Top Ten Cities for Technology.” Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-top-10-cities-for-techology.

Campbell, Angus, Philip E Converse, Warren E Miller, and Donald E Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: Wiley.

Campbell, Heather, and Susan Fainstein. 2012. “The Just City.” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Karen Mossberger, Susan E. Clarke, and Peter John. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Caplovitz, David. 1967. The Poor Pay More: Consumer Practices of Low-Income Families. New York: Free Press.

Castells, Manuel. 1991. The Informational City: Information Technology, Economic Restructuring, and the Urban-Regional Process. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chapple, Karen, Ann Markusen, Greg Schrock, Daisaku Yamamoto, and Pingkang Yu. 2004. “Gauging Metropolitan ‘High-Tech’ and ‘I-Tech’ Activity.” Economic Development Quarterly 18 (1): 10–29.

City of New York. 2011. Road Map for the Digital City: Achieving New York City's Digital Future. New York: The City of New York. www.nyc.gov/html/media/media/PDF/90dayreport.pdf.

Clotfelter, Charles T. 1999. “Public School Segregation in Metropolitan Areas.” Land Economics 75 (4): 487–504.

Clucas, Richard A. 2001. “Principal-Agent Theory and the Power of State House Speakers.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 26 (2): 319–338.

Comcast. 2012. Conquering the Digital Divide: Closing the Broadband Opportunity Gap. Launch Report. http://blog.comcast.com/assets/InternetEssentialsfromComcast.pdf. (p.331)

Crandall, Robert W., William Lehr, and Robert E. Litan. 2007. The Effects of Broadband Deployment on Output and Employment: A Cross-sectional Analysis of U.S. Data. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2007/06labor_crandall.aspx.

Crawford, Susan P. 2007. The Internet and the Project of Communications Law. SSRN eLibrary. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=962594.

———. 2011. “Internet Access and the New Divide.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/04/opinion/sunday/internet-access-and-the-new-divide.html.

Currie, Janet. 2011. “Health and Residential Location.” In Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America, ed. Harriet B. Newburger, Eugenie L. Birch, and Susan M. Wachter, 3–17. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Dailey, Dharma, Amelia Bryne, Alison Powell, Joe Karaganis, and Jaewon Chung. 2010. Broadband Adoption in Low-Income Communities. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Communications Commission and the Social Science Research Council. http://www.ssrc.org/publications/view/1EB76F62-C720-DF11-9D32-001CC477EC70/.

Davis, Fred D. 1989. “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology.” MIS Quarterly 13 (3): 319–340.

Diaz, Sam. 2010. Study: Minorities Leading in Mobile Web Usage; Helping Close Digital Divide. ZDNet. http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/study-minorities-leading-in-mobile-web-usage-helping-close-digital-divide/36523.

DiMaggio, Paul, and Bart Bonikowski. 2008. “Make Money Surfing the Web? The Impact of Internet Use on the Earnings of U.S. Workers.” American Sociological Review 73 (2): 227–250.

DiMaggio, Paul J., and Coral E. Celeste. 2004. “Technological Careers: Adoption, Deepening, and Dropping Out in a Panel of Internet Users.” Eastern Sociological Society Annual Meetings. New York, NY.

DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai, Coral Celeste, and Steven Shafer. 2004. “Digital Inequality: From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use.” In Social Inequality, ed. Kathryn M. Neckerman, 355–400. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

DiMaggio, Paul, Eszter Hargittai, W. Russell Neuman, and John P. Robinson. 2001. “Social Implications of the Internet.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (1): 307–336.

Dobransky, Kerry, and Eszter Hargittai. 2006. “The Disability Divide in Internet Access and Use.” Information, Communication and Society 9 (3): 313–314.

Dreier, Peter, John Mollenkopf, and Todd Swanstrom. 2004. Place Matters: Metropolitics for the Twenty-first Century. 2nd ed. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Dunbar, John. 2011. Wealthy Suburbs Get Best Broadband Deals; D.C., Rural Areas Lag Behind. Washington, D.C.: Investigative Reporting Workshop.

Economist. 2007. “City-wide Wireless Internet. WiFi for the Masses: America's Cities Are Learning to Love the Idea of Universal Internet Access.” The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/8780650.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Katherine O’Regan. 2011. “Exploring Changes in Low-Income Neighborhoods in the 1990s.” In Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America, ed. Harriet Newburger, Eugenie L. Birch, and Susan M. Wachter, 103–121. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ellen, Pam Scholder, William O. Bearden, and Subhash Sharma. 1991. “Resistance to Technological Innovations: An Examination of the Role of Self-Efficacy and Performance Satisfaction.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 19 (4): 297–307.

Elliott, James R. 1999. “Social Isolation and Labor Market Insulation: Network and Neighborhood Effects on Less-Educated Urban Workers.” The Sociological Quarterly 40 (2): 199–216.

Ezell, Stephen. 2010. Explaining International IT Application Leadership: Intelligent Transportation Systems. The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. http://archive.itif.org/index.php?id=332.

Fairlie, Robert. 2007. “Explaining Differences in Access to Home Computers and the Internet: A Comparison of Latino Groups to Other Ethnic and Racial Groups.” Electronic Commerce Research 7 (3): 265–291. (p.332)

Fairlie, Robert W. 2004. “Race and the Digital Divide.” The BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 3 (1). http://www.bepress.com/bejeap/contributions/vol3/iss1/art15/.

FCC. 2010a. Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Communications Commission. http://www.broadband.gov.

———. 2010b. The Broadband Availability Gap. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Communications Commission. http://www.broadband.gov/plan/broadband-working-reports-technical-papers.html.

———. 2012. FCC Reforms, Modernizes Lifeline Program for Low-Income Americans. Washington, D.C.: Federal Communications Commission. http://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-reforms-modernizes-lifeline-program-low-income-americans.

Federal Register. 2009. “Broadband Initiatives Program; Broadband Technology Opportunities Program; Notice”. Vol. 74, No. 130.

Federal Register. 2010. “Broadband Technology Opportunities Program; Notices”. Vol. 75, No. 14.

Federal Reserve and Brookings Institution. 2008. The Enduring Challenge of Concentrated Poverty in America: Case Studies from Across the U.S. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Feld, Harold, Gregory Rose, Mark Cooper, and Ben Scott. 2005. Connecting the Public: The Truth About Municipal Broadband. Consumer Federation of America, Consumers Union, Media Access Project, Free Press. http://www.ci.longmont.co.us/lpc/tc/documents/mb_white_paper.pdf.

Fong, Eric, and Xingshan Cao. 2008. “Bridges Across the Racial Digital Divide: Residential Ecology of Internet Use.” Canadian Studies in Population 35: 243–268.

Foreign Policy. 2008. “The 2008 Global Cities Index.” Foreign Policy, October 15. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2008/10/15/the_2008_global_cities_index.

Foreign Policy. 2010. “The Global Cities Index 2010.” Foreign Policy, August 11. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/08/11/the_global_cities_index_2010.

Forlano, Laura, Alison Powell, Gwen Shaffer, and Benjamin Lennett. 2010. From the Digital Divide to Digital Excellence: Global Best Practices for Municipal and Community Wireless Networks. Washington, D.C.: New America Foundation. http://www.newamerica.net/publications/policy/from_the_digital_divide_to_digital_excellence.

Forman, Chris, Avi Goldfarb, and Shane Greenstein. 2005. Technology Adoption In and Out of Major Urban Areas: When Do Internal Firm Resources Matter Most? NBER Working Paper No. 11642. http://www.nber.org/papers/w11642.

———. 2008. “Understanding the Inputs into Innovation: Do Cities Substitute for Internal Firm Resources?” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 17 (2): 295–316.

———. 2009. The Internet and Local Wages: Convergence or Divergence? NBER Working Paper No. 14750. http://www.nber.org/papers/w14750.

———. 2011. Local Capabilities and Broadband Bandwidth at Community Anchor Institutions. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology. http://mgt.gatech.edu/directory/faculty/forman/pubs/BroadbandBandwidth--FormanGoldfarbGreenstein.pdf.

Fountain, Jane E. 2001. Building the Virtual State: Information Technology and Institutional Change. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Fox, Susannah. 2005. Health Information Online. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2005/Health-Information-Online.aspx.

———. 2009. Latinos Online, 2006–2008. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Commentary/2009/December/Latinos-Online-20062008.aspx.

Frey, William H. 2010. Analysis of 2010 Census Data. Brookings Institution and University of Michigan Social Science Data Analysis Network. http://www.censusscope.org/.

———. 2011. The New Metro Minority Map: Regional Shifts in Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks from Census 2010. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2011/0831_census_race_frey.aspx.

Fung, Archon, and Erik Olin Wright. 2003. Deepening Democracy: Institutional Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance. London: Verso. (p.333)

Gallaga, Omar L. 2010. “Can Mobile Phones Narrow the Digital Divide? Increasingly, Latino and African-American Teens Are Using Cell Phones as Their Main Device to Get Online.” American-Statesman. www.statesman.com/business/technology/can-mobile-phones-narrow-the-digital-divide-784691.html.

Gant, Jon P., Nicol E. Turner-Lee, Ying Li, and Joseph S. Miller. 2010. National Minority Broadband Adoption: Comparative Trends in Adoption, Acceptance, and Use. Washington, D.C.: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. http://www.jointcenter.org/research/national-minority-broadband-adoption-comparative-trends-in-adoption-acceptance-and-use.

Gerken, Heather. 2009. The Democracy Index: Why Our Election System Is Failing and How to Fix It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gilder, George. 1995. “Gilder Meets His Critics.” Forbes ASAP.

Gillett, Sharon E. 2005. “Municipal Wireless Broadband: Hype or Harbinger?” Southern California Law Review 79:561–593.

Gillett, Sharon E., William H. Lehr, Carlos A. Osorio, and Marvin A. Sirbu. 2006. Measuring Broadband's Economic Impact. National Technical Assistance, Training, Research, and Evaluation Project #99-07-13829. http://cfp.mit.edu/publications/CFP_Papers/Measuring_bb_econ_impact-final.pdf.

Glaeser, Edward. 2011. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. New York: Penguin Press.

Goolsbee, Austan, and Peter J. Klenow. 2002. “Evidence on Learning and Network Externalities in the Diffusion of Home Computers.” Journal of Law and Economics 45 (2): 317–343.

Granovetter, Mark S. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78 (6): 1360–1380.

Greenstein, Shane, and Ryan C. McDevitt. 2010. Evidence of a Modest Price Decline in US Broadband Services. NBER Working Paper No. 16166. http://www.nber.org/papers/w16166.

Grogan, Paul S., and Tony Proscio. 2000. Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival. New York: Westview Press.

Gross, Grant. 2011. “Universities Launch Ultra-High-Speed Broadband Initiative.” CIO, July 27. http://www.cio.com/article/print/686793.

Guest, Avery M., and Barrett A. Lee. 1983. “The Social Organization of Local Areas.” Urban Affairs Review 19 (2): 217–240.

Hackler, Darrene. 2003. “Invisible Infrastructure and the City: The Role of Telecommunications in Economic Development.” American Behavioral Scientist 46 (8): 1034–1055.

———. 2006. Cities in the Technology Economy. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Haddon, Leslie. 2000. “Social Exclusion and Information and Communication Technologies: Lessons from Studies of Single Parents and the Young Elderly.” New Media & Society 2 (4): 387–406.

Hamilton, Amanda, and Caroline Tolbert. “Political Engagement and the Internet in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election: A Panel Survey.” In Digital Media and Political Engagement Worldwide: A Comparative Study, ed. Eva Anduiza, Mike Jensen, and Laia Jorba, 56–79. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hamm, Steve. 2009. “Dubuque, Iowa: The First American ‘Smart City’?” Businessweek. http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/sep2009/id20090918_187656.htm.

Hampton, Keith N. 2010. “Internet Use and the Concentration of Disadvantage: Globalization and the Urban Underclass.” American Behavioral Scientist 53 (8): 1111–1132.

Hampton, Keith N., Lauren F. Sessions, and Eun Ja Her. 2010. “Core Networks, Social Isolation, and New Media: How Internet and Mobile Phone Use Is Related to Network Size and Diversity.” Information, Communication & Society 14 (1): 130–155.

Hargittai, Eszter. 2002. “Second-Level Digital Divide: Differences in People's Online Skills.” First Monday 7 (4): 1–20. (p.334)

———. 2003. “The Digital Divide and What to Do About It.” In New Economy Handbook, ed. Derek C. Jones, 821–839. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Amanda Hinnant. 2008. “Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults’ Use of the Internet.” Communication Research 35 (5): 602–621.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Yuli Patrick Hsieh. 2012. “Succinct Survey Measures of Web-Use Skills.” Social Science Computer Review 30 (1): 95–107.

Hargittai, Eszter, and Steven Shafer. 2006. “Differences in Actual and Perceived Online Skills: The Role of Gender.” Social Science Quarterly 87 (2): 432–448.

Hassani, Sara Nephew. 2006. “Locating Digital Divides at Home, Work, and Everywhere Else.” Poetics 34: 250–72.

Helft, M. 2010. “Hoping for a Gift from Google? Go Jump in the Lake.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/22/technology/22stunts.html.

Hendrick, Rebecca. 2012. Managing the Fiscal Metropolis: Financial Policies, Practices and Health of Chicago Suburban Municipalities. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Hero, Rodney E. 1992. Latinos and the U.S. Political System: Two-Tiered Pluralism. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

———. 1998. Faces of Inequality: Social Diversity in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

———. 2003. “Multiple Traditions in American Politics and Racial Policy Inequality.” Political Research Quarterly 56 (4): 401–08.

———. 2007. Racial Diversity and Social Capital: Equality and Community in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hero, Rodney E., and Caroline J. Tolbert. 1996. “A Racial/Ethnic Diversity Interpretation of Politics and Policy in the States of the U.S.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (3): 851–871.

High, Kristal. 2011. Joint Center Explores Impact of Broadband Plan on Underserved. Politic 365. http://politic365.com/2011/03/03/joint-center-explores-impact-of-broadband-plan-on-underserved/.

Ho, Alfred Tat-Kei. 2002. “Reinventing Local Governments and the E-Government Initiative.” Public Administration Review 62 (4): 434–444.

Hoffman, Judy, John Carlo Bertot, Denise M. Davis, and Larra Clark. 2011. Libraries Connect Communities: Public Library Funding and Public Access Study, 2010–11. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. http://www.ors.ala.org/libconnect/2010/09/07/2010_2011_npls/.

Holloway, Steven R., and Stephen Mulherin. 2004. “The Effect of Adolescent Neighborhood Poverty on Adult Employment.” Journal of Urban Affairs 26 (4): 427–454.

Holt, Lynne, and Mark A. Jamison. 2006. Making Telephone Service Affordable for Low-Income Households: An Analysis of Lifeline and Link-Up Programs in Florida. PURC, University of Florida. http://warrington.ufl.edu/purc/purcdocs/papers/0605_Holt_Make_Telephone_Service.pdf.

Holzer, Harry J. 1999. What Employers Want: Job Prospects for Less-Educated Workers. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Horak, Martin, and Talja Blokland. 2012. “Neighborhoods and Civic Practice.” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Karen Mossberger, Susan E. Clarke, and Peter John. New York: Oxford University Press.

Horrigan, John. 2004. Broadband Penetration on the Upswing. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2004/Broadband-Penetration-on-the-Upswing.aspx.

———. 2009. Home Broadband Adoption 2009. Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/10-Home-Broadband-Adoption-2009.aspx.

———. 2010. Broadband Adoption and Use in America. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Communications Commission. http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/FCCSurvey.pdf.

———. 2012. Broadband Adoption in 2012: Little Movement Since ’09 & Stakeholders Can Do More to Spur Adoption. TechNet. http://www.technet.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/TechNet-NBP-Broadband-Report-3-20-2012-FINAL1.pdf. (p.335)

Horrigan, John, and Lee Rainie. 2002. The Broadband Difference: How Online Behavior Changes with High-Speed Internet Connections. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2002/The-Broadband-Difference-How-online-behavior-changes-with-highspeed-Internet-connections.aspx.

Howard, Philip E. N., Lee Rainie, and Steve Jones. 2001. “Days and Nights on the Internet: The Impact of Diffusing Technology.” American Behavioral Scientist 45: 383–404.

Ihlanfeldt, Keith R., and David L. Sjoquist. 1998. “The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: A Review of Recent Studies and Their Implications for Welfare Reform.” Housing Policy Debate 9 (4): 849–892.

Ioannides, Yannis M., and Giorgio Topa. 2010. “Neighborhood Effects: Accomplishments and Looking Beyond Them.” Journal of Regional Science 50 (1): 343–362.

Jacob, Brian A., and Jens Ludwig. 2011. “Educational Interventions: Their Effects on the Achievement of Poor Children.” In Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America, ed. Harriet B. Newburger, Eugenie L. Birch, and Susan M. Wachter, 37–49. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Jain, Abhijit, Munir Mandviwalla, and Rajiv Banker. 2007. Can Governments Create Universal Internet Access? The Philadelphia Municipal Wireless Network Story. IBM Business of Government.

Jargowsky, Paul A. 1997. Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

———. 2003. Stunning Progress, Hidden Problems: The Dramatic Decline of Concentrated Poverty in the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2003/05demographics_jargowsky.aspx.

Jargowsky, Paul A., and Mohamed El Komi. 2011. “Before or After the Bell? School Context and Neighborhood Effects on Student Achievement.” In Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America, ed. Harriet B. Newburger, Eugenie L. Birch, and Susan M. Wachter, 37-49, 50–72. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale M., Juliet A. Musso, and Jennifer R. Wolch. 2005. “Fiscal Consequences of Concentrated Poverty in a Metropolitan Region.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95 (2): 336–356.

Kain, John F. 1968. “Housing Segregation, Negro Employment, and Metropolitan Decentralization.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 82 (2): 175–197.

Kang, Cecilia. 2010. “Going Wireless All the Way to the Web.” Washington Post, July 10. www.washingtonpost.com.

———. 2011. “Obama Touts Plan to Get Wireless Internet to 98 Percent of U.S.” Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com.

Kang, Cecilia, and Krissah Thompson. 2011. “Hispanics Trail Other Groups in Web Usage, Confidence.” Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/.

Kantor, Paul, and Ivan Turok. 2012. “The Politics of Growth and Decline.” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Karen Mossberger, Susan E. Clarke, and Peter John. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kaplan, David, and Karen Mossberger. 2012. “Prospects for Poor Neighborhoods in the Broadband Era: Neighborhood-Level Influences on Technology Use at Work.” Economic Development Quarterly 26 (1): 95–105.

Kasarda, John D. 1990. “City Jobs and Residents on a Collision Course: The Urban Underclass Dilemma.” Economic Development Quarterly 4 (4): 313–319.

Katz, James E., and Ronald E. Rice. 2002. Social Consequences of Internet Use: Access, Involvement, and Interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Katz, Yaacov J. 1994. “Self-Image, Locus Control and Computer Related Attitudes.” In Lessons from Learning, ed. Robert Lewis and Patrick Mendelsohn, 105–109. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

Kim, Yong-Chan, Joo-Young Jung, and Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach. 2007. “Ethnicity, Place, and Communication Technology: Effects of Ethnicity on Multi-Dimensional Internet Connectedness.” Information Technology & People 20 (3): 282–303.

King, Gary, Michael Tomz, and Jason Wittenberg. 2000. “Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (2): 347–361. (p.336)

Kleit, Rachel Garshick. 2001. “The Role of Neighborhood Social Networks in Scattered-Site Public Housing Residents’ Search for Jobs.” Housing Policy Debate 12 (3): 541–573.

Kneebone, Elizabeth. 2011. The Great Recession and Poverty in Metropolitan America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2010/1007_suburban_poverty_acs_kneebone.aspx.

Kolko, Jed. 2000. “The Death of Cities? The Death of Distance? Evidence from the Geography of Commercial Internet Usage.” In The Internet Upheaval: Raising Questions, Seeking Answers in Communications Policy, ed. Ingo Vogelsang and Benjamin M. Compaine, 73–98. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

———. 2010. Does Broadband Boost Local Economic Development? San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California. http://www.ppic.org/main/publication.asp?i=866.

Koval, John P. 2006. “An Overview and Point of View.” In The New Chicago: A Social and Cultural Analysis, ed. John P. Koval, Larry Bennett, Michael I. J. Bennett, Fassil Demissie, Roberta Garner, and Kiljoong Kim, 3–15; 1. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Kravets, David. 2011. “U.N. Report Declares Internet Access a Human Right.” Wired, June 3. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/06/internet-a-human-right/.

Krueger, Brian S. 2002. “Assessing the Potential of Internet Political Participation in the United States: A Resource Approach.” American Politics Research 30 (5): 476–98.

———. 2006. “A Comparison of Conventional and Internet Political Mobilization.” American Politics Research 34 (6): 759–776.

LaRue, Frank. 2011. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. United Nations General Assembly.

Lax, Jeffrey R., and Justin H. Phillips. 2009a. “Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness.” American Political Science Review 103 (03): 367–386.

———. 2009b. “How Should We Estimate Public Opinion in The States?” American Journal of Political Science 53 (1): 107–121.

Ledebur, Larry, and William Barnes. 1998. The New Regional Economies: The U.S. Common Market and the Global Economy. London: Sage.

Lee, Barrett A., and Karen E. Campbell. 1999. “Neighbor Networks of Black and White Americans.” In Networks In The Global Village: Life In Contemporary Communities, ed. Barry Wellman, 119–146. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Lefevre, Christian, and Margaret Weir. 2012. “Regional Institution-Building.” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Karen Mossberger, Susan E. Clarke, and Peter John. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lenhart, Amanda. 2003. The Ever-Shifting Internet Population: A New Look at Internet Access and the Digital Divide. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2003/The-EverShifting-Internet-Population-A-new-look-at-Internet-access-and-the-digital-divide.aspx.

———. 2010. Cell Phones and American Adults. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Cell-Phones-and-American-Adults.aspx.

Lennett, Benjamin, and Sascha Meinrath. 2011. Map to Nowhere. New America Foundation. http://newamerica.net/node/51483.

Lewis, James H., and David K. Hamilton. 2011. “Race and Regionalism: The Structure of Local Government and Racial Disparity.” Urban Affairs Review 47 (3): 349–384.

Litan, Robert E., and Alice M. Rivlin, eds. 2001. The Economic Payoff from the Internet Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Livingston, Gretchen. 2010. The Latino Digital Divide: The Native Born Versus The Foreign Born. Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2010/07/28/the-latino-digital-divide-the-native-born-versus-the-foreign-born/.

Livingston, Gretchen, Kim Parker, and Susannah Fox. 2009. Latinos Online, 2006–2008: Narrowing the Gap. Washington, D.C.: Pew Hispanic Center. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/22/latinos-online-2006-2008-narrowing-the-gap/. (p.337)

Logan, John R., and Brian J. Stults. 2011. The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census. Brown University. http://www.s4.brown.edu/us2010.

Long, J. Scott. 1997. Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Massey, Douglas S., and Nancy A. Denton. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mata, Arnoldo. 2011. Connected Hispanics & Civic Engagement. Washington, D.C.: The Hispanic Institute. http://thehispanicinstitute.net/files/u2/Connected_Hispanics_and_Civic_Engagement__3_.pdf.

Mayor's Advisory Council for Closing the Digital Divide. 2007. The City That NetWorks: Transforming Society and Economy Through Digital Excellence. Chicago, IL: The City of Chicago.

McCann, Bailey. 2012. “Georgia Considers Bill to Curb Municipal Broadband.” CivSource, January 27. http://civsourceonline.com/2012/01/27/georgia-considers-bill-to-curb-municipal-broadband/.

Mintrom, Michael. 2000. Policy Entrepreneurs and School Choice. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Misur, Susan. 2012. “East Haven Schools Invest in Reading Technology.” New Haven Register, February 12. http://nhregister.com/articles/2012/02/12/news/metro/doc4f385e050a0c2202663898.txt.

Moon, M. Jae. 2002. “The Evolution of E-Government Among Municipalities: Rhetoric or Reality?” Public Administration Review 62 (4): 424–33.

Mooney, Christopher Z. 1997. Monte Carlo Simulation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mooney, Christopher Z., and Mei-Hsien Lee. 1995. “Legislative Morality in the American States: The Case of Pre-Roe Abortion Regulation Reform.” American Journal of Political Science 39 (3): 599–627.

Morris, Michael G., and Viswanath Venkatesh. 2000. “Age Differences in Technology Adoption Decisions: Implications for a Changing Work Force.” Personnel Psychology 53 (2): 375–403.

Moskow, Michael H., Perritt Henry H., and Adele Simmons. 2007. The Global Edge: An Agenda for Chicago's Future. Chicago: The Chicago Council on Global Affairs.

Moss, Mitchell L., and Anthony M. Townsend. 2000. “The Internet Backbone and the American Metropolis.” Information Society 16 (1): 35–47.

Mossberger, Karen. 1999. “State-Federal Diffusion and Policy Learning in a Federal System: From Enterprise Zones to Empowerment Zones.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 29 (3): 31–50.

———. 2012. Smart Communities—Formative Evaluation. Department of Public Administration, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Mossberger, Karen, David Kaplan, and Michele A. Gilbert. 2008. “Going Online Without Easy Access: A Tale of Three Cities.” Journal of Urban Affairs 30 (5): 469–488.

Mossberger, Karen, and Caroline J. Tolbert. 2009. “Digital Excellence in Chicago: A Citywide View of Technology Use.” http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doit/supp_info/digital_excellenceinchicagoacitywideviewoftechnologyuse.html.

Mossberger, Karen, Caroline J. Tolbert, and Michele Gilbert. 2006. “Race, Place, and Information Technology.” Urban Affairs Review 41 (5): 583–620.

Mossberger, Karen, Caroline J. Tolbert, and Ramona S. McNeal. 2008. Digital Citizenship: The Internet, Society, and Participation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mossberger, Karen, Caroline J. Tolbert, and Mary Stansbury. 2003. Virtual Inequality: Beyond the Digital Divide. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Mossberger, Karen, and Yonghong Wu. 2012. Civic Engagement and Local E-Government: Social Networking Comes of Age. Institute for Policy and Civic Engagement, University of Illinois at Chicago. http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/ipce/research.shtml.

Mossberger, Karen, Yonghong Wu, and Benedict Jimenez. 2010. “Can E-Government Promote Informed Citizenship and Civic Engagement? A Study of Local Government Websites in the U.S.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL. (p.338)

Munger, Michael C. 2000. Analyzing Policy: Choices, Conflicts, and Practices. New York: W.W. Norton.

Nagel, David. 2011. Will Smart Phones Eliminate the Digital Divide? The Journal. http://thejournal.com/articles/2011/02/01/will-smart-phones-eliminate-the-digital-divide.aspx.

National Center for Education Statistics. 2011. Fast Facts. U.S. Department of Education. http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=46.

Negroponte, Nicholas. 1995. Being Digital. New York: Vintage Books.

Newburger, Harriet, Eugenie L. Birch, and Susan M. Wachter, eds. 2011. Neighborhood and Life Chances: How Place Matters in Modern America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Nicolai, Megan. 2012. “Fox Valley Schools Face Challenge of Prepping for the E-Future.” Appleton (WI) Post-Crescent. http://www.postcrescent.com/article/20120213/APC0101/202130395/Valley-schools-face-challenge-prepping-e-future?odyssey=mod%7Ctopnews%7Ctext%7CFRONTPAGE.

Nolan, Sarah. 2011. How Technology Fuels Learning. KQED, National Public Radio. http://mindshift.kqed.org/2011/09/how-technology-fuels-learning/.

Norris, Pippa. 2001. Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NTIA. 1995. Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the “Have Nots” in Rural and Urban America. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fallingthru.html.

———. 2004. A Nation Online: Entering the Broadband Age. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/report/2004/nation-online-entering-broadband-age.

———. 2010a. Digital Nation: 21st Century America's Progress Toward Universal Broadband Access. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/reports/2010/NTIA_internet_use_report_Feb2010.pdf.

———. 2010b. Expanding Broadband Access and Adoption in Communities Across America, Overview of Grant Awards. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce: National Telecommunications and Information Administration. internal-pdf://NTIA_Report_on_BTOP_12142010-2692435712/NTIA_Report_on_BTOP_12142010.pdf.

———. 2011. Digital Nation: Expanding Internet Usage. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce: National Telecommunications and Information Administration. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/ntia_internet_use_report_february_2011.pdf.

Obama, Barack. 2007. “Connecting and Empowering All Americans Through Technology and Innovation.” Cairns Blog. http://cairns.typepad.com/blog/files/fact_sheet_innovation_and_technology_plan_final.pd.

OECD. 2011. OECD Broadband Portal. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3746,en_2649_34225_38690102_1_1_1_1,00.html.

Ono, Hiroshi, and Madeline Zavodny. 2007. “Digital Inequality: A Five Country Comparison Using Microdata.” Social Science Research 36 (3): 1135–1155.

———. 2008. “Immigrants, English Ability and the Digital Divide.” Social Forces 86 (4): 1455–1479; 1455.

Orfield, Gary, and Chungmei Lee. 2005. Why Segregation Matters: Poverty and Educational Inequality. Cambridge, MA: Civil Rights Project, Harvard University.

Orfield, Gary, Daniel Losen, Johanna Wald, and Christopher B. Swanson. 2004. Losing Our Future: How Minority Youth Are Being Left Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/publications/410936.html.

Orfield, Myron. 1997. Metropolitics: A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Pacione, Michael. 2001. “Geography and Public Finance: Planning for Fiscal Equity in a Metropolitan Region.” Progress in Planning 56: 1–59. (p.339)

Pallares, Amalia, and Nilda Flores-Gonzalez. 2011. “Regarding Family: New Actors in the Chicago Protests.” In Rallying for Immigrant Rights: The Fight for Inclusion in 21st Century America, ed. Kim Voss and Irene Bloemraad, 161–179. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Park, Robert E., Ernest W. Burgess, and Roderick D. McKenzie. 1984. The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pastor, Manuel, Peter Dreier, J. Eugene III Grigsby, and Marta Lopez-Garza. 2000. Regions That Work: How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Pastor, Manuel, T. William Lester, and Justin Scoggins. 2009. “Why Regions? Why Now? Who Cares?” Journal of Urban Affairs 31 (3): 269–296.

Pattillo, Mary. 2007. Black on the Block: The Politics of Race and Class in the City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Peterson, Latoya. 2010. A Digital Revolution In The Palm Of Your Hand. National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/blogs/tellmemore/2010/07/21/128674384/a-digital-revolution-in-the-palm-of-your-hand.

Peterson, Paul E. 1981. City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pilsen Smart Communities Plan. 2010. Connecting Our Communities. Smart Communities, Chicago Digital Excellence Initiative. http://www.smartcommunitieschicago.org/uploads/smartchicago/documents/pilsen_smart_communities.pdf.

Prieger, James E., and Wei-Min Hu. 2008. “The Broadband Digital Divide and the Nexus of Race, Competition, and Quality.” Information Economics and Policy 20 (2): 150–167.

Primo, David M, Matthew L Jacobsmeier, and Jeffrey Milyo. 2007. “Estimating the Impact of State Policies and Institutions with Mixed-Level Data.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 7 (4): 446–459.

Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Quillien, Ian. 2011. “Duncan Unveils Digital Promise.” Education Week. http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/DigitalEducation/2011/09/duncan_announces_digital_promi.html.

Radcliff, Benjamin, and Martin Saiz. 1995. “Race, Turnout, and Public Policy In the American States.” Political Research Quarterly 48 (4) (Dec. 1): 775–794.

Ratti, Carlo, and Anthony M. Townsend. 2011. “The Social Nexus: The Best Way to Harness a City's Potential for Creativity and Innovation Is to Jack People Into the Network and Get Out of the Way.” Scientific American. Sept., 42–48.

Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Anthony S. Bryk. 2002. Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Reardon, Sean F. 2011. “The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations.” In Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances, ed. Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane, 91–116. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Reardon, Sean F., and Kendra Bischoff. 2011. “Income Inequality and Income Segregation.” American Journal of Sociology 116 (4): 1092–1153.

Reuters. 2010. “$800 Million in Stimulus Will Expand Broadband.” New York Times, July 3, B2.

Rogers, Everett M. 1995. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Rosen, Jeffrey. 2011. Universal Service Fund Reform: Expanding Broadband Internet Access in the United States. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2011/04_universal_service_fund_rosen.aspx.

Rosston, Gregory L., and Scott J. Wallsten. 2011. “The Path to Universal Broadband: Why We Should Grant Low-Income Subsidies, and Use Auctions and Experiments to Determine the Specifics.” Berkeley Electronic Press.

Rue, Frank La. 2011. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. UN Human Rights Council. http://www.unhcr.org/. (p.340)

Rusk, David. 1995. Cities Without Suburbs. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff, and Thomas Gannon-Rowley. 2002. “Assessing ‘Neighborhood Effects’: Social Processes and New Directions in Research.” Annual Review of Sociology 28 (1): 443–478.

Sampson, Robert J., Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277 (5328): 918–924.

Sassen, Saskia. 2001. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Saxenian, Anna Lee. 1996. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schelmetic, Tracey E. 2011. The Rise of the First Smart Cities. ThomasNet News. http://smart-grid.tmcnet.com/topics/smart-grid/articles/216406-rise-the-first-smart-cities.htm.

Schement, Jorge Reina, and Scott C. Forbes. 2000. “Identifying Temporary and Permanent Gaps in Universal Service.” The Information Society 16 (2): 117–126.

Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Sidney Verba, and Henry E. Brady. 2010. “Weapon of the Strong? Participatory Inequality and the Internet.” Perspectives on Politics 8 (2): 487–509.

Schmeida, Mary, and Ramona S. McNeal. 2007. “The Telehealth Divide: Disparities in Searching Public Health Information Online.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 18 (3): 637–647.

Schwarz, Alan. 2011. “Out With Textbooks, In With Laptops for an Indiana School District.” New York Times, Oct. 18, A17.

Selwyn, Neil. 2003. “Apart from Technology: Understanding People's Non-Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life.” Technology in Society 25 (1): 99–116.

Selwyn, Neil, Stephen Gorard, and John Furlong. 2005. “Whose Internet Is It Anyway?” European Journal of Communication 20 (1): 5–26.

Sen, Amartya. 1993. “Capability and Well-Being.” In The Quality of Life, ed. Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen, 30–53. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Servon, Lisa J., and Marla K. Nelson. 2001. “Community Technology Centers: Narrowing the Digital Divide in Low-Income, Urban Communities.” Journal of Urban Affairs 23 (3–4): 279–90.

Settles, Craig. 2011. “A Tale of Two Kansas Cities and Google.” GigaOM, July 4. http://gigaom.com/broadband/a-tale-of-two-kansas-cities-and-google/.

Shah, Dhavan V., Jaeho Cho, William P. Eveland, and Nojin Kwak. 2005. “Information and Expression in a Digital Age.” Communication Research 32 (5): 531–565.

Shipan, Charles R., and Craig Volden. 2006. “Bottom-Up Federalism: The Diffusion of Antismoking Policies from U.S. Cities to States.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (4): 825–843.

Smart Communities. 2009. A Platform for Participation and Innovation. Chicago, IL: LISC/Chicago. www.lisc-chicago.org/uploads/lisc-chicago/documents/scpmasterplan.pdf.

Smith, Aaron. 2010. Mobile Access 2010. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile-Access-2010.aspx.

———. 2011. Smartphone Adoption and Usage. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Smartphones.aspx.

Stansbury, Meris. 2012. “Six Ed-Tech Resources for ELL/ESL Instruction.” eSchool News, February 10. http://www.eschoolnews.com/2012/02/10/six-ed-tech-resources-for-ellesl-instruction/.

Steenbergen, Marco R, and Bradford S Jones. 2002. “Modeling Multilevel Data Structures.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1): 218–237.

Steketee Greiner and Co. 2010. “Google Fiber: Share of Voice Report (Update 3.24.2010).” http://blog.agent-x.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Google_Fiber_Share_of_Voice_ReportUpdate3-24-10.pdf.

Stimson, James A., Michael B. Mackuen, and Robert S. Erikson. 1995. “Dynamic Representation.” The American Political Science Review 89 (3): 543–565. (p.341)

Stiroh, Kevin J. 2004. Reassessing the Impact of IT on the Production Function: A Meta-Analysis and Sensitivity Tests. Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

Stone, Clarence N., Jeffrey R. Henig, Bryan D. Jones, and Carol Pierannunzi. 2001. Building Civic Capacity: The Politics of Reforming Urban Schools. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Stone, Deborah. 2001. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton.

Swabey, Pete. 2012. “IBM, Cisco and the Business of Smart Cities.” Information Age. February 23. http://www.information-age.com/channels/comms-and-networking/company-analysis/2087993/ibm-cisco-and-the-business-of-smart-cities.thtml.

Swanstrom, Todd, Colleen Casey, Robert Flack, and Peter Dreier. 2004. Pulling Apart: Economic Segregation Among Suburbs and Central Cities in Major Metropolitan Areas. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/reports/2004/10metropolitanpolicy_swanstrom.aspx.

Swanstrom, Todd, Rob Ryan, and Katherine M. Stigers. 2007. Measuring Concentrated Poverty: Did It Really Decline in the 1990s? Berkeley, CA: IURD Working Paper Series, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, UC Berkeley.

Tapia, A. H., and J. A. Ortiz. 2008. “Keeping Promises: Municipal Communities Struggle to Fulfill Promises to Narrow the Digital Divide with Municipal Community Wireless Networks.” The Journal of Community Informatics 4 (1). http://ci‑journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/436/400.

Tapia, Andrea, Matt Stone, and Carleen Maitland. 2005. “Public-Private Partnerships and the Role of State and Federal Legislation in Wireless Municipal Networks.” Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Arlington, VA.

Timberlake, Jeffrey M., Aaron J. Howell, and Amanda J. Staight. 2011. “Trends in the Suburbanization of Racial/Ethnic Groups in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1970 to 2000.” Urban Affairs Review 47 (2): 218–255.

Todman, John, and Elizabeth Monaghan. 1994. “Qualitative Differences in Computer Experience, Computer Anxiety, and Students’ Use of Computers: A Path Model.” Computers in Human Behavior 10 (4): 529–539.

Tolbert, Caroline. 2010. “Editor's Introduction: Race and the 2008 Presidential Election.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (3): 860–862.

Tolbert, Caroline J., and Ramona S. McNeal. 2003. “Unraveling the Effects of the Internet on Political Participation?” Political Research Quarterly 56 (2): 175–185.

Tolbert, Caroline, and Karen Mossberger. 2006. “The Effects of E-Government on Trust and Confidence in Government.” Public Administration Review 66 (3): 354–69.

Tolbert, Caroline, Karen Mossberger, Bridgett King, and Gena Miller. 2007. “Are All American Women Making Progress Online? African-Americans and Latinas.” Information Technologies and International Development 4 (2): 61–88.

Tolva, John. 2012. “Data-Driven Chicago.” February 24, Speech of Chief Technology Officer of City of Chicago at University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Urban Planning and Policy. http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/20666748.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Current Population Survey, October 2009: School Enrollment and Internet Use Supplement Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C. http://www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsoct09.pdf.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2007. Tactical Interoperability Communication Scorecards: Summary Report and Findings. Washington, D.C. http://www.dhs.gov/files/gc_9780199812936.shtm.

Van Deursen, Alexander J.A.M., and Jan A.G.M. Van Dijk. 2009a. “Improving Digital Skills for the Use of Online Public Information and Services.” Government Information Quarterly 26 (2): 333–340.

———. 2009b. “Using the Internet: Skill Related Problems in Users’ Online Behavior.” Interacting with Computers 21 (5–6): 393–402. (p.342)

———. 2009c. “Improving Digital Skills for the Use of Online Public Information and Services.” Government Information Quarterly 26 (2): 333–340.

Van Dijk, Jan A.G.M. 2005. The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

———. 2008. “One Europe, Digitally Divided.” In Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics, ed. Andrew Chadwick and Philip N. Howard, 288–305. London: Routledge.

Volden, Craig. 2006. “States as Policy Laboratories: Emulating Success in the Children's Health Insurance Program.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (2): 294–312.

Vos, Esme. 2010. “Updated List of U.S. Cities and Counties with Large Scale WiFi Networks.” MuniWireless. http://www.muniwireless.com/2010/06/07/updated-list-of-cities-and-counties-with-wifi/.

Warschauer, Mark. 2003. Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

———. 2010. “New Reports on Technology in US Schools: The Changing Divide.” http://papyrusnews.com/2010/10/26/new-reports-on-technology-in-us-schools-the-changing-divide.

Washington, Jesse. 2011. “For Minorities, New ‘Digital Divide’ Seen.” USA Today, Jan. 10. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2011-01-10-minorities-online_N.htm.

Wellman, Barry. 1996. “Are Personal Communities Local? A Dumptarian Reconsideration.” Social Networks 18 (4): 347–354.

West, Darrell M. 2000. Assessing E-Government: The Internet, Democracy, and Service Delivery by State and Federal Governments. Inside Politics. http://www.insidepolitics.org/egovtreport00.html.

———. 2011. The Next Wave: Using Digital Technology to Further Social and Political Innovation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Wilson, W. J. 1996. When Work Disappears. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wolman, Hal, and Martin Horak. 2010. “Contexts for Neighborhood Regeneration: A Comparative Overview.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL.

Wolman, Harold. 2012. “What Cities Do: How Much Does Urban Policy Matter?” In The Oxford Handbook of Urban Politics, ed. Karen Mossberger, Susan E. Clarke, and Peter John. New York: Oxford University Press.

Worden, Nat. 2011. “Motorola CEO: It's Not a Wireless World Just Yet.” Digits—WSJ Blogs. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2011/06/16/motorola-ceo-its-not-a-wireless-world-just-yet/.

Wortham, Jenna. 2009. “Mobile Internet Use Shrinks Digital Divide.” New York Times. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/22/mobile-internet-use-shrinks-digital-divide/.

Zickuhr, Kathryn, and Aaron Smith. Digital Differences. Washington, D.C.: Pew Internet and American Life Project. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Digital-differences.aspx.