Chapter 7 focused on cosmological fine-tuning arguments for the conclusion that our world has been designed. This chapter considers biological arguments for the same conclusion. Chief among these is Michael Behe's notion of irreducible complexity, which he uses to describe a number of molecular structures such as the bacterial flagellum, the cilia employed by several kinds of cells for motion and other functions, the incredibly complex cascade of biochemical reactions and events that occur in vision, blood clotting, the transport of materials within cells, and the immune system. Irreducibly complex structures and phenomena cannot have come to be, he says, by gradual, step-by step Darwinian evolution. These systems present what Behe calls a Lilliputian challenge to (unguided) Darwinism.
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