Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Climate Change and MigrationSecurity and Borders in a Warming World$

Gregory White

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199794829

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794829.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 25 February 2017

(p.149) Bibliography

(p.149) Bibliography

Source:
Climate Change and Migration
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Acketoft, Tina. “Environmentally Induced Migration and Displacement: A 21st Century Challenge.” Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Committee on Migration, Refugees and Population of the Parliamentary Assembly, 2008.

Adamo, Susana B. “Addressing Environmentally Induced Population Displacements: A Delicate Task.” Population-Environment Research Network Cyberseminar on “Environmentally Induced Population Displacements, 2008, available at www.populationenvironmentresearch.org.

Afifi, Tamer. “Niger.” In EACH-FOR: Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios D.3.4. Synthesis Report, edited by Andras Vag. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 2009, 42–44.

Agamben, Georgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Daniel Heller-Roazen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.

Agnew, John. Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Allison, Graham, and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.

Allison, Ian, Nathan Bindoff, Robert Bindschadler, Peter Cox, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Matthew England, Jane Francis, et al. The Copenhagen Diagnosis: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Climate Change Research Center (CCRC), 2009.

Andreae, Meinrat O., Chris D. Jones, and Peter M. Cox. “Strong Present-Day Aerosol Cooling Implies a Hot Future.” Nature 435: 30 (2005): 1187–1191.

Andreas, Peter. Border Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Andreas, Peter. “Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-First Century.” International Security 28: 2 (2003): 78–111.

Andreas, Peter, and Kelly Greenhill, eds. Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.

Andreas, Peter, and Timothy Snyder, eds. The Wall around the West: State Borders and Immigration Control in North America and Europe. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.

Baldwin-Edwards, Martin. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: North Africa as a Region of Emigration.” Review of African Political Economy 33: 108 (2006): 311–324.

Barnett, Jon. “The Prize of Peace (Is Eternal Vigilance): A Cautionary Editorial Essay on Climate Geopolitics.” Climatic Change 96 (2009): 1–6.

Barnett, Jon. “Security and Climate Change.” Global Environmental Change 13 (2003): 7–17.

(p.150) Barnett, Jon, and W. Neil Adger. “Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict.” Political Geography 26 (2007): 639–655.

Barnett, Michael. “The New United Nations Politics of Peace: From Juridical Sovereignty to Empirical Sovereignty.” Global Governance 1: 1 (1995): 45–61.

Barros, Lucile, Mehdi Lahlou, Claire Escoffier, Pablo Pumares, and Paolo Ruspini. “L’immigration irrégulière subsaharienne à travers et vers le Maroc,” Cahiers de migrations internationales 54F, Bureau International du Travail: Genève, 2002.

Barry, Tom. Pushing Our Borders Out: Washington’s Expansive Concept of Sovereignty and Security. Silver City, NM: International Relations Center, 2005.

Bates, Diane C. “Environmental Refugees? Classifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change.” Population and Environment 23: 5 (May 2002): 465–477.

Battisti, David S., and Rosamond L. Naylor. “Historical Warnings of Future Food Insecurity Unprecedented Seasonal Heat.” Science 323 (January 9, 2009): 240–244.

Bauer, Steffan. “Land and Water Scarcity as a Driver of Migration and Conflicts?” Agriculture and Rural Development 1 (2007): 7–9.

Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. Le Maroc coupable d’emigration et de transit vers l’Europe. Kénitra, Morocco: Boukili Impression, 2000.

Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. Le Maroc et la migration irrégulière: Une analyse sociopolitique. Florence, Italy: Institut universitaire européen: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, 2009.

Ben Jelloun, Tahar. Leaving Tangier: A Novel. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Penguin, 2009.

Betz, Hans-Georg. “The New Politics of Resentment: Radical Right-Wing Political Parties in Western Europe.” Comparative Politics 26: 4 (1993): 413–427.

Biasutti, Michela, and Alessandra Giannini. “Robust Sahel Drying in Response to Late 20th Century Forcings.” Geophysical Research Letters 33: L11706 (2006).

Biermann, Frank. “‘Earth System Governance’ as a Crosscutting Theme of Global Change Research.” Global Environmental Change 17 (2007): 326–337.

Biermann, Frank, and Ingrid Boas. “Global Adaptation Governance: The Case of Protecting Climate Refugees.” In Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012: Architecture, Agency and Adaptation, edited by Biermann et al. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 255–269.

Biermann, Frank, and Ingrid Boas. “Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees,” Global Environmental Politics 10: 1 (February 2010): 60–88.

Biermann, Frank, and Ingrid Boas. “Protecting Climate Refugees: The Case for a Global Protocol.” Environment 50: 6 (November/December 2008): 8–16.

Biermann, Frank, and Klaus Dingwerth. “Global Environmental Change and the Nation State.” Global Environmental Politics 4: 1 (2004): 1–23.

Biermann, Frank, Philipp Pattberg, and Fariborz Zelli, eds., “Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012: An Introduction.” In Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012: Architecture, Agency and Adaptation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 1–12.

Black, Richard. Environmental Refugees: Myth Or Reality? Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, 2001.

Black, Richard. “Fifty Years of Refugee Studies: From Theory to Policy.” International Migration Review 35: 1 (Spring 2001): 57–78.

Bleibaum, Frauke. “Senegal.” In EACH-FOR: Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios D.3.4. Synthesis Report, edited by Andras Vag. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 2009, 44–45.

(p.151) Bogardi, Janos, and Koko Warner. “Here Comes the Flood.” Nature Reports Climate Change 138 (December 11, 2008).

Boko, Michel, Isabelle Niang, Anthony Nyong, Coleen Vogel, Andrew Githeko, Mahmoud Medany, Balgis Osman-Elasha, Ramadjita Tabo, and Pius Yanda. “Africa.” In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 433–467.

Borjas, G. J. “Economic Theory and International Migration.” International Migration Review 23: 3 (1989).

Borjas, G. J. “The New Economics of Immigration: Affluent Americans Gain, Poor Americans Lose.” Atlantic Monthly, November 1996.

Brand, Laurie. Citizens Abroad: Emigration and the State in the Middle East and North Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Bronen, Robin. “Forced Migration of Alaskan Indigenous Communities Due to Climate Change: Creating a Human Rights Response.” Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Resilience and Adaptation Program, 2008.

Brubaker, Rogers. “Immigration, Citizenship, and the Nation-State in France and Germany: A Comparative Analysis.” International Sociology 5: 4 (December 1990): 379–407.

Bull, Hedley. The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.

Busby, Joshua W. “Who Cares about the Weather? Climate Change and U.S. National Security.” Security Studies 17 (2008): 468–504.

Byravan, Sujatha, and Sudhir Chella Rajan. “The Ethical Implications of Sea-Level Rise Due to Climate Change.” Ethics and International Affairs 24: 3 (2010): 239–260.

Campbell, Kurt, Jay Gulledge, J. R. McNeill, John Podesta, Peter Ogden, Leon Fuerth, R. James Woolsey, et al. The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change. Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security and Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2007.

Campbell, Laura, W. Bradnee Chambers, Jerry Velasquez, and Shona E.H. Dodds. Global Climate Governance: Inter-Linkages between the Kyoto Protocol and Other Multilateral Regimes. Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies and Global Environment Information Centre, 1999.

Cane, Mark. “The Evolution of El Niño, Past and Future.” Earth and Planetary Science Letters 230 (2005): 227–240.

Cane, Mark, Stephen E. Zebiak, and Sean C. Dolan. “Experimental Forecasts of El Niño.” Nature 321 (June 26, 1986).

Carling, Jørgen. “Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Border.” International Migration Review 41: 2 (2007): 316–343.

Carling, Jørgen. “Unauthorized Migration from Africa to Spain.” International Migration 45: 4–37 (2007): 3–37.

Carmen, Commander Herbert E., USN, Christine Parthemore, and Will Rogers. Broadening Horizons: Climate Change and the US Armed Forces. Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security, 2010.

Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. “Theorising Return Migration: The Conceptual Approach to Return Migrants Revisited.” IJMS: International Journal on Multicultural Societies 6: 2 (2004): 253–279.

(p.152) Castles, Stephen. Environmental Change and Forced Migration: Making Sense of the Debate. Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, 2002.

Castles, Stephen. “Towards a Sociology of Forced Migration and Social Transformation.” Sociology 37: 13 (2003): 13–34.

Castles, Stephen, and Mark Miller. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 4th ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “The Climate of History.” Critical Inquiry 35 (Winter 2009): 197–222.

Charef, Mohamed. “Geographical Situation as a Facilitator of Irregular Migration in Transit Countries—The Case of Tangier.” Istanbul, Council of Europe, September 30–October 1, 2004.

Chimni, B. S., “The Geopolitics of Refugee Studies: A View from the South.” Journal of Refugee Studies 11 (1998): 350–374.

Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg, B. Hewitson, Anthony Chen, Xuejie Gao, Isaac Held, Richard Jones, Rupa Kumar Kolli, et al. “Regional Climate Projections.” In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 847–879.

Christian Aid. Human Tide: The Real Migration Crisis. London: Christian Aid, 2007.

Cisneros, J. David. “Contaminated Communities: The Metaphor of ‘Immigrant as Polution’ in Media Representations of Immigration.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 11: 4 (2008): 569–602.

Clapp, Jennifer, and Peter Dauvergne. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Collyer, Michael. States of Insecurity: Consequences of Saharan Transit Migration. Oxford, England: University of Oxford Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, 2006.

Conca, Ken. “Rethinking the Ecology-Sovereignty Debate.” Millennium 23: 3 (1994): 701–711.

Cooper, Frederick. Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Cordell, Dennis D., Joel W. Gregory, and Victor Piché. Hoe and Wage: A Social History of a Circular Migration System in West Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996.

Cornelius, Wayne. “Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended Consequences of U.S. Immigration Control Policy.” Population and Development Review 27: 4 (2001): 661–685.

Cornelius, Wayne. “Spain: The Uneasy Transition from Labor Exporter to Labor Importer.” In Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective, edited by Wayne Cornelius, Philip Martin, and James Hollifield. 2nd ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Coultin, Susan Bibler. “Being En Route.” American Anthropologist 107: 2 (2005): 195–206.

Council of the European Union, “Joint Statement European Union-Morocco Summit, Granada, 7 March 2010.” 7220/10 (Presse 54). Brussels: Europa, available at www.consilium.europa.edu/newsroom.

Crichton, Michael. State of Fear. New York: Avon Books, 2004.

Dabelko, Geoffrey. “Avoid Hyperbole, Oversimplification When Climate and Security Meet.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, August 24, 2009.

Dabelko, Geoffrey. “Planning for Climate Change: The Security Community’s Precautionary Principle.” Climate Change 96 (2009): 13–21.

Dalby, Simon. Security and Environmental Change. Malden, MA: Polity, 2009.

(p.153) Davidson, Ogunlade, Kirsten Halsnæs, Saleemul Huq, Marcel Kok, Bert Metz, Youba Sokona, and Jan Verhagen. “The Development and Climate Nexus: The Case of Sub-Saharan Africa.” Climate Policy 3S1 (2003): S97–S113.

Davis, Diana K. Resurrecting the Granary of Rome: Environmental History and French Colonial Expansion in North Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.

de Haas, Hein. Irregular Migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union: An Overview of Recent Trends. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2005.

de Haas, Hein. “Morocco’s Migration Experience: A Transitional Perspective.” International Migration 45: 4 (2007): 39–70.

de Haas, Hein. Morocco’s Migration Transition: Trends, Determinants and Future Scenarios. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Centre for International Development Issues, Radboud University, 2005.

de Haas, Hein. The Myth of Invasion: Irregular Migration from West Africa to the Maghreb and the European Union (Oxford, England: International Migration Institute, 2007).

de Sherbinin, Alex, Andrew Schiller, and Alex Pulsipher. “The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards.” Environment and Urbanization 19 (2007): 39–64.

de Sherbinin, Alex, Koko Warner, and Charles Ehrhart. “Casualties of Climate Change.” Scientific American 304: 1, 2011, 64–71.

De Souza, Roger-Mark. Focus on Population, Environment, and Security. Washington, DC: Environmental Change and Security Program of the Woodrow Wilson Center, 2009.

de Wit, Maarten, and Jacek Stankiewicz. “Changes in Water Supply Across Africa with Predicted Climate Change.” Science 311 (2006): 1917–1921.

Denoeux, Guilain, and Abdeslam Maghraoui. “King Hassan’s Strategy of Political Dualism.” Middle East Policy 5: 4 (January 1998): 104–130.

Detraz, Nicole, and Michele Betsill. “Climate Change and Environmental Security: For Whom the Discourse Shifts.” International Studies Perspectives 10 (2009): 303–320.

Deudney, Daniel. “The Case against Linking Environmental Degradation and National Security.” Millennium 19: 3 (1900): 461–476.

Deutsch, Karl. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Dietz, Mary. “Trapping the Prince: Machiavelli and the Politics of Deception.” American Political Science Review 80 (1986): 777–799.

Düvall, Franck. Crossing the Fringes of Europe: Transit Migration in the EU’s Neighbourhood. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society: University of Oxford Working Paper No. 33, 2006.

Dyer, Gwynne. Climate Wars. London: Oneworld, 2010.

Eakin, Hallie, and Amy Lynd Luers. “Assessing the Vulnerability of Social-Environmental Systems.” Annual Review of Environmental Resources 31 (2006): 365–394.

Earth Institute and United Nations Development Program. The Millennium Villages Project: Annual Report 2008. New York: Columbia University, 2008.

Ehrenreich, Barbara, and Arlie Hochschild, eds. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Holt, 2004.

Elbe, Stefan. “Should HIV/AIDS Be Securitized? The Ethical Dilemmas of Linking HIV/AIDS and Security.” International Studies Quarterly 50: 1 (March 2006): 119–144.

El-Hinnawi, Essam. Environmental Refugees. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Program, 1985.

(p.154) Elmadmad, Khadija. Migration irrégulière et migration illégale: L’exemple des migrants subsahariens au Maroc. Florence, Italy: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies— European University Institute, 2008.

Ennaji, Moha, and Fatimi Sadiqi. Migration and Gender in Morocco: The Impact of Migration on the Women Left Behind. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 2008.

Ennaji, Mohammed. Soldats, domestiques et concubines: L’esclavage au Maroc au XIXe siècle. Casablanca: Editions EDDIF, 1997.

Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development. “Rabat Plan of Action of the Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development.” Rabat, Morocco, 2006.

European Commission. Aeneas Programme: Overview of Projects Funded 2004–2006. Brussels, Belgium: Europe Aid Programme of the European Commission, 2008.

European Commission. “European Commission and Libya Agree to a Migration Cooperation Agenda during High Level Visit to Boost EU-Libya Relations.” Brussels, Belgium, October 5, 2010, europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/10/472.

Evans, Peter B., Harold K. Jacobson, and Robert Putnam, eds. Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Feliu Martínez, Laura. “Les migrations en transit au Maroc: Attitudes et comportement de la société civile face au phénomène,” L’Année du Maghreb 5 (2009): 343–362.

Findley, Sally, Sadio Traoré, Dieudonné Ouedraogo, and Sekouba Diarra. “Emigration from the Sahel.” International Migration 33: 3–4 (1995): 459–520.

Finnemore, Martha. “Constructing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention.” In The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, edited by Peter Katzenstein. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996, 153–185.

Foley, Jonathan. “Boundaries for a Healthy Planet.” Scientific American 302: 4, 2010, 54–57.

Freeman, Gary. “Immigrant Labour and Working-Class Politics: The French and British Experience.” Comparative Politics 11: 1 (1978): 25–41.

Friedman, Lisa. How Will Climate Refugees Impact National Security? Scientific American, March 23, 2009.

Friedman, Thomas. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999.

Funk, Chris, Michael D. Dettinger, Joel C. Michaelsen, James P. Verdin, Molly E. Brown, Mathew Barlow, and Andrew Hoell. “Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern African Food Security but Could Be Mitigated by Agricultural Development.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 32 (August 12, 2008): 11081–11086.

Gardiner, Stephen. “A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics, and the Problem of Corruption.” In Political Theory and Global Climate Change, edited by Steve Vanderheiden. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008, 25–42.

German Advisory Council on Global Change. World in Transition: Climate Change as a Security Risk. Berlin, Germany, 2007.

Giannini, Alessandra, Michela Biasutti, Isaac M. Held, and Adam H. Sobel. “A Global Perspective on African Climate.” Climatic Change 90 (2008): 359–383.

Giannini, Alessandra, R. Saravanan, and P. Chang. “Oceanic Forcing of Sahel Rainfall on Interannual to Interdecadal Time Scales.” Science 302 (November 7, 2003): 1027–1030.

Gillespie, Richard. Spain and Morocco: Towards a Reform Agenda? Madrid: Fundación para las relaciones internacionales y el diálogo exterior, 2005.

(p.155) Goldenberg, Stanley, Christopher Landsea, Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, and William M. Gray. “The Recent Increase in Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Causes and Implications.” Science 293 (2001): 474–479.

Goldschmidt, Elie. “Storming the Fences: Morocco and Europe’s Anti-Migration Policy.” Middle East Report Online 239 (2006), available at www.merip.org/mer/mer239/goldschmidt.html.

Gordimer, Nadine. “Once upon a Time.” In Jump and Other Short Stories. New York: Penguin, 1992.

Gore, Al. Earth in the Balance. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

Gore, Al. “Introduction.” In Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1994.

Gränzer, Sieglinde. “Changing Human Rights Discourse: Transnational Advocacy Networks in Tunisia and Morocco.” In The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, edited by Thomas Risse, Stephen C. Ropp and Kathryn Sikkink. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999, 109–133.

Gray, Clark L. “Environment, Land, and Rural Out-Migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes.” World Development 37: 2 (2009): 457–468.

Gray, Clark L. Environmental Refugees or Economic Migrants? Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2010, available at www.prb.org.

Guild, Elspeth. Security and Migration in the 21st Century. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2009.

Guiraudon, Virginie, and Gallya Lahav. “A Reappraisal of the State Sovereignty Debate: The Case of Migration Control.” Comparative Political Studies 33: 2 (2000): 163–195.

Gunn, Lee. “Introduction.” In Climate Security Initiative: Climate Security Index. Washington, DC: American Security Project, 2009.

Gutelius, David. “Islam in Northern Mali and the War on Terror.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 25: 1 (2007): 59–76.

Haas, Peter. “Constructing Environmental Conflicts from Resource Scarcity.” Global Environmental Politics 2: 1 (February 2002): 1–11.

Haas, Peter. Saving the Mediterranean: The Politics of International Environmental Cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Haas, Peter. “Social Constructivism and the Evolution of Multilateral Environmental Governance.” In Globalization and Governance, edited by Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart. New York: Routledge, 1999, 103–133.

Haas, Peter, Robert Keohane, and Marc Levy, eds. Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993.

Haddad, Emma. The Refugee in International Society: Between Sovereigns. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Hammoudi, Abdellah. Master and Disciple: The Cultural Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1997.

Hansen, James. “Defusing the Global Warming Time Bomb.” Scientific American, March 2004, 68–77.

Hansen, James, Larissa Nazarenko, Reto Ruedy, Makiko Sato, Josh Willis, Anthony Del Genio, Dorothy Koch, et al. “Earth’s Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications.” Science 308 (June 3, 2005): 1431–1435.

Hartmann, Betsy. “Rethinking Climate Refugees and Climate Conflict: Rhetoric, Reality and the Politics of Policy Discourse.” Journal of International Development 22 (2010): 233–246.

(p.156) Hein, Lars, and Nico De Ridder. “Desertification in the Sahel: A Reinterpretation.” Global Change Biology 12 (2006): 751–758.

Heisler, Martin O., and Zig Layton-Henry. “Migration and the Links between Social and Societal Security.” In Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, edited by Ole Wæver, Barry Buzan, Morten Kelstrup and Pierre Lemaitre. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993, 148–166.

Henry, Sabine, Paul Boyle, and Eric F. Lambin. “Modelling Inter-Provincial Migration in Burkina Faso, West Africa: The Role of Socio-Demographic and Environmental Factors.” Applied Geography 23 (2003): 115–136.

Henry, Sabine, Bruno Schoumaker, and Cris Beauchemin. “The Impact of Rainfall on the First Out-Migration: A Multi-Level Event-History Analysis in Burkina Faso.” Population and Environment 25: 5 (May 2004): 423–460.

Herrero, Sergio Tirado. “Desertification and Environmental Security: The Case of Conflicts between Farmers and Herders in the Arid Environments of the Sahel.” In Desertification in the Mediterranean Region: A Security Issue, edited by William G. Kepner, José L. Rubio, David A. Mouat, and Fausto Pedrazzini. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2006, 109–132.

Hollifield, James F. “The Politics of International Migration: How Can We ‘Bring the State Back In?’” In Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines, edited by C. B. Brettell and J. F. Hollifield. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2007, 183–237.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas. “Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases.” International Security 19: 1 (1994): 5–40.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas. “On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict.” International Security 16: 2 (1991): 76–116.

Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierette. Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Hood, David. Fatal Climate. London: Phoenix, 2001.

Hufbauer, Clyde, and Gustavo Vega-Cánovas. “Whither NAFTA: A Common Frontier?” In The Rebordering of North America: Integration and Exclusion in a New Security Context, edited by Peter Andreas and Thomas Biersteker. New York: Routledge, 2003, 128–152.

Hunter, Lori M., and Emmanuel David. Climate Change and Migration: Considering the Gender Dimensions. POP2009-13. University of Colorado at Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, 2009.

Huntington, Samuel. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs 72: 3 (1993): 22–49.

Huntington, Samuel. Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

International Centre for Migration Policy Development, Europol, and Frontex. Arab and European Partner States Working Document on the Join Management of Mixed Migration Flows. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007.

International Centre for Migration Policy Development and Ministère de l’immigration, de l’identité et du developpement solidaire of the République Francaise. Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration and i-Map Expert Meeting, Paris, 15–16 December. Vienna, Austria: ICMPD, 2008.

International Centre for Migration Policy Development and Syrian Arab Republic Ministry of Interior. Dialogue on Mediterranean Transit Migration and i-MAP Expert Meeting, Damascus, Syria, 30 June–1 July. Vienna, Austria: ICMPD, 2009.

International Organization for Migration. Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Harnessing Opportunities: Discussion (p.157) Note on Migration and the Environment MC/INF/288. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration, 2008.

International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Global Climate Observing System, United Kingdom’s Department for International Development, and UN Economic Commission for Africa. A Gap Analysis for the Implementation of the Global Climate Observing System Programme in Africa. IRI-TR/06/1. Palisades, NY: IRI, 2006.

Iskander, Natasha. Creative State: Forty Years of Migration and Development Policy in Morocco and Mexico. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2010.

Ivanova, Maria. “Moving Forward by Looking Back: Learning from UNEP’s History.” In Green Planet Blues, ed. Ken Conca and Geoffrey Dabelko. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2010, 143–160.

Jackson, Robert, and Carl Rosberg. “Why Africa’s Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35: 1 (1982): 3–32.

Jacobsen, Karen. “Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Urban Areas: A Livelihoods Perspective.” Journal of Refugee Studies 19: 3 (2006): 373–286.

Jones, Reece. “Geopolitical Boundary Narratives, the Global War on Terror and Border Fencing in India.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 34 (2009): 290–304.

Joppke, Christian. Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany, and Great Britain. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Jourde, Cédric. “Constructing Representations of the ‘Global War on Terror’ in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 25: 1 (January 2007): 77–100.

Junger, Sebastian. The Perfect Storm. New York: Norton, 1997.

Kaplan, Robert. “The Coming Anarchy.” Atlantic Monthly, February 1994, 44–77.

Karns, Margaret P., and Karen A. Mingst. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.

Keck, Margaret, and Kathryn Sikkink. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye. Power and Interdependence. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1989.

Keohane, Robert O., and David G. Victor. The Regime Complex for Climate Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School Project on International Climate Agreements, 2010.

Kernerman, Gerald. “Refugee Interdiction before Heaven’s Gate.” Government and Opposition 43: 2 (2008): 230–248.

Khader, Bichara. “Immigration and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.” In The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership: Assessing the First Decade, edited by Haizam Amirah Fernández and Richard Youngs. Barcelona: Fundación para las realaciones internacionales y el dialogo exterior, 2005, 83–92.

Kibreab, Gaim. “Environmental Causes and Consequences of Migration: A Search for the Meaning of ‘Environmental Refugee.’” Disasters 21: 1 (1997): 20–38.

Kimball, Ann. The Transit State: A Comparative Analysis of Mexican and Moroccan Immigration Policies. Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies and Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California-San Diego, 2007.

Kindleberger, Charles. The World in Depression, 1929–39. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

King, Leslie. “Ideology, Strategy and Conflict in a Social Movement Organization: The Sierra Club Immigration Wars.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 13: 1 (2008): 45–61.

(p.158) Kingdom of Spain and Kingdom of Morocco. Treaty of Friendship, Good-Neighbourliness and Cooperation —Signed in Rabat, Morocco, no. 1717, I–29862 (July 4, 1991), available at www.untreaty.un.org/unts/120001_144071/3/1/00001779.pdf.

Klare, Michael. Rising Powers, Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. New York: Metropolitan, 2008.

Klare, Michael, and Daniel Volman. “The African ‘Oil Rush’ and US National Security.” Third World Quarterly 27: 4 (2006): 609–628.

Kniveton, Dominic, Kerstin Schmidt-Verkerk, Christopher Smith, and Richard Black. Climate Change and Migration: Improving Methodologies to Estimate Flows. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Migration, 2008.

Kolmannskog, Vikram Odedra. Future Flood Of Refugees: A Comment on Climate Change, Conflict and Forced Migration. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Refugee Council, 2008.

Koslowski, Rey. “The Mobility Money Can Buy: Human Smuggling and Border Control in the European Union.” In The Wall around the West: State Borders and Immigration Controls in North America and Europe, edited by Peter Andreas and Timothy Snyder. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000, 203–218.

Krasner, Stephen. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Kump, L. R., J. F. Kasting, and R. Crane. The Earth System. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2004.

Kyle, David, and Rey Koslowski, eds. Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Laczko, Frank, and Christine Aghazarm, eds. Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2010.

Lake, David A. “British and American Hegemony Compared: Lessons for the Current Era of Decline.” In International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth, edited by Jeffry Frieden and David A. Lake. 3rd. ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000, 148–166.

Lalami, Laila. Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2005.

Landau, Loren, and Aurelia Kazadi Wa Kabwe-Segatti, Human Development Impacts of Migration: South Africa Case Study. United Nations Development Programme Research Paper 2009/5.

Larramendi, Miguel Hernando de. Las relaciones con Marruecos tras los atentados del 11 de Marzo. Madrid: Real Instituto Elcano de Estudios Internacionales y Estratégicas, 2004.

Layachi, Azzedine. “State-Society Relations and Change in Morocco.” In Economic Crisis and Political Change in North Africa, edited by Azzedine Layachi. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998, 89–106.

Leach, Melissa, and James Fairhead. “Challenging Neo-Malthusian Deforestation Analyses in West Africa’s Dynamic Forest Landscapes.” Population and Development Review 26: 1 (March 2000): 17–43.

Lenton, Timothy M., Hermann Held, Elmar Kriegler, Jim W. Hall, Wolfgang Lucht, Stefan Rahmstorf, and Hans Joachim Schellnhuber. “Tipping Elements in the Earth’s Climate System.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 6 (February 12, 2008): 1786–1793.

Levy, Marc. “Is the Environment a National Security Issue?” International Security 20: 2 (Fall 1995): 35–62.

(p.159) Linklater, Andrew, and Hidemi Suganami. The English School of International Relations: A Contemporary Reassessment. London: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Loescher, Gil. Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

López-García, Bernabé. “Foreign Immigration Comes to Spain: The Case of the Moroccans.” In New European Identity and Citizenship, edited by Rémy Leveau, Khadija Mohsen-Finan, and Catherine Withol de Wenden. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002, 49–68.

Luseno, Winnie, John McPeack, Christopher Barrett, Peter Little, and Getachew Gebru. “Assessing the Value of Climate Forecast Information for Pastoralists: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya.” World Development 31: 9 (2003): 1477–1494.

Lutterbeck, Derek. “Migrants, Weapons and Oil: Europe and Libya After the Sanctions.” Journal of North African Studies 14: 2 (2009): 169–184.

Lutterbeck, Derek. “Policing Migration in the Mediterranean.” Mediterranean Politics 11: 1 (March 2006): 59–82.

Maghraoui, Abdeslam. “From Symbolic Legitimacy to Democratic Legitimacy: Monarchic Rule and Political Reform in Morocco.” Journal of Democracy 12: 1 (2001): 73–86.

Marfleet, Philip. Refugees in a Global Era. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Martin, Susan F. “Climate Change and International Migration.” Background paper on Climate Change and Migration for the German Marshall Fund of the United States, available at www.gmfus.org, June 2010.

Martin, Susan F. “Climate Change, Migration, and Governance.” Global Governance 16 (2010): 397–414.

Martin, Susan F. “Managing Environmentally Induced Migration.” In Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence, edited by Frank Laczko and Christine Aghazarm. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2010, 353–384.

Martin, Susan F. Refugee Women. 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2004.

Martin, Susan Forbes et al. The Uprooted: Improving Humanitarian Responses to Forced Migration. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Massey, Douglas, Joaquin Arango, Hugo, Graeme, Kouaaouci, Ali, Pellegrino, Adela, and J. Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review 19: 3 (1993): 431–466.

Massey, Douglas, William Axinn, and Dirgha Ghimire. Environmental Change and Out-Migration: Evidence from Nepal. University of Michigan Institute for Social Research: Population Studies Center Report 07-615, 2007.

McMurray, David. In and Out of Morocco: Smuggling and Migration in a Frontier Boomtown. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2001.

Meadows, Donella H., Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III. “The Limits to Growth.” In Green Planet Blues, edited by Ken Conca and Geoffrey D. Dabelko. 4th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2010, 25–29.

Mearsheimer, John. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: Norton, 2001.

Mohammed VI. “Speech to the 2009 Meeting of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.” Marrakech, Morocco, September 27, 2009, available at www.map.ma.

Mohammed VI. “Speech to the 2nd EU-Africa Summit Hosted by Lisbon.” Lisbon, Portugal, December 8, 2009, available at www.map.ma.

Mohammed VI. “Speech to the 3rd EU-Africa Summit hosted by Libya.” Tripoli, Libya, November 29, 2010, available at www.map.ma.

(p.160) Monimart, Marie. Femmes du Sahel. Paris: Karthala, 1989.

Mooney, Chris. Unscientific America: How Science Illiteracy Threatens our Future. New York: Basic Books, 2009.

Moorehead, Caroline. Human Cargo: A Journey among Refugees. New York: Henry Holt, 2005.

Morganthau, Hans. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf, 1960.

Mortimore, Michael. “Adapting to Drought in the Sahel: Lessons for Climate Change.” WIRES Climate Change 1 (2010): 134–143.

Myers, Norman. “Environmental Refugees.” Population and Environment 19 (1997): 167–182.

Myers, Norman. “Environmental Refugees: An Emergent Security Issue.” Paper presented at the 13th Economic Forum, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 2005.

Myers, Norman. “Environmental Refugees: A Growing Phenomenon of the 21st Century.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 356 (2001).

National Intelligence Council. Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2008.

National Research Council. Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

Newman, David. “Boundaries.” In A Companion to Political Geography, edited by John Agnew, Katharyne Mitchell and Gerard Toal. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003, 123–137.

Nordås, Ragnhild and Nils Petter Gleditsch. “Climate Change and Conflict.” Political Geography 26: 6 (2007): 627–638.

Olsson, L., L. Eklundh, and J. Ardö. “A Recent Greening of the Sahel: Trends, Patterns and Potential Causes.” Journal of Arid Environments 63 (2005): 556–566.

O’Neill, Brian, Simone Pulver, Stacy VanDeveer, and Yaakov Garb. “Where Next with Global Environmental Scenarios?” Environmental Research Letters 3: 4 (2008): 1–4.

Oreskes, Naomi. “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change: How Do We Know We’re Not Wrong?” In Climate Change: What It Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren, edited by Joseph F. C. Dimento and Pamela Doughman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Oreskes, Naomi, and Erik Conway. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. London: Bloomsbury Press, 2010.

Orlove, Benjamin S., John C. H. Chiang, and Mark A. Cane. “Forecasting Andean Rainfall and Crop Yield from the Influence of El Niño on Pleiades Visibility.” Nature 403: 6 (2000): 68–71.

Orwell, George. “Politics and the English Language.” In A Collection of Essays. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 1970.

Panda, Architesh. “Climate Refugees: Implications for India.” Economic & Political Weekly 45: 20 (May 15, 2010): 76–79.

Paskal, Cleo. Global Warring: How Environmental, Economic and Political Crises Will Redraw the World Map. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Paskal, Cleo. “How Climate Change Is Pushing the Boundaries of Security and Foreign Policy.” 07/01, Energy. Environment and Development Programme, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, London, June 2007.

Paul, Bimal Kanti. “Evidence against Disaster-Induced Migration: The 2004 Tornado in North-Central Bangladesh.” Disasters 29: 4 (2005): 370–385.

(p.161) Perch-Nielson, Sabine, Michèle B. Bättig, and Dieter Imboden. “Exploring the Link between Climate Change and Migration.” Climatic Change 91 (2008): 375–393.

Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming. “Testimony by Thomas Fingar, Deputy Director for National Intelligence, on the National Security Implications of Global Climate Change to 2030.” Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, June 25, 2008.

Pickerill, Emily. “Informal and Entrepreneurial Strategies among Sub-Saharan Migrants in Morocco.” Journal of North African Studies (forthcoming).

Pielke, Roger. Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Piguet, Etienne. Climate Change and Forced Migration. Geneva, Switzerland: UN High Commission for Refugees Policy Development and Evaluation Service, 2008.

Piore, Michael. Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor in Industrial Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Powers, Holiday. “The Challenges of Maintaining Local Identity in International Biennale Exhibitions: Lessons from the 3rd AiM Arts in Marrakech Biennale.” Paper presented at the 2010 AIMS Conference, June 27, 2010, University of Oran, Algeria.

Prince, Stephen D., Konrad J. Wessels, Compton J. Tucker, and Sharon E. Nicholson. “Desertification in the Sahel: A Reinterpretation of a Reinterpretation.” Global Change Biology 13 (2007): 1308–1313.

Pulver, Simone, and Stacy VanDeveer. “‘Thinking about Tomorrows’: Scenarios, Global Environmental Politics, and Social Science Scholarship.” Global Environmental Politics 9: 2 (May 2009): 1–13.

Rahmstorf, Stefan. “Ocean Circulation and Climate during the Past 120,000 Years.” Nature 419 (September 12, 2002): 207–214.

Rain, David. Eaters of the Dry Season: Circular Labor Migration in the West African Sahel. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1999.

Raleigh, Clionadh. “Political Marginalization, Climate Change and Conflict in African Sahel States.” International Studies Review 12 (2010): 69–86.

Ratha, Dilip, and Xu, Zhimei. “World Bank Migration and Remittances Factbook.” Available at www.worldbank.org/prospects/migrationandremittances2009.

Rawls, John. The Law of Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Raynaut, Claude. “Societies and Nature in the Sahel: Ecological Diversity and Social Dynamics.” Global Environmental Change 11 (2001): 9–18.

Reij, C., G. Tappan, and A. Belemvire. “Changing Land Management Practices and Vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968–2002).” Journal of Arid Environments 63 (2005): 642–569.

Reynolds, James F., D. Mark Stafford Smith, Eric F. Lambin, B.L. Turner, Michael Mortimore, Simon P.J. Batterbury, Thomas E. Downing, et al. “Global Desertification: Building a Science for Dryland Development.” Science 316 (May 11, 2007): 847–851.

Riaz, Ali. “Bangladesh.” In Climate Change and National Security: A Country-Level Analysis, edited by Daniel Moran. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2010, 103–114.

Ribas-Mateos, Natalia. “Female Birds of Passage: Leaving and Settling in Spain.” In Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, edited by Floya Anthias and Gabriella Lazaridis. New York: Berg, 2000, 173–197.

(p.162) Rockström, Johan, Will Steffan, Kevin Noone, Asa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, et al. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature 461 (September 24, 2009): 472–475.

Rosenzweig, Cynthia, Gino Casassa, David Karoly, Anton Imeson, Chunzhen Liu, Annette Menzel, Samuel Rawlins, Terry Root, Bernard Seguin, and Piotr Tryjanowski. “Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems.” In Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, and C. E. Hanson. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 79–131.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Translated by Judith R. Masters, edited by Roger D. Masters. New York: St. Martin’s, 1978.

Rudolph, Christopher. “Security and the Political Economy of International Migration.” American Political Science Review 97: 4 (2003): 603–620.

Sachs, Jeffrey. “Climate Change Refugees: As Global Warming Tightens the Availability of Water, Prepare for a Torrent of Forced Migrations.” Scientific American, June 1, 2007.

Sachs, Jeffrey. Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet. New York: Penguin, 2008.

Sadiqi, Fatima. Migration-Related Institutions and Policies in Morocco. European University Institute, Florence, Italy: Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM), 2004.

Sahin, Zeynap. “Policy Changes in the Immigration Controls of States after 1990s: The Case of Turkey.” International Studies Association Annual Meeting, New York, March 23, 2009.

Salehyan, Idean. “The New Myth about Climate Change.” Foreign Policy, August 2007, available at www.foreignpolicy.com.

Salime, Zakia. “The War on Terrorism: Appropriation and Subversion by Moroccan Women.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 33: 1 (2007): 1–24.

Salter, Mark B. “Passports, Mobility, and Security: How Smart Can the Border Be?” International Studies Perspectives 5 (2004): 71–91.

Sassen, Saskia. Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Sassen, Saskia. Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Sassen, Saskia. “Whose City Is It? Globalization and the Formation of New Claims.” In Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New York: Free Press, 1998.

Schipper, E. Lisa F. “Conceptual History of Adaptation in the UNFCCC Process.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 15: 1 (2006): 82–92.

Schmidt, Gavin A. “The Physics of Climate Modeling.” Physics Today (January 2007): 72–73.

Schneider, Stephen. Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save the Earth’s Climate. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2009.

Schwartz, Peter, and Doug Randall. An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security. New York: Global Business Network, 2003.

Seager, Jody. Earth Follies: Coming to Feminist Terms with the Global Environmental Crisis. New York: Routledge, 1993.

(p.163) Seager, Richard, Mingfang Ting, Isaac Held, Yochanan Kushnir, Jian Lu, Gabriel Vecchi, Huei-Ping Huang, et al. “Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America.” Science 316 (May 25, 2007): 1181–1183.

Seck, Emmanuel. “National Action Programs for Climate Adaptation: A Déjà Vu or a Real Chance to Build on Past Experiences? A Presentation to the ACP-EU Council of Ministers—Specialist Conference Report on Governance and Combating Desertification.” Brussels, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, May 23, 2007.

Sen, Amartya. Development as Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the Intelligence Community. 2009.

Shacknove, Andrew. “Who Is a Refugee?” Ethics 95: 2 (1985): 274–284.

Sindico, Francesco. “Climate Change: A Security (Council) Issue?” Carbon and Climate Law Review 1 (2007): 26–31.

Skeldon, Ronald. “Background Paper for Roundtable Session 3.2: Assessing the Relevance and Impact of Climate Change on Migration and Development.” Global Forum on Migration & Development, Mexico, November 2010, available at www.gfmd.org.

Slaughter, Ann-Marie. “The Real New World Order.” Foreign Affairs 183 (September/October 1997).

Slyomovics, Susan. The Performance of Human Rights in Morocco. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.

Smith, Paul J. “Climate Change, Mass Migration and the Military Response.” Orbis 51: 4 (Fall 2007): 617–633.

Solana, Javier, and the European Commission. Climate Change and International Security: Paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council. Brussels, Belgium: Council of the European Union, 2008.

Solé, Carlota, and Sònia Parella. “The Labour Market and Racial Discrimination in Spain.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 29: 1 (2003): 121–140.

Sparke, Matthew. “Political Geography: Political Geographies of Globalization (1)— Dominance.” Progress in Human Geography 28: 6 (2004): 777–794.

“Special Issue: Climate Change and Displacement.” Forced Migration Review 31 (October 2008).

Stal, Marc. “Mozambique.” In EACH-FOR: Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios D.3.4. Synthesis Report, edited by Andras Vag. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 2009, 40–41.

Steiner, Achim. “Environment as a Peace Policy.” NATO Review: How Does NATO Need to Change (Parts 1 and 2)?, available at www.nato.int/docu/review/2009/NATO_Change/Environment_PeacePolicy/EN/.

Stiglitz, Joseph. Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: Penguin Putnam, 2002.

Strondl, Robert. Frontex: General Report for 2008. Warsaw, Poland: Frontex, available at www.frontex.europa.eu, 2008.

Swearingen, Will. Moroccan Mirages: Agrarian Dreams and Deceptions, 1912–1986. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Tarhule, Aondover, and Peter J. Lamb. “Climate Research and Seasonal Forecasting for West Africans.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84 (2003): 1741–1759.

Terry, Geraldine. “No Climate Justice without Gender Justice: An Overview of the Issues.” Gender & Development 17: 1 (March 2009): 5–18.

Tickner, Jill. Gender in International Relations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

(p.164) Todaro, Michael. International Migration in Developing Countries: A Review of Theory. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization, 1976.

Tonah, Steve. “Integration or Exclusion of Fulbe Pastoralists in West Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Interethnic Relations, State and Local Policies in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire.” Journal of Modern African Studies 41: 1 (2003): 91–114.

Toulmin, Camilla. Climate Change in Africa. London: Zed Books, 2010.

Trenberth, Kevin E., Aiguo Dai, Roy M. Rasmussen, and David B. Parsons. “The Changing Character of Precipitation.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84 (September 2003): 1205–1217.

Trenberth, Kevin E., Philip D. Jones, Peter Ambenje, Roxana Bjariu, David Easterling, Albert Klein Tank, David Parker, et al. “Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change.” In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Unander, Fidtjof. From Oil Crisis to Climate Challenge: Understanding CO2 Emission Trends in IEA Countries. Paris, OECD and IEA, 2003.

United Kingdom Ministry of Defence’s Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre. DCDC Global Strategic Trends Programme: 2007–2036. 3rd ed. London: UK Ministry of Defence, 2007.

United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. New York: United Nations, 1987, available at www.un-documents.net/ocf-ov.htm.

Valenzuela, J. Samuel, and Arturo Valenzuela. “Modernization and Dependency: Alternative Perspectives in the Study of Latin American Underdevelopment.” Comparative Politics 10: 4 (1978): 535–557.

Valluy, Jérôme. “Aux marches de l’Europe: des ‘pay-camps’: La transformation des pays de transit en pays d’immigration forcée (observations à partir de l’exemple marocain).” In Immigration sur emigration: Le Maghreb à l’épreuve des migrations subsahariennes, edited by Ali Bensaâd. Paris: Karthala, 2008, 325–342.

van der Geest, Kees. “Ghana.” In EACH-FOR: Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios D.3.4. Synthesis Report, edited by Andras Vag. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 2009, 46–47.

Vanderheiden, Steve. Atmospheric Justice: A Political Theory of Climate Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Vecchi, Gabriel A., and Brian J. Soden. “Global Warming and the Weakening of the Tropical Circulation.” Journal of Climate 20 (September 1, 2007): 4316–4340.

Vörösmarty, Charles J., Pamela Green, Joseph Salisbury, and Richard Lammers. “Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth.” Science 289 (July 14, 2000): 284–288.

Wæver, Ole. “Societal Security: The Concept.” In Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, edited by Ole Wæver, Barry Buzan, Morten Kelstrup, and Pierre Lemaitre. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993, 17–40.

Walker, R. B. J. “State Sovereignty and the Articulation of Political Space/Time.” Millennium 20: 3 (1991): 445–49.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Capitalist World Economy. London: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Walt, Stephen. “The Renaissance of Security Studies.” International Studies Quarterly 35: 2 (1991): 211–239.

(p.165) Walters, William. “Mapping Schengenland: Denaturalizing the Border.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 20 (2002): 561–580.

Waltz, Susan. “The Politics of Human Rights in the Maghreb.” In Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa, edited by John Entelis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997, 75–92.

Warner, Koko, Charles Ehrhart, Alex de Sherbinin, and Susana Adamo. In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement. New York: CARE International, 2009.

Warren, A. “The Policy Implications of Sahelian Change.” Journal of Arid Environments 63 (2005): 660–670.

Washington, Richard, Mike Harrison, Declan Conway, Emily Black, Andrew Challinor, David Grimes, Richard Jones, Andy Morse, Gillian Kay, and Martin Todd. “African Climate Change: Taking the Shorter Route.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87: 10 (2006): 1355–1366.

Waterbury, John. The Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite—A Study in Segmented Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

Weiner, Myron. Global Migration Crisis: Challenges to States and to Human Rights. New York: Harper Collins, 1995.

Wendt, Alexander. “Anarchy Is What States Make of It.” International Organization 42: 2 (1992): 391–425.

Weston, Burns, and Tracy Bach. Recalibrating the Law of Humans with the Laws of Nature: Climate Change, Human Rights, and Intergenerational Justice: Vermont Law School Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 10-06, 2009.

Wheeler, Nicholas. Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention in International Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

White, Gregory. “‘The End of the Era of Leniency’ in Morocco? Mohammed VI’s Halting Glasnost.” In North Africa: Politics, Religion and the Limits of Transformation, edited by Y. Zoubir and H. Amirah-Fernández. London: Routledge, 2008, 90–108.

White, Gregory. “Free Trade as a Strategic Instrument in the War on Terror? The 2004 U.S.-Moroccan Free Trade Agreement.” Middle East Journal 59: 4 (Fall 2005), 597–616.

White, Gregory. “It’s Not Because They’re Arab,” Open Democracy, February 10, 2011, available at www.opendemocracy.net/gregory-white/it’s-not-because-they’re-arab.

White, Gregory. “The Maghreb in the World’s Political Economy.” Middle East Policy 14: 4 (Winter 2007): 42–54.

White, Gregory. “La migración laboral Marroquí y los territorios Españoles de Ceuta y Melilla.” Revista Internacional De Sociología 36 (September–December 2003): 135–168.

White, Gregory. On the Outside of Europe Looking In: A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.

White, Gregory. “Sovereignty and International Labor Migration: The ‘Security Mentality’ in Spanish-Moroccan Relations as an Assertion of Sovereignty.” Review of International Political Economy 14: 4 (2007): 690–718.

White, Gregory. “Too Many Boats, Not Enough Fish: The Political Economy of Morocco’s 1995 Fishing Accord with the European Union.” Journal of Developing Areas 31: 3 (1997): 313–336.

Williams, John. The Ethics of Territorial Borders: Drawing Lines in the Shifting Sands. London: Palgrave, 2006.

Williams, Michael C. “Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics.” International Studies Quarterly 47 (2003): 511–531.

Witze, Alexandra. “Losing Greenland.” Nature 452 (April 17, 2008): 798–802.

(p.166) Young, Oran. International Governance: Protecting the Environment in a Stateless Society. Ithaca, CA: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Zenawi, Meles. Statement on Behalf of the African Group at the COP 15. Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.

Zetter, Roger. “Legal and Normative Frameworks.” Forced Migration Review 31 (2008): 62–63.

Zetter, Roger. “The Role of Legal and Normative Frameworks for the Protection of Environmentally Displaced People.” In Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence, edited by Frank Laczko and Christine Aghazarm. Geneva, International Organization for Migration, 2010, 385–441.

Zolberg, Aristide R. “Beyond the Crisis.” In Global Migrants, Global Refugees: Problems and Solutions, edited by Aristide Zolberg and Peter Benda. New York: Berghahn, 2001, 1–16.

Zolberg, Aristide R. “Patterns of International Migration Policy: A Diachronic Comparison.” In Minorities: Community and Identity, edited by Charles Fried. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1983, 229–246.