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The Evolving International Investment RegimeExpectations, Realities, Options$
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Jose E. Alvarez and Karl P. Sauvant

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199793624

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793624.001.0001

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The Changing Political Economy of Foreign Investment: Finding a Balance Between Hard and Soft Forms of Regulation

The Changing Political Economy of Foreign Investment: Finding a Balance Between Hard and Soft Forms of Regulation

Chapter:
(p.125) 2.5 The Changing Political Economy of Foreign Investment: Finding a Balance Between Hard and Soft Forms of Regulation
Source:
The Evolving International Investment Regime
Author(s):

John H. Dunning

Sarianna M. Lundan

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199793624.003.0011

This chapter argues that in addition to the risks present in the physical environment of firms—comprising the resources, capabilities, and markets available to them—the sources of potential conflict are increasingly likely to involve aspects of the human environment. The human environment refers to the range of institutions underpinning the cross-border activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs) that consist of the framework of formal rules, as well as the prevailing informal norms and values, and their methods of enforcement. In order to explore how the issues affecting the human environment differ from those related to the resources, capabilities, and markets of firms, the first part of the chapter examines how the rules-based structure of international agreements and organizations has responded to the changes in the political economy of foreign investment. Specifically, it discusses how the system of “hard” regulation, mainly concerned with the resources, capabilities, and markets accessed or controlled by firms, has responded to the perceived loss of sovereignty of home and host countries on the one hand, and to the widening range of extraterritorial policies of home countries on the other hand. The second part illustrates how voluntary efforts or “soft” regulation have sometimes superseded “hard” regulation, particularly in those areas where conflicts have arisen in the human environment. To this end, it examines how MNEs have responded to the issues related to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in their cross-border operations. The concluding section offers some guidance as to a desirable balance between these two forms of regulating the conduct of MNEs in the global economy.

Keywords:   multinational enterprises, international investment, hard regulation, soft regulation, corporate social responsibility, international agreements

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