To manage its intellectual property, most research universities have technology transfer offices. Their responsibilities include evaluating inventions for possible patent applications, applying for patents, licensing of intellectual property, and enforcing intellectual property agreements. According to the Bayh-Dole Act, if the university claims intellectual property ownership, it must file a patent application within one year. Factors influencing the decision to claim or waive ownership are discussed. If the university claims ownership, then the technology transfer office files a non-provisional or provisional patent application and negotiates licensing agreements. Universities also generate tangible research property, such novel biological organisms and engineering prototypes. Tangible research property developed using federal funds must be shared openly with all other qualified investigators. Universities usually distribute tangible research property by using material transfer agreements that specify how the material may be used. To facilitate technology transfer from federal laboratories to non-federal partners, including universities, the government established cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs), which require the university to provide the funds needed to conduct a specific research project. The chapter ends with a consideration of intellectual property generation as a tenure and promotion criterion.
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