In Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda, governments have been willing to devote lawmaking effort and scarce resources to the clear definition and adjudication of land rights. However, making institutions function on limited budgets and in all areas of the country is challenging. It requires political will that extends beyond law making and into areas of both enforcement and public awareness. In communities where the state does not enforce property rights, institutional innovation will occur to ensure that property rights are protected. Institutional innovation in a number of sites has included specialists in violence, bureaucratic entrepreneurs, and NGOs. However, the institutions that organically develop to define and protect property can blur the lines between state and non-state processes or may be suboptimal in nature, creating negative externalities for the societies in which they function.
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