This chapter argues that recursiveness is a central but unspecified aspect of Pragmatist thought, defining recursiveness as a “continuous and interlocking cycle of perspectives.” Building on complexity theory, the chapter argues that recursiveness develops in organizations with “heterarchical” structures (with many-to-many linkages, rather than the many-to-one linkages typical of hierarchy). It then examines the New York Police Department’s Compstat system as a concrete case of organizational recursiveness. Under Compstat, direct, real-time communication between top executives and street-level bureaucrats supports strategic problem-solving. Generalizing from this example, the chapter develops the concept of a “constitutional hierarchy,” in which top executives primarily act as stewards of their organization’s general rules and values, but uphold and refine these rules and values through close contact with problem-solving operations. Recursiveness can be extended to entire organizational communities using the structural principles developed in Likert’s concept of “linking pin organization.”
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