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A Distinct Judicial PowerThe Origins of an Independent Judiciary, 1606-1787$

Scott Douglas Gerber

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199765874

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765874.001.0001

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(p.363) Works Cited

(p.363) Works Cited

Source:
A Distinct Judicial Power
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

This bibliography is organized chapter by chapter to facilitate research by scholars who may be as interested in a particular aspect of the project (e.g., Aristotle’s theory of a mixed constitution, the history of the early Georgia courts) as they are in the entirety of it.

Preface

Adams, Willi Paul. The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Translated into English by Rita & Robert Kimber. Expanded ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

_____. “The State Constitutions as Analogy and Precedent: The American Experience with Constituent Power before 1787.” In The United States Constitution: Roots, Rights, and Responsibilities, edited by A.E. Dick Howard, 3. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.

Black, Barbara Aronstein. “The Judicial Power and the General Court in Early Massachusetts, 1634–1686.” Ph.D. diss., history, Yale University, 1975.

Black, Charles L. Jr. Structure and Relationship in Constitutional Law. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

Bonneau, Chris W., and Melinda Gann Hall. In Defense of Judicial Elections. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Bork, Robert H. The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Cramton, Roger C., and Paul D. Carrington, eds. Reforming the Court: Term Limits for Supreme Court Justices. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2006.

Dworkin, Ronald. Freedom’s Law: The Moral Reading of the American Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

_____. “Unburied Treasure: Governor Thomas Burke and the Origins of Judicial Review.” Historically Speaking 8 (2007): 29.

Gerhardt, Michael J., and Thomas D. Rowe, Jr. Constitutional Theory: Arguments and Perspectives. 2d ed. New York: Matthew Bender, 2000.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Haskins, George Lee. Law and Authority in Early Massachusetts: A Study in Tradition and Design. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

Issacson, Walter. “A Justice Reflects.” The Daily Beast. June 29, 2009, http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2009-06-29/a-justice-reflects/.

Kramer, Larry D. The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Loyd, William H. The Early Courts of Pennsylvania. Boston: Boston Book Company, 1910 (reprint 1986).

(p.364) Morris, Richard B. Foreword to Law & Authority in Colonial America. Edited by George Athan Billias, viii. New York: Dover Publications, 1965 (reprint 1970).

Plucknett, T.F.T. Book Review. New England Quarterly 3 (1930): 574.

Posner, Richard A. The Economics of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

_____. “The Origins of Judicial Review: A Plea for New Contexts.” Stanford Law Review 49 (1997): 1031.

Reid, John Phillip. Legislating the Courts: Judicial Dependence in Early New Hampshire. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009.

Sandra Day O’Connor Project on the State of the Judiciary. Georgetown University Law Center, http://www.law.georgetown.edu/judiciary/.

Scalia, Antonin. A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law. Edited by Amy Gutmann. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Smith, Joseph H. “An Independent Judiciary: The Colonial Background.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 124 (1976): 1104.

Strauss, David A. “Common Law Constitutional Interpretation.” University of Chicago Law Review 63 (1996): 877.

Sunstein, Cass R. One Case at a Time: Judicial Minimalism on the Supreme Court. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Thomas, Governor Francis. “The Independence of the Judiciary.” North American Review 57 (1843): 400.

Tushnet, Mark V. Red, White, and Blue: A Critical Analysis of Constitutional Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

_____. Taking the Constitution Away from the Courts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Wells, H. Thomas Jr. “Promoting Fair and Impartial Courts.” American Bar Association Journal. (March 2009): 6.

Wood, Gordon S. “Comment.” In Antonin Scalia, A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, edited by Amy Gutmann, 49. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

_____. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

_____. E-mail to Scott D. Gerber (January 7, 1999, 09:29:02 EST).

_____. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

_____. “Judicial Review in the Era of the Founding.” In Is the Supreme Court the Guardian of the Constitution?, edited by Robert A. Licht, 153. Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1993.

_____. “The Origins of Judicial Review.” Suffolk University Law Review 22 (1988): 1293.

_____. “The Origins of Judicial Review Revisited, or How the Marshall Court Made More Out of Less.” Washington & Lee Law Review 56 (1999): 787.

A Note on Methodology

Bilder, Mary Sarah. “Idea or Practice: A Brief Historiography of Judicial Review.” Journal of Policy History 20 (2008): 6.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “Introduction.” In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall, edited by Scott Douglas Gerber, 1. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Kromkowski, Charles A. Recreating the American Republic: Rules of Apportionment, Constitutional Change, and American Political Development, 1700–1870. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

(p.365) Onuf, Peter S. “Reflections on the Founding: Constitutional Historiography in Bicentennial Perspective.” William & Mary Quarterly 46 (1989): 341.

Page, Elwin L. Judicial Beginnings in New Hampshire, 1640–1700. Concord: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1959.

Wood, Gordon S. The Purpose of the Past: Reflections on the Uses of History. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

1. The History of Ideas: From Aristotle’s Theory of a Mixed Constitution to John Adams’s Modifications of Montesquieu

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_____. The Papers of John Adams Volume 1: September 1755–October 1773. Edited by Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977.

_____. “Thoughts on Government” (1776). In The Works of John Adams, vol. 4, edited by Charles Francis Adams, 193. Boston: Little, Brown, 1851.

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Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Translated into English by William David Ross. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998 (350 BC).

_____. The Politics of Aristotle. Translated into English by Peter L. Phillips Simpson. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997 (350 BC).

Berman, Harold J. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Black, Charles L. Jr. The People and the Court: Judicial Review in a Democracy. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

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Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968.

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Burns, J.H. “Fortescue and the Political Theory of Dominium.” Historical Journal 28 (1985): 777.

Cicero. De re Publica and De Legibus. Translated into English by C.W. Keyes. Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classical Library, 1988 (1928) (51 BC).

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Contarini, Gasparo. The Commonwealth and Government of Venice. Translated into English by Lewes Lewkenor. 1599 (1543).

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Gierke, Otto. Political Theories of the Middle Ages. Translated into English by Frederic William Maitland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1900.

Gleason, Elisabeth G. Gasparo Contarini: Venice, Rome, and Reform. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

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Gordon, Scott. Controlling the State: Constitutionalism from Ancient Athens to Today. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Gross, Anthony. The Dissolution of the Lancastrian Kingship: Sir John Fortescue and the Crisis of Monarchy in Fifteenth-Century England. Stamford, U.K.: Paul Watkins Publishing, 1996.

Grote, George. Aristotle. 2d ed. London: J. Murray, 1880.

Gwyn, W.B. The Meaning of the Separation of Powers: An Analysis of the Doctrine from its Origin to the Adoption of the United States Constitution. New Orleans: Tulane University Press, 1965.

Hart, Henry M. “The Power of Congress to Limit the Jurisdiction of Federal Courts.” Harvard Law Review 66 (1953): 1362.

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Jay, John. Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay. Edited by Henry P. Johnston. Vol. 3. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1890–93.

Kenyon, J.P., ed. The Stuart Constitution, 1603–1688: Documents and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Kernell, Samuel, and Gary C. Jacobson. The Logic of American Politics. 3d ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2006.

Kramer, Larry D. The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Levett, A.E. “Sir John Fortescue.” In The Social & Political Ideas of Some Great Thinkers of the Renaissance and the Reformation, edited by F.J.C. Hearnshaw, 61. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1949.

Lintott, Andrew. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

Lowenthal, David. “Montesquieu.” In History of Political Philosophy, edited by Leo Strauss & Joseph Cropsey, 513. 3d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Lutz, Donald S. “The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eighteenth-Century American Political Thought.” American Political Science Review 78 (1984): 189.

Madison, James. The Papers of James Madison. Edited by Robert A. Rutland et al. Vol. 10. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977.

Marsilius of Padua. The Defender of the Peace. Edited and Translated into English by Annabel Brett. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005 (1324).

“Marsilius of Padua.” In The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007, http://www.bartleby.com/65/ma/Marsiliu.html.

McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

McIlwain, Charles Howard. Constitutionalism, Ancient and Modern. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1940.

Miller, Fred D. Jr. Nature, Justice, and Rights in Aristotle’s Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

(p.367) Montesquieu, M. de. Persian Letters. Translated into English by Mr. Flloyd. 4th ed. 2 vols. London: J. & R. Tonson, 1762 (1721).

_____. The Spirit of the Laws. Edited and Translated into English by Anne M. Cohler et al. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989 (1748).

Nowak, John E., and Ronald D. Rotunda. Constitutional Law. 7th ed. St. Paul, MN: West, 2004.

Panagopoulous, E.P. Essays on the History and Meaning of Checks and Balances. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985.

Pocock, J.G.A., ed. The Political Works of James Harrington. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Polybius. The Histories. Translated into English by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1962 (146 BC).

Randall, H.J. “Sir John Fortescue.” Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation 16 (1916): 248.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

Rostow, Eugene V. The Sovereign Prerogative: The Supreme Court and the Quest for Law. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962.

Sadler, John. Rights of the Kingdom, or Customs of our Ancestours. 1649.

Simpson, Peter L. Phillips. A Philosophical Commentary on the Politics of Aristotle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Skinner, Quentin. The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume 2: The Age of Reformation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Spencer, Herbert. Social Statics. London: John Chapman, 1851.

Sperling, Jutta. “The Paradox of Perfection: Reproducing the Body Politic in Late Renaissance Venice.” Contemporary Studies of Society & History 41 (1999): 3.

Sunstein, Cass R. One Case at a Time: Judicial Minimalism on the Supreme Court. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Thompson, C. Bradley. John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Tushnet, Mark V. Taking the Constitution Away from the Courts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

U.S. Constitution of 1787.

Vile, M.J.C. Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers. 2d ed. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998.

Walbank, F.W. “Introduction” to 1 Polybius, The Histories, translated into English by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, vii. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1962 (146 BC).

Weston, Corinne Comstock. English Constitutional Theory and the House of Lords, 1556–1832. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965.

Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

Zane, John Maxcy. The Story of Law. 2d. ed. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998.

2. Article III of the Constitution of the United States

Adams, John. “Thoughts on Government” (1776). In The Works of John Adams, vol. 4, edited by Charles Francis Adams, 193. Boston: Little, Brown, 1851.

Bennett, Walter Hartwell, ed. Letters from the Federal Farmer to the Republican. University: University of Alabama Press, 1977.

Berger, Raoul. Impeachment: The Constitutional Problems. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Bourguignon, Henry J. The First Federal Court: The Federal Appellate Prize Court of the American Revolution, 1775–1787. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1977.

Carpenter, William S. Judicial Tenure in the United States: with Especial Reference to the Tenure of Federal Judges. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1918.

(p.368) Corwin, Edward S. “The Progress of Constitutional Theory Between the Declaration of Independence and the Meeting of the Philadelphia Convention.” American Historical Review 30 (1925): 511.

Davis, J.C. Bancroft. The Committees of the Continental Congress chosen to hear and determine Appeals from Courts of Admiralty and the Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture established by that body. New York: Banks and Brothers, 1888.

Ellis, Richard E. The Jeffersonian Crisis: Courts and Politics in the Young Republic. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787. 3 Vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Gerhardt, Michael J. The Federal Impeachment Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis. 2d ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Geyh, Charles Gardner. An Independent Judiciary: Report of the Commission on Separation of Powers and Judicial Independence. 1997 (American Bar Association report).

_____. When Courts & Congress Collide: The Struggle for Control of America’s Judicial System. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.

Geyh, Charles Gardner, and Emily Field Van Tassel. “The Independence of the Judicial Branch in the New Republic.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 74 (1998): 31.

Haraszti, Zoltan. John Adams & the Prophets of Progress. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Hoffert, Ronald W. A Politics of Tensions: The Articles of Confederation and American Political Ideas. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992.

Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959.

Jensen, Merrill, John P. Kaminski and Gaspare J. Saladino, eds. The Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution. Vols. 3 and 10. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1976.

Ketcham, Ralph, ed. The Antifederalist Papers and the Constitutional Convention Debates. New York: Signet, 1986.

Madison, James. Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787. Edited by Adrienne Koch. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1966.

Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 304 (1816).

Noel, F. Regis. “Vestiges of a Supreme Court among the Colonies under the Articles of Confederation.” Records of the Columbia Historical Society 37–38 (1937): 123.

Pfander, James E. “Judicial Compensation and the Definition of Judicial Power in the Early Republic.” Michigan Law Review 107 (2008): 1.

_____. “Removing Federal Judges.” University of Chicago Law Review 74 (2007): 1227.

Prakash, Saikrishna, and Steven D. Smith. “How To Remove a Federal Judge.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2006): 72.

_____. “Reply: (Mis) Understanding Good-Behavior Tenure.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2006): 159.

Rakove, Jack N. The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Redish, Martin H. “Response: Good Behavior, Judicial Independence, and the Foundations of American Constitutionalism.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2006): 139.

Robinson, James Harvey. “The Original and Derived Features of the Constitution.” Annals of the American Academy of the Political & Social Sciences 1 (1890): 203.

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Smith, Joseph Henry. Appeals to the Privy Council from the American Plantations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.

(p.369) Surrency, Erwin C. History of the Federal Courts. New York: Oceana Publications, 1987.

Teiser, Sidney. “The Genesis of the Supreme Court.” Virginia Law Review 25 (1938–39): 398.

U.S. Articles of Confederation of 1777/1781.

U.S. Constitution of 1787.

Ziskind, Martha Andes. “Judicial Tenure in the American Constitution: English and American Precedents.” Supreme Court Review (1969): 135.

3. Virginia: Constitutionalizing Judicial Independence Prior to the U.S. Constitution

Andrews, Charles M. “List of the Commissions and Instructions Issued to the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of the American and West Indian Colonies from 1609 to 1784.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association 1 (1913): 395.

Barbour, Philip L. The Three Worlds of Captain John Smith. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964.

Barden, John R. “Legal History Resources for Colonial Virginia, 1607–1777.” In Prestatehood Legal Materials: A Fifty-State Research Guide, Including New York City and the District of Columbia, vol. 2, edited by Michael Chiorazzi and Marguerite Most, 1289. New York: Hawthorne Information Press, 2005.

Bemiss, Samuel M. The Three Charters of the Virginia Company of London: with Seven Related Documents, 1606–1621. Williamsburg: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957.

Billings, Warren M. “The Growth of Political Institutions in Virginia, 1634 to 1676.” William & Mary Quarterly 31 (1974): 225.

_____. A Little Parliament: The Virginia General Assembly in the Seventeenth Century. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2004.

_____. Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Boudin, Louis B. Government by Judiciary. 2 vols. New York: W. Goodwin, 1932.

Boyd, Julian P., ed. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 1760–1776. Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950.

Braxton, Carter. An Address to the Convention of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia on the Subject of Government in general, and recommending a particular Form to their Consideration. 1776.

Broadwater, Jeff. George Mason: Forgotten Founder. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Brock, R.A., ed. The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood. 3 vols. New York: AMS Press, 1973.

Carrington, Paul D. “The Revolutionary Idea of University Legal Education.” William & Mary Law Review 31 (1990): 527.

Charter of 1606.

Charter of 1609.

Charter of 1611/2.

Chitwood, Oliver Perry. Justice in Colonial Virginia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1905 (reprint 2001).

Chumbley, George Lewis. Colonial Justice in Virginia: The Development of a Judicial System, Typical Laws and Cases of the Period. Richmond: Dietz Press, 1938 (reprint 1997).

Commonwealth v. Caton, 4 Call (8 Va.) 5 (1782).

Craven, Wesley Frank. The Virginia Company of London, 1606–1624. Williamsburg: Virginia 350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation, 1957.

Crosskey, William Winslow. Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Curtis, George M. III. “A Communication.” William & Mary Quarterly 26 (1969): 636.

Dabney, Virginius. Virginia: The New Dominion. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1971.

(p.370) Elson, Henry William. History of the United States of America. New York: Macmillan, 1904.

Ford, Paul Leicester, ed. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. 10 vols. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1892–99.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “The Court, the Constitution, and the History of Ideas.” Vanderbilt Law Review 61 (2008): 1067.

_____. “Introduction.” In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall, edited by Scott Douglas Gerber, 1. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_____. “The Political Theory of an Independent Judiciary.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2007): 223 (pocket part).

_____. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

_____. “Unburied Treasure: Governor Thomas Burke and the Origins of Judicial Review.” Historically Speaking 8 (2007): 29.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Hening, William Waller, comp. The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature. 13 vols. Richmond: Samuel Pleasants, 1819–23 (reprint 1969).

Henry, William Wirt. Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence, and Speeches. 3 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1891.

Holt, Wythe. “George Wythe: Early Modern Judge.” Alabama Law Review 58 (2007): 1008.

Howard, A.E. Dick. Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia. 2 vols. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974.

_____. “‘For the Common Benefit’: Constitutional History in Virginia as a Casebook for the Modern Constitution-Maker.” Virginia Law Review 54 (1968): 816.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Kamper v. Hawkins, 3 Va. (1 Va. Cas.) 20 (1793).

Kingsbury, Susan Myra, ed. The Records of the Virginia Company of London. 4 vols. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1906–35.

Kramer, Larry D. The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).

Miller, F. Thornton. Juries and Judges Versus the Law: Virginia’s Provincial Legal Perspective, 1783–1828. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994.

Nelson, Margaret Virginia. “The Case of the Judges: Fact or Fiction?” Virginia Law Review 31 (1944): 243.

_____. A Study of Judicial Review in Virginia, 1789–1928. New York: Columbia University Press, 1947.

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Reese, George Henkle, ed. The Official Papers of Francis Fauquier, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 1758–1768. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1980.

_____, ed. Proceedings in the Court of Vice-Admiralty of Virginia, 1698–1775. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1983.

Rowland, Kate Mason. The Life of George Mason, 1725–1792. 2 vols. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1892.

(p.371) Rutland, Robert A. George Mason: Reluctant Statesman. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1961.

Selby, John E. “Richard Henry Lee, John Adams, and the Virginia Constitution of 1776.” Virginia Magazine of History & Biography 84 (1976): 394.

Tarter, Brent, ed. Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence. Vol. 7, Pt. 1. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia Press, 1983.

Treanor, William Michael. “The Case of the Prisoners and the Origins of Judicial Review.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 143 (1994): 491.

_____. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Trent, W.P. “The Case of Josiah Philips.” American Historical Review 1 (1896): 444.

Tucker, J. Randolph. “The Judges Tucker of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.” Virginia Law Register 1 (1896): 789.

Virginia Constitution of 1776.

Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776.

Virginia History Magazine 2 (1895): 393; Virginia History Magazine 3 (1896): 15; Virginia History Magazine 9 (1902): 37; Virginia History Magazine 11 (1904): 50; Virginia History Magazine 11 (1904): 54; Virginia History Magazine 11 (1905): 281.

Wertenbaker, Thomas J. The Government of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Clearfield Company, 1957.

4. Massachusetts: A “Safety-Valve” Theory of Judicial Independence

The Act of Surrender of the Great Charter of New England to His Majesty of 1635, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/mass04.asp.

Adams, John. The Works of John Adams. Edited by Charles F. Adams. 10 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1850–56.

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 1. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934.

_____. “List of the Commissions and Instructions Issued to the Governors and Lieutenant Governors of the American and West Indian Colonies from 1609 to 1784.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association 1 (1913): 395.

Bailyn, Bernard. The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1974.

Barnes, Viola Florence. The Dominion of New England: A Study in British Colonial Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1923.

Bilder, Mary Sarah. “Idea or Practice: A Brief Historiography of Judicial Review.” Journal of Policy History 20 (2008): 6.

Billias, George Athan Billias. American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776–1989: A Global Perspective. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Black, Barbara Aronstein. “The Concept of a Supreme Court: Massachusetts Bay, 1630–1686.” In The History of the Law in Massachusetts: The Supreme Judicial Court, 1692–1992, edited by Russell K. Osgood, 43. Boston: Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society, 1992.

_____. “The Judicial Power and the General Court in Early Massachusetts, 1634–1686.” Ph.D. diss., history, Yale University, 1975.

_____. “Massachusetts and the Judges: Judicial Independence in Perspective.” Law & History Review 3 (1985): 101.

Bradford, Alden. History of Massachusetts, From 1764, to July, 1775: When General Washington Took Command of the American Army. Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1822.

Bremer, Francis J. John Winthrop: America’s Forgotten Founding Father. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

(p.372) Brennan, Ellen E. “The Massachusetts Council of the Magistrates.” New England Quarterly 4 (1931): 54.

_____. Plural Office-Holding in Massachusetts, 1760–1780: Its Relation to the “Separation” of Departments of Government. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1945.

Charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1628/9.

Charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1691.

Charter of New England of 1620.

Charter of the Colony of New Plymouth Granted to William Bradford and His Associates in 1629, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/mass02.asp.

Commission of Sir Edmund Andros for the Dominion of New England of 1686 and 1688, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/mass06.asp.

Cushing, John D. “Introduction.” In Laws of the Pilgrims: The Book of the General Laws of Inhabitants of the Jurisdiction of New-Plimouth, 1672 & 1675, edited by John D. Cushing, vii. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1977.

_____, ed. Laws of the Pilgrims: The Book of the General Laws of Inhabitants of the Jurisdiction of New-Plimouth, 1672 & 1675. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1977.

Davis, William T. History of the Judiciary of Massachusetts. Boston: Boston Book Company, 1900 (reprint 2008).

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Concord Hymn.” 1837.

The Explanatory Charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1725.

Fennel, Christopher. “Plymouth Colony Legal Structure,” The Plymouth Colony Archive Project, http://www.histarch.uiuc.edu/plymouth/ccflaw.html.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “The Court, the Constitution, and the History of Ideas.” Vanderbilt Law Review 61 (2008): 1067.

_____. “Deconstructing William Cushing.” In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall, edited by Scott Douglas Gerber, 97. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_____. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Handlin, Oscar, and Mary Handlin. “Introduction.” In The Popular Sources of Political Authority: Documents on the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, edited by Oscar & Mary Handlin, 1. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966.

_____, ed. The Popular Sources of Political Authority: Documents on the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. Edited by Oscar & Mary Handlin. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1966.

Hartog, Hendrik. “The Public Law of a County Court: Judicial Government in Eighteenth-Century Massachusetts.” American Journal of Legal History 20 (1976): 282.

Haskins, George Lee. Law and Authority in Early Massachusetts: A Study in Tradition and Design. New York: Macmillan, 1960.

_____. “The Legal Heritage of Plymouth Colony.” In Essays in the History of Early American Law, edited by David F. Flaherty, 121. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

Hilkey, Charles J. Legal Development in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630–1686. New York: Columbia University Press, 1910 (reprint 1967).

Holden v. James, 11 Mass. 396, 405 (1814).

Howe, Mark DeWolfe, and Louis F. Eaton, Jr. “The Supreme Judicial Court in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay.” New England Quarterly 20 (1947): 291.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Jay, John. Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay. Edited by Henry P. Johnston. Vol. 3. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1890–93.

Konig, David Thomas. Law and Society in Puritan Massachusetts: Essex County, 1629–1692. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

(p.373) Labaree, Leonard Woods. Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930.

_____, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Levy, Leonard W. The Law of the Commonwealth and Chief Justice Shaw. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957.

Lustig, Mary Lou. The Imperial Executive in America: Sir Edmund Andros, 1637–1714. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002.

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).

Massachusetts Constitution of 1780.

Massachusetts Royal Commissions, 1681–1774. Vol. 2. Boston: The Society, 1913.

Mayflower Compact of 1620, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/mayflower.asp.

Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: From Colony to Province. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.

_____. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1939.

_____. Orthodoxy in Massachusetts, 1630–1650. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933.

Mountfort v. Hall, 1 Mass. 443 (1805).

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Otis, James. “Speech on the Writs of Assistance” (February 24, 1761). In The Works of John Adams, vol. 2, edited by Charles F. Adams, 521. Boston: Little, Brown, 1856.

Peters, Ronald M. Jr. The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780: A Social Compact. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 1. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Royal Colony of Massachusetts (1692–1774), http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=mg2subtopic&L=7&L0=Home&L1=State+Government&L2=About+Massachusetts&L3=Interactive+State+House&L4=History+Resources&L5=Governors+of+Massachusetts&L6=Royal+Colony+of+Massachusetts+(1692–1774)&sid=massgov2.

Russell, Peter E. His Majesty’s Judges: Provincial Society and the Superior Court in Massachusetts, 1692–1774. New York: Garland, 1990.

Smith, Joseph H., ed. Colonial Justice in Western Massachusetts, 1639–1702. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.

_____. “An Independent Judiciary: The Colonial Background.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 124 (1976): 1104.

Smith, M.H. The Writs of Assistance Case. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Soifer, Aviam. “The Supreme Court of Massachusetts and the 1780 Constitution.” In The History of the Law in Massachusetts: The Supreme Judicial Court, 1692–1992, edited by Russell K. Osgood, 207. Boston: Supreme Judicial Court Historical Society, 1992.

Sosin, J.M. English America and the Revolution of 1688: Royal Administration and the Structure of Provincial Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Taylor, Robert J. “Introduction.” In Massachusetts, Colony to Commonwealth: Documents on the Formation of its Constitution, 1775–1780, edited by Robert J. Taylor, ix. New York: W.W. Norton, 1961.

_____, ed. Massachusetts, Colony to Commonwealth: Documents on the Formation of its Constitution, 1775–1780. New York: W.W. Norton, 1961.

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Washburn, Emory. Sketches of the Judicial History of Massachusetts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1840.

William Bradford, & c. Surrender of the Patent of Plymouth Colony to the Freeman, March 2d, 1640, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/mass05.asp.

(p.374) Wolford, Thorp L. “The Law of Liberties of 1648.” In Essays in the History of Early American Law, edited by David F. Flaherty, 147. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

5. New Hampshire: Judicial Review in the Rockingham County Inferior Court

Adams, John. “Autobiography of John Adams.” In 3 Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, vol. 3, edited by L.H. Butterfield, 330. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961.

Andresen, Karen. “A Return to Legitimacy: New Hampshire’s Constitution of 1776.” Historical New Hampshire 32 (1976): 155.

Batchellor, Albert Stillman. The Government and Laws of New Hampshire Before the Establishment of the Province, 1623–1679. Manchester, NH: J.B. Clarke, 1904.

_____, ed. Laws of New Hampshire. 10 vols. Manchester, NH: J.B. Clarke, 1904–22.

Bouton, Nathaniel, ed. New Hampshire Provincial and State Papers. 10 vols. Concord, NH: G.E. Jenks, 1867–77.

Clinton, Robert N. “A Mandatory View of Federal Jurisdiction: A Guided Quest for the Original Understanding of Article III.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 132 (1984): 741.

Cushing, John, ed. Acts and Laws of New Hampshire, 1680–1726. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1978.

Daniell, Jere R. Colonial New Hampshire: A History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1981.

Dodd, W.F. “The Constitutional History of New Hampshire, 1775–92.” Proceedings of the Bar Association of the State of New Hampshire (1904–08): 379.

_____. “Gilman v. McClary: A New Hampshire Case of 1791.” American Historical Review 12 (1907): 348.

Douglas, Charles G. III. “Judicial Review and the Separation of Powers under the New Hampshire Constitutions of 1776 and 1784.” Historical New Hampshire 31 (1976): 176.

Downs, Deborah. “The New Hampshire Constitution of 1776: Weathervane of Conservatism.” Historical New Hampshire 31 (1976): 164.

Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639–1800 (access by subscription).

The First State Constitution of New Hampshire. Concord, NH: American Revolution Bicentennial Committee, 1977.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “The Myth of Marbury v. Madison and the Origins of Judicial Review.” In Marbury versus Madison: Documents and Commentary, edited by Mark A. Graber & Michael Perhac, 1. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002.

_____. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

_____, ed. Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

Grant of New Hampshire of 1629.

Grant of New Hampshire of 1635.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Jay, John. Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay. Edited by Henry P. Johnston. Vol. 3. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1890–93.

Kenison, Frank R. “The Judiciary Under the New Hampshire Constitution, 1776–1976.” In The First Constitution of New Hampshire, 12. Concord, NH: American Revolution Bicentennial Committee, 1977.

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

(p.375) Lambert, Richard M. “The ‘Ten Pound Act’ Cases and the Origins of Judicial Review in New Hampshire.” M.A. thesis, political science, University of New Hampshire, 1985.

_____. “The ‘Ten Pound Act’ Cases and the Origins of Judicial Review in New Hampshire.” New Hampshire Bar Journal 43 (2002): 37.

Lawrie, Timothy A. “Interpretation and Authority: Separation of Powers and the Judiciary’s Battle for Independence in New Hampshire, 1786–1818.” American Journal of Legal History 39 (1995): 310.

Levy, Leonard W. “Judicial Review, History, and Democracy: An Introduction.” In Judicial Review and the Supreme Court, edited by Leonard W. Levy, 10. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Marshall, Susan E. The New Hampshire Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.

Mayo, Lawrence Shaw. John Wentworth: Governor of New Hampshire, 1767–1775. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1921.

Merrill v. Sherburne, 1 N.H. 199 (1818).

New Hampshire Constitution of 1776.

New Hampshire Constitution of 1784.

Osgood, Herbert L. The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1924 (reprint 1958).

Page, Elwin L. Judicial Beginnings in New Hampshire, 1640–1700. Concord: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1959.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Reid, John Phillip. Legislating the Courts: Judicial Dependence in Early New Hampshire. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009.

_____. “The Arena of Giants: Rockingham County, New Hampshire.” American Bar Association Journal 46 (February 1960): 163.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

State Constitutional Conventions. Washington, DC: Congressional Information Service, 1979–89 (microform).

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Turner, Lynn Warren. The Ninth State: New Hampshire’s Formative Years. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983.

Upton, Richard F. “The Independence of the Judiciary in New Hampshire.” New Hampshire Bar Journal 1 (1959): 28.

_____. “Separation of Powers in New Hampshire.” Thesis, Harvard Law School, 1938.

U.S. Constitution of 1787.

Van Loan, Eugene M. III. “Ten Pound Acts: An Introduction to Original Research on the Origins of Judicial Review.” New Hampshire Bar Journal 43 (2002): 34.

Wilderson, Paul W. Governor John Wentworth & the American Revolution: The English Connection. Hanover: University of New Hampshire Press, 1994.

6. Maryland: Chancellor Theodorick Bland and Salaries That “ought to be secured”

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 2. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936.

Andrews, Matthew Page. The Founding of Maryland. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1933.

Barker, Charles A. The Background of the Revolution in Maryland. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940.

Bond, Carroll T. The Court of Appeals of Maryland, A History. Baltimore: Barton-Gillet Company, 1928.

(p.376) Bozman, John Leeds. The History of Maryland. Vol. 2. Baltimore: J. Lucas & E.K. Deaver, 1837.

Browne, William Hand, ed. Archives of Maryland, Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe. Vols. 2 and 3. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1895.

Brugger, Robert J. Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

Byrd, Elbert M. Jr. The Judicial Process in Maryland. College Park: University of Maryland, 1961.

Carr, Lois Green. “County Government in Maryland, 1689–1709.” Ph.D. diss., history, Harvard University, 1968.

The Chancellor’s Case, 1 Bland 595 1825.

Charter of Maryland of 1632.

Crowl, Philip A. Maryland During and After the Revolution: A Political and Economic Study. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1943.

Danson, Edwin. Drawing the Line: How Mason and Dixon Surveyed the Most Famous Border in America. New York: John Wiley, 2001.

Day, Alan F. A Social Study of Lawyers in Maryland, 1660–1775. New York: Garland, 1989.

The Decisive Blow is Struck: A Facsimile edition of The Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of 1776 and the First Maryland Constitution. Annapolis, MD: Hall of Records Commission, Department of General Services, 1977.

Ellefson, C. Ashley. The County Courts and the Provincial Court in Maryland, 1733–1763. New York: Garland, 1990.

Friedman, Dan. “The History, Development, and Interpretation of the Maryland Declaration of Rights.” Temple Law Review 70 (1997): 945.

_____. The Maryland State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Geiger, Marilyn L. The Administration of Justice in Colonial Maryland, 1632–1689. New York: Garland, 1987.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “The Myth of Marbury v. Madison and the Origins of Judicial Review.” In Marbury versus Madison: Documents and Commentary, edited by Mark A. Graber & Michael Perhac, 1. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002.

Gleissner, Richard Anthony. “The Establishment of Royal Government in Maryland: A Study of Crown Policy and Provincial Politics, 1680–1700.” Ph.D. diss., history, University of Maryland, 1968.

Hoffman, Ronald. A Spirit of Dissension: Economics, Politics, and the Revolution in Maryland. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Johnson, John. “Old Maryland Manors: With the Records of a Court Leet and a Court Baron.” In 1 Local Institutions, vol. 7, edited by Herbert B. Adams, 1. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1883.

Jordan, David W. Foundations of Representative Government in Maryland, 1632–1715. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Klingelhofer, Herbert E. “The Cautious Revolution: Maryland and the Movement Toward Independence, 1774–1776.” Maryland Historical Magazine 60 (1965): 261.

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Land, Aubrey C. Colonial Maryland: A History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1981.

Lapsley, Gaillard T. The County Palatine of Durham: A Study in Constitutional History. New York: Longmans, Green & Company, 1900.

Lewis, H.H. Walker. The Maryland Constitution, 1776. Baltimore: Lewis, 1976.

Maloy, William Milnes. “Bench and Bar.” In Baltimore: Its History and People, vol. 1, edited by Clayton Coleman Hall, 613. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1912.

(p.377) Martinez, Albert J. Jr. “The Palatinate Clause of the Maryland Charter, 1632–1776: From Independent Jurisdiction to Independence.” American Journal of Legal History 50 (2008–2010): 305.

Maryland Constitution of 1776.

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Osgood, Herbert L. The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1904.

_____. “The Proprietary Province as a Form of Government.” American Historical Review 2 (1897): 644.

Owen, David R., and Michael C. Tolley. Courts of Admiralty in Colonial America: The Maryland Experience, 1634–1776. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1995.

Petrosino, Victor Ralph. “By What Law: The Establishment of Criminal Jurisdiction in Colonial Maryland Under the First Proprietary.” M.A. thesis, history, The Ohio State University, 1971.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Rainbolt, John C. “A Note on the Maryland Declaration of Rights and the Constitution of 1776.” Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 420.

Rees, Charles A. “The First American Bill of Rights: Was it Maryland’s 1639 Act for the Liberties of the People?” University of Baltimore Law Review 31 (2001–2002): 41.

Risjord, Norman K. Chesapeake Politics, 1781–1800. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Silver, John Archer. “The Provisional Government of Maryland, 1774–1777.” In South Carolina, Maryland, and Virginia, edited by Herbert B. Adams, 477. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1895.

Skaggs, David Curtis. Roots of Maryland Democracy, 1753–1776. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1973.

Smith, Joseph H. “The Foundations of Law in Maryland: 1634–1715.” In Law & Authority in Colonial America, edited by George Athan Billias, 92. New York: Dover Publications, 1965 (reprint 1970).

Thom, DeCourcy W. “Three Foundational Services of Maryland to the American System of Government.” Maryland Historical Magazine 23 (1928): 1.

Tolley, Michael Carlton. State Constitutionalism in Maryland. New York: Garland, 1992.

Tomlinson, Edward A. “The Establishment of State Government in Maryland: The Constitution of 1776.” Maryland Bar Journal 9 (1976): 4.

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Whittington v. Polk, 1 Harris and Johnson 236 (Md. 1802).

7. Connecticut: Disestablishment and Judicial Independence

Andrews, Charles M. The Rise and Fall of the New Haven Colony. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936.

Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy, http://avalon.law.yale.edu.

Barnes, Viola Florence. The Dominion of New England: A Study in British Colonial Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1923.

Bates, Albert C. “Expedition of Sir Edmund Andros to Connecticut in 1687.” American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings 48 (1938): 276.

Besso, Michael. “A Study in Constitutional Development: The Effect of Political and Social Institutions on the Campaign for a Written Constitution in Connecticut.” Studies in American Political Development 17 (2003): 117.

Billias, George Athan. American Constitutionalism Heard Round the World, 1776–1989: A Global Perspective. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

(p.378) Calder, Isabel MacBeath. The New Haven Colony. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934.

Calder v. Bull, 3 U.S. (3 Dall.) 386 (1798).

Cary, Melbert B. The Connecticut Constitution. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1900.

Charter of Connecticut of 1662.

Cohn, Henry S. “Connecticut Constitutional History, 1636–1776,” http://www.cslib.org/cts4cc.htm.

Collier, Christopher. “William J. Hamersley, Simeon E. Baldwin, and the Constitutional Revolution of 1897 in Connecticut.” Connecticut Law Review 23 (1990): 31.

Colonial Connecticut Records, 1636–1776, http://www.colonialct.uconn.edu.

Commission of Sir Edmund Andros for the Dominion of New England of 1686 and 1688.

Connecticut Constitution of 1776.

Connecticut Constitution of 1818.

Connecticut Constitution of 1965.

Cushing, John D., ed. The Earliest Laws of the New Haven and Connecticut Colonies, 1639–1673. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1977.

Daniels, Bruce C. Book Review. William & Mary Quarterly 39 (1982): 700.

Fundamental Agreement of the Colony of New Haven of 1639.

Fundamental Orders of 1638/9.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Goodwin, Everett C. The Magistracy Rediscovered: Connecticut, 1636–1818. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1981.

Goshen v. Stonnington, 4 Conn. 209 (1822).

Government of New Haven Colony of 1643.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Hartog, Hendrik. Book Review. Journal of American History 69 (1982): 135.

Horton, Wesley W. “Connecticut Constitutional History, 1776–1988,” http://www.cslib.org/cts4ch.htm.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Jones, Mary Jeanne Anderson. Congregational Commonwealth: Connecticut, 1636–1662. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1968.

Lincoln, Charles Z. The Constitutional History of New York. Vol. 1. Rochester, NY: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Company, 1906.

Loomis, Dwight, and J. Gilbert Calhoun, eds. The Judicial and Civil History of Connecticut. Boston: Boston History Company, 1895.

Lovejoy, David S. The Glorious Revolution in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

Lucas, Paul R. Valley of Discord: Church and Society along the Connecticut River, 1636–1725. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1976.

Lung’s Case, 1 Conn. 428 1815.

Lyman, Dean B. Jr. “Notes on the New Haven Colonial Courts.” Connecticut Bar Journal 20 (1946): 178.

Maltbie, William M. “Judicial Administration in Connecticut Colony Before the Charter of 1662.” Connecticut Bar Journal 23 (1949): 147.

McGovney, Dudley Odell. “The British Origin of Judicial Review of Legislation.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 93 (1944): 1.

Miller, Perry. The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1939.

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Nelson, William E., and John Phillip Reid. The Literature of American Legal History. New York: Oceana Publications, 1985.

(p.379) Norwalk Street Railway Company’s Appeal, 69 Conn. 576, 37 A. 1080 (1897).

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 1. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Purcell, Richard J. Connecticut in Transition, 1775–1818. Washington, DC: American Historical Association, 1918.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

Santos, Hubert J. “The Birth of a Liberal State: Connecticut’s Fundamental Orders.” Connecticut Law Review 1 (1968): 386.

Starr v. Pease, 8 Conn. 541 (1831).

State v. Clemente, 166 Conn. 501, 353 A.2d 723 (1974).

Swift, Zephaniah. The System of Laws of Connecticut. 2 vols. Windham, CT: John Byrne, 1795.

Symsbury Case, 1 Kirby 444 (Conn. Sup. Ct. 1785).

Taylor, Robert J. Colonial Connecticut: A History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1979.

Thayer, James Bradley. “The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law.” Harvard Law Review 7 (1893): 129.

Welles, Edwin Stanley. The Origin of the Fundamental Orders, 1639. Hartford, CT: Private Printing, 1936.

Wheeler’s Appeal, 45 Conn. 306 (1877).

Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

_____. “The Origins of Judicial Review.” Suffolk University Law Review 22 (1988): 1293.

8. Rhode Island: Last Bastion of Legislative Supremacy

Achorn, Edward. “Why I’m Bullish on R.I. Politics.” Providence Journal. November 23, 2004. 2004 WLNR 15541157.

_____. “Your Vote Means Nothing to Murphy and Montalbano.” Providence Journal. December 21, 2004. 2004 WLNR 14651435.

Almond v. Rhode Island Lottery Commission, 756 A.2d 186 (R.I. 2000).

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 2. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1936.

Bartlett, John Russell, ed. Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in New England. 10 vols. Providence: A.C. Greene and Brothers, 1856–65.

Bilder, Mary Sarah. The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Bogus, Carl T. “The Battle for Separation of Powers in Rhode Island.” Administrative Law Review 56 (2004): 77.

Chafee, Zechariah Jr. “Records of the Rhode Island Court of Equity, 1741–1743.” Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts 35 (1951): 91.

Charter of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations of 1663.

Conley, Patrick T. Liberty and Justice: A History of Law and Lawyers in Rhode Island, 1636–1998. East Providence: Rhode Island Publications Society, 1998.

_____. Neither Separate Nor Equal: Legislature and Executive in Rhode Island Constitutional History. East Providence: Rhode Island Publications Society, 1998.

Conley, Patrick T., and Robert G. Flanders, Jr. The Rhode Island State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007.

Dennison, George M. The Dorr War: Republicanism on Trial, 1831–1861. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1976.

Durfee, Thomas. Gleanings from the Judicial History of Rhode Island. Providence: S.S. Rider, 1883.

Eaton, Amasa M. “The Development of the Judicial System in Rhode Island.” Yale Law Journal 14 (1905): 148.

(p.380) Farrell, John T. “The Early History of Rhode Island’s Court System.” Rhode Island History 9 (1950): 65; Rhode Island History 9 (1950): 103; Rhode Island History 10 (1951): 14.

Gerber, Scott D. “High Court Rules R.I. has British System.” Providence Journal. July 30, 2000. E8, cols. 3–5.

_____. “Whatever Happened to Question 6?” Providence Journal. January 22, 2001. A9, col. 1.

Gettleman, Marvin E. The Dorr Rebellion: A Study in American Radicalism, 1833–1849. New York: Random House, 1973.

Goldberg, Maureen McKenna. “Rhode Island’s Unique Constitutional History.” Albany Law Review 72 (2009): 601.

Graham, D. Kurt. “The Lower Courts in the Early Republic: Rhode Island, 1790–1812.” Ph.D. diss., history, Brown University, 2002.

Hazeltine, Harold D. “Appeals from Colonial Courts to the King in Council, with Especial Reference to Rhode Island.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association 18 (1895): 299.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

In re Advisory Opinion to the Governor, 732 A.2d 55 (R.I. 1999).

In re Opinion of the Justices, 3 R.I. 299 (1854).

James, Sydney V. Colonial Rhode Island: A History. New York: Scribner, 1975.

LaFantasie, Glenn W. “An Act for All Reasons—Revolutionary Politics and May 4, 1776.” Rhode Island History 35 (1976): 39.

Leitao, Kevin D. “Rhode Island’s Forgotten Bill of Rights.” Roger Williams University Law Review 1 (1996): 31.

Moakley, Maureen, and Elmer Cornwell. Rhode Island Politics and Government. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

Nelson, William E. The Common Law in Colonial America: Volume 1: The Chesapeake and New England, 1607–1660. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Patent for Providence Plantations of 1643/4.

Polishook, Irwin H. Rhode Island and the Union: 1774–1795. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1969.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

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Rhode Island State Constitution, http://www.rilin.state.ri.us/RiConstitution/.

Stiness, Edward C. “The Struggle for Judicial Supremacy.” In State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations at the End of the Century: A History, vol. 3, edited by Edward Field, 89. Boston: Mason Publishing Company, 1902.

Taylor v. Place, 4 R.I. 324 (1856).

Varnum, James Mitchell. The Case, Trevett Against Weeden. Providence: John Carter, 1787.

Weiner, Frederick Bernays. “Notes on the Rhode Island Admiralty, 1727–1790.” Harvard Law Review 46 (1932): 44.

Winson, Gail I. “Researching the Laws of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations: From Lively Experiment to Statehood.” In Prestatehood Legal Materials: A Fifty-State Research Guide, Including New York City and the District of Columbia, vol. 2, edited by Michael Chiorazzi and Marguerite Most, 1029. New York: Hawthorne Information Press, 2005.

9. North Carolina: Governor Thomas Burke and the Origins of Judicial Review

Adams, John. The Papers of John Adams. Edited by Robert J. Taylor & Gregg L. Lint. Vol. 4. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1979.

(p.381) _____. The Works of John Adams. Edited by Charles Francis Adams. Vol. 4. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1851.

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 3. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937.

Bassett, John Spencer. The Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina (1663–1729). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1894.

Bayard v. Singleton, 1 N.C. (Martin) 5 (1787).

Boyd, Julian P. “The County Court in Colonial North Carolina.” M.A. thesis, history, Duke University, 1926.

Charter to Sir Humphrey Gilbert of 1578.

Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh of 1584.

Charter to Sir Robert Heath of 1629.

Charter of Carolina of 1662/3.

Charter of Carolina of 1665.

Clark, Walter, ed. The State Records of North Carolina. 26 vols. Raleigh, NC: P.M. Hale, 1896–1907 (reprint 1993).

Concessions and Agreements of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina of 1665.

Cushing, John D., ed. The Earliest Printed Laws of North Carolina, 1669–1751. 2 vols. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1977.

A Declaration and Proposals of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina of 1663.

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina of 1668/9.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

_____. “Unburied Treasure: Governor Thomas Burke and the Origins of Judicial Review.” Historically Speaking 8 (2007): 29.

other" title="Hayburn’s Case, 2 U.S. (2 Dall.) 409 (1792)(circuit decision).

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Iredell, James. Life and Correspondence of James Iredell. Edited by Griffith J. McRee. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton, 1857–58.

Ketcham, Earle H. “The Sources of the North Carolina Constitution of 1776.” North Carolina Historical Review 6 (1929): 215.

Labaree, Leonard Woods. Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930.

_____, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Lefler, Hugh T., and William S. Powell. Colonial North Carolina: A History. New York: Scribner, 1973.

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Parker, Mattie Erma Edwards, ed. The Colonial Records of North Carolina. 11 vols. Raleigh, NC: Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission, 1963-.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

Saunders, William L., ed. The Colonial Records of North Carolina. 10 vols. Raleigh, NC: P.M. Hale, 1886–90.

State Library of North Carolina Encyclopedia, http://statelibrary.ncdcr.gov/nc/STGOVT/GOVERNOR.HTM.

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

(p.382) United States v. Yale Todd (1794), as reported in United States v. Ferreira, 54 U.S. (13 How.) 40 (1851) (full court decision).

Whichard, Willis P. “James Iredell: Revolutionist, Constitutionalist, Jurist.” In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall, edited by Scott Douglas Gerber, 198. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_____. Justice James Iredell. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.

10. South Carolina: Judicial Review Without an Independent Judiciary

Bowman v. Middleton, 1 S.C.L. (1 Bay) 252 (1792).

Canady, Hoyt P. Gentlemen of the Bar: Lawyers in Colonial South Carolina. New York: Garland, 1987.

Commissions to the Royal Governors of South Carolina, Colonial Office of the British Public Records Office (microform).

Cook, Robert. “Judicial Review and Legislative Power.” In South Carolina Legal History, edited by Herbert A. Johnson, 81. Spartanburg: Southern Studies Program, University of South Carolina, 1980.

Cushing, John D., ed. The Earliest Printed Laws of South Carolina, 1692–1734. Wilmington, DE: M. Glazier, 1978.

Douglass, John E. “Judiciary Without Jurisdiction: South Carolina’s Experiment With a County and Precinct Court System, 1720–1730.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 90 (1989): 237.

Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639–1800 (access by subscription).

Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina of 1668/9.

Graham, Cole Blease Jr. The South Carolina State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007.

Green, Fletcher M. Constitutional Development in the South Atlantic States, 1776–1860: A Study in the Evolution of Democracy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1930 (reprint 1966).

Greene, Jack P. The Quest for Power: The Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies, 1689–1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.

Ham v. M’Claws, 1 S.C.L. (1 Bay) 93 (1789).

Hogue, L. Lynn. “Nicholas Trott: Man of Law and Letters.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 76 (1975): 25.

Katz, Stanley N. “The Politics of Law in Colonial America: Controversies Over Chancery Courts and Equity Law in the Eighteenth Century.” Perspectives in American History 5 (1971): 257.

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

McGovney, Dudley Odell. “The British Origin of Judicial Review of Legislation.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 93 (1944): 1.

Nevins, Allan. The American States During and After the Revolution, 1775–1789. New York: Macmillan, 1924 (reprint 1969).

Osgood, Herbert L. The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century. Vol. 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1924 (reprint 1958).

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Salley, A.S. Jr., ed. Commissions and Instructions from the Lords Proprietors of Carolina to Public Officials of South Carolina, 1685–1715. Columbia: Historical Commission of South Carolina, 1916.

Sirmans, M. Eugene. Colonial South Carolina: A Political History, 1663–1763. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

(p.383) South Carolina Constitution of 1776.

South Carolina Constitution of 1778.

South Carolina Constitution of 1790.

Smith, W. Roy. South Carolina as a Royal Province, 1719–1776. New York: Macmillan, 1903.

Taylor, Robert Boles. “The South Carolina Judiciary, 1669–1769.” Ph.D. diss., history, University of Georgia, 1978.

Thomas v. Daniel, 2 McCord (S.C.) 360 (1823).

Underwood, James Lowell. The Constitution of South Carolina: Volume I: The Relationship of the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1986.

Wallace, David Duncan. The History of South Carolina. 4 vols. New York: American Historical Society, 1934.

Weir, Robert M. Colonial South Carolina: A History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1983.

_____. “A Most Important Epocha”: The Coming of the Revolution in South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970.

Zylstra v. The Corporation of Charleston, 1 S.C.L. (1 Bay) 382 (1794).

11. New Jersey: The First State Court Precedent for Judicial Review

Adams, John. “Autobiography of John Adams.” In 3 Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, vol. 3, edited by L.H. Butterfield, 330. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961.

Allen, Cameron. A Guide to New Jersey Legal Bibliography and Legal History. Littleton, CO: F.B. Rothman & Company, 1984.

Applegate, John Stilwell. Early Courts and Lawyers of Monmouth County: A Discourse Read Before the Monmouth Bar Association. NJ: Monmouth County Bar Association, 1911.

Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.

Bebout, John F. The Making of the New Jersey Constitution. Trenton, NJ: McCrellish and Quigley, 1945.

Bonomi, Patricia U. The Lord Cornbury Scandal: The Politics of Reputation in British America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Boudin, Louis B. “Precedents for the Judicial Power: Holmes v. Walton and Brattle v. Hinckley.” St. John’s Law Review 3 (1929): 173.

Boyd, Julian P., ed. Fundamental Laws and Constitutions of New Jersey, 1664–1964. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1964.

Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society: The Papers of Lewis Morris, Governor of the Province of New Jersey, 1738–1746. Vol. 4. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Historical Society, 1852 (reprint 1970).

Commonwealth v. Caton, 4 Call (8 Va.) 5 (1782).

Concessions and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of New-Jersey of 1664/5.

Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Freeholders, and Inhabitants of the Province of West New-Jersey of 1676/7.

Constitution of New Jersey of 1776.

Constitution of New Jersey of 1844.

Constitution of New Jersey of 1947.

Crosskey, William Winslow. Politics and the Constitution in the History of the United States. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953.

Declaration of the True Intent and Meaning of the Concessions and Agreement of 1672.

Erdman, Charles R. Jr. The New Jersey Constitution of 1776. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1929.

Evans, William W. “Constitutional Court Reform in New Jersey.” University of Newark Law Review 7 (1941): 1.

(p.384) Fee, Walter R. The Transition from Aristocracy to Democracy in New Jersey, 1789–1829. Somerville, NJ: Somerset Press, 1933.

Field, Richard S. The Provincial Courts of New Jersey, with Sketches of the Bench and Bar. New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1878.

Fundamental Agreements of the Governor, Proprietors, Freeholders, and Inhabitants of the Province of West New-Jersey of 1681.

Fundamental Constitutions for the Province of East New-Jersey of 1683.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Gerlach, Larry R. Prologue to Independence: New Jersey in the Coming of the American Revolution. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1976.

Grant of 1680.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Harrison, Joseph, and John E. Bebout. “The Working of the New Jersey Constitution.” William & Mary Law Review 10 (1968): 337.

Hughes, Richard J. “Foreword” to Robert F. Williams, The New Jersey State Constitution: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Katz, Stanley N. “The Politics of Law in Colonial America: Controversies Over Chancery Courts and Equity Law in the Eighteenth Century.” Perspectives in American History 5 (1971): 257.

Keasbey, Edward Quinton. The Courts and Lawyers of New Jersey, 1661–1912. Vol. 1. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1912.

Kemmerer, Donald L. Path to Freedom: The Struggle for Self-Government in Colonial New Jersey, 1703–1776. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940 (reprint 1968).

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Lundin, Leonard. Cockpit of the Revolution: The War for Independence in New Jersey. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940.

Mulcahy, Kevin M. “Comment: How New Jersey Built the Most Progressive State Supreme Court and What California Can Learn.” Santa Clara Law Review 40 (2000): 863.

Nadelhaft, Jerome J. “Politics and the Judicial Tenure Fight in Colonial New Jersey.” William & Mary Quarterly 28 (1971): 46.

New Jersey Constitution Convention Proceedings of 1947, http://bergen.njstatelib.org/plweb-cgi/fastweb.exe?TemplateName=views.tmpl.

Pollock, Justice Stewart G. “Foreword: Celebrating Fifty Years of Judicial Reform Under the 1947 New Jersey Constitution.” Rutgers Law Journal 29 (1998): 675.

Pomfret, John E. Colonial New Jersey: A History. New York: Scribner, 1973.

_____. “The Problem of the West Jersey Concessions of 1676/7.” William & Mary Quarterly 5 (1948): 95.

_____. The Province of East New Jersey, 1609–1702. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.

_____. The Province of West New Jersey, 1609–1702. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.

Presser, Stephen B. “An Introduction to the Legal History of Colonial New Jersey.” Rutgers-Camden Law Journal 7 (1976): 262.

Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Ricord, Frederick William, and William Nelson, eds. Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey. Vols. 9 and 10. Trenton: New Jersey Historical Society, 1883.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

Scott, Austin. “Holmes v. Walton: The New Jersey Precedent.” American Historical Review 4 (1899): 456.

(p.385) State v. Parkhurst, 4 Halsted 427 (N.J. 1804).

Swindler, William F., ed. Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. Vol. 6. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1973.

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Vanderbilt, Arthur T. Famous Firsts in Jersey Jurisprudence: An Acknowledgment of Indebtedness. Newark: The Inaugural Lecture of the Harvard Law School Association of New Jersey Annual Lecture Series, 1956.

Wefing, John B. “The New Jersey Supreme Court, 1948–1998: Fifty Years of Independence and Activism.” Rutgers Law Journal 29 (1998): 701.

Whitehead, John. The Judicial and Civil History of New Jersey. Boston: Boston History Company, 1897.

Williams, Robert F. The New Jersey State Constitution: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

12. New York: Persistent Threats to Judicial Independence

Adams, Willi Paul. The First American Constitutions: Republican Ideology and the Making of the State Constitutions in the Revolutionary Era. Translated into English by Rita & Robert Kimber. Expanded ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 3. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937.

Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy, http://avalon.law.yale.edu.

Bonomi, Patricia U. A Factious People: Politics and Society in Colonial New York. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971.

Budd, Martin L. “The Legal System of 1691.” In Courts and Law in Early New York: Selected Essays, edited by Leo Hershkowitz & Milton M. Klein, 7. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1978.

Carney, Thomas E., and Susan Kolb. “The Legacy of Forsey v. Cunningham: Safeguarding the Integrity of the Right to Trial by Jury.” The Historian 69 (2007): 663.

Charter of the Dutch West India Company of 1621.

Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions of 1629.

Charter of Liberties and Privileges of 1683, http://www.montauk.com/history/seeds/charter.htm.

Charter of Liberties and Privileges of 1691.

Chester, Alden. Courts and Lawyers of New York: A History, 1609–1925. 3 vols. New York: American Historical Society, 1925.

Countryman, Edward. “Legislative Government in Revolutionary New York, 1777–1788.” Ph.D. diss., history, Cornell University, 1971.

Emery, Robert A. “New York Prestatehood Legal Research Materials.” In Prestatehood Legal Materials: A Fifty-State Research Guide, Including New York City and the District of Columbia, vol. 2, edited by Michael Chiorazzi and Marguerite Most, 795. New York: Hawthorne Information Press, 2005.

Galie, Peter J. The New York State Constitution: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

_____. Ordered Liberty: A Constitutional History of New York. New York: Fordham University Press, 1996.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. “The Myth of Marbury v. Madison and the Origins of Judicial Review.” In Marbury versus Madison: Documents and Commentary, edited by Mark A. Graber & Michael Perhac, 1. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2002.

Goebel, Julius Jr. “The Courts and the Law in Colonial New York.” In History of the State of New York, vol. 3, edited by Alexander C. Flick, 3. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933.

Grant of the Province of Maine of 1663/4.

Grant of the Province of Maine of 1674.

(p.386) Hamilton, Alexander. The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton: Documents and Commentary. Edited by Julius Goebel, Jr.. Vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.

Hulsebosch, Daniel J. Constituting Empire: New York and the Transformation of Constitutionalism in the Atlantic World, 1664–1830. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History. New York: Scribner, 1975.

Katz, Stanley Nider. Newcastle’s New York: Anglo-American Politics, 1732–1753. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968.

_____. “The Politics of Law in Colonial America: Controversies Over Chancery Courts and Equity Law in the Eighteenth Century.” Perspectives in American History 5 (1971): 257.

Klein, Milton M. The Politics of Diversity: Essays in the History of Colonial New York. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1974.

Labaree, Leonard Woods. Royal Government in America: A Study of the British Colonial System before 1783. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1930.

_____, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. Edited by Leonard Woods Labaree. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Lincoln, Charles Z. The Constitutional History of New York. Vol. 1. Rochester, NY: Lawyers Cooperative Publishing Company, 1906.

Mason, Bernard. “New York State’s First Constitution.” In New York and the Union, edited by Stephen L. Schechter & Richard B. Bernstein, 167. Albany: New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1990.

_____. The Road to Independence: The Revolutionary Movement in New York, 1773–1777. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1966.

Moglen, Eben. “Considering Zenger: Partisan Politics and the Legal Profession in Provincial New York,” http://emoglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/zenger.html#s*.

Morris, Richard B. “John Jay and the New York State Constitution and Courts after Two Hundred Years.” In New York and the Union, edited by Stephen L. Schechter & Richard B. Bernstein, 161. Albany: New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1990.

_____. “The New York City’s Mayor’s Court.” In Courts and Law in Early New York: Selected Essays, edited by Leo Hershkowitz & Milton M. Klein, 19. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1978.

Nevins, Allan. The American States During and After the Revolution, 1775–1789. New York: Macmillan, 1924 (reprint 1969).

Polf, William A. “1777: The Political Revolution and New York’s First Constitution.” In New York and the Union, edited by Stephen L. Schechter & Richard B. Bernstein, 114. Albany: New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1990.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Rakove, Jack N. Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Rossiter, Clinton, ed. The Federalist. New York: New American Library, 1961.

Smith, Joseph H. “Adolph Philipse and the Chancery Resolves of 1727.” In Courts and Law in Early New York: Selected Essays, edited by Leo Hershkowitz & Milton M. Klein, 30. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1978.

Smith, Joseph H., and Leo Herhkowitz. “Courts of Equity in the Province of New York: The Cosby Controversy, 1732–1736.” American Journal of Legal History 16 (1972): 1.

Sullivan, James. The History of New York State, http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/his/bk1/ch3/pt7.html.

(p.387) Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Wachtler, Sol, and Stephen L. Schechter. “‘Liberty and Property’: New York and the Origins of American Constitutionalism.” In New York and the Union, edited by Stephen L. Schechter & Richard B. Bernstein, 3. Albany: New York State Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, 1990.

13. Pennsylvania: (Almost) Adopting the Federal Model

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 3. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937.

Arnold, Douglas M. A Republican Revolution: Ideology and Politics in Pennsylvania, 1776–1790. New York: Garland, 1989.

Bailyn, Bernard, ed. Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 1750–1776. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965.

Braxton, Carter. An Address to the Convention of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia on the Subject of Government in general, and recommending a particular Form to their Consideration. 1776.

Brigham, Clarence S., ed. British Royal Proclamations Relating to America, 1603–1783. New York: Burt Franklin, 1911 (reprint 1964).

Calvert, Jane E. Quaker Constitutionalism and the Political Thought of John Dickinson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Charter of Privileges for Pennsylvania of 1701.

Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania of 1681.

Coleman, John M. “Thomas McKean and the Origin of an Independent Judiciary.” Pennsylvania History 34 (1967): 111.

Commonwealth v. John Franklin, 4 Dallas 255 (Pa. 1802).

Concessions to the Province of Pennsylvania of 1681.

The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as Established by the General Convention … To Which is Added a Report of Committee Appointed to Enquire … As Adopted by the Council of Censors. Philadelphia: Francis Bailey, 1784.

Demophilus. The Genuine Principles of the Ancient Saxon, or English Constitution. 1776.

Donehoo, George P. Pennsylvania: A History. 7 vols. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1926.

Eastman, Frank M. Courts and Lawyers of Pennsylvania: A History. 3 vols. New York: American Historical Society, 1922.

Flower, Milton E. John Dickinson: Conservative Revolutionary. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983.

Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

“Four Letters on Interesting Subjects (1776).” In The Founders’ Constitution, vol. 1, edited by Philip B. Kurland & Ralph Lerner, 637. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Frame of Government of Pennsylvania of 1682.

Frame of Government of Pennsylvania of 1683.

Frame of Government of Pennsylvania of 1696.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Writings of Benjamin Franklin. Edited by Albert Henry Smyth. 10 vols. New York: Haskell House, 1970.

Gerber, Scott Douglas. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

Graydon, Alexander. Memoirs of His Own Time: With Reminiscences of the Men and Events of the Revolution. Edited by John Stockton Little. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1846.

(p.388) Hall, Mark David. “James Wilson: Democratic Theorist and Supreme Court Justice.” In Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall, edited by Scott Douglas Gerber, 126. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_____. The Political and Legal Philosophy of James Wilson, 1742–1798. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.

Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Harding, Samuel B. “Party Struggles Over the First Pennsylvania Constitution.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association 18 (1895): 176.

Henderson, Elizabeth K. “The Attack on the Judiciary in Pennsylvania, 1800–1810.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History & Biography 61 (1937): 113.

Hunt, Agnes. The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution. Cleveland, OH: Press of Winn & Judson, 1904.

Illick, Joseph E. Colonial Pennsylvania: A History. New York: Scribner, 1976.

Isaac Austin v. The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, 1 Yeates 260 (Pa. 1793).

Katz, Stanley N. “The Politics of Law in Colonial America: Controversies Over Chancery Courts and Equity Law in the Eighteenth Century.” Perspectives in American History 5 (1971): 257.

Konkle, Burton Alva. George Bryan and the Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1731–1791. Philadephia: W. J. Campbell, 1922.

Labaree, Leonard Woods, ed. Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670–1776. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1935 (reprint 1967).

Lewis, Lawrence Jr. “The Courts of Pennsylvania in the Seventeenth Century.” Report of the First Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Bar Association 1 (1895): 353.

Lokken, Roy N. David Lloyd: Colonial Lawmaker. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1959.

Loyd, William H. The Early Courts of Pennsylvania. Boston: Boston Book Company, 1910 (reprint 1986).

Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).

McDonald, Forrest, ed. Empire and Nation. 2d ed. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1999.

Minutes of the Grand Committee of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which Commenced at Philadelphia, On Tuesday, the twenty-fourth Day of November, in the Year of Our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty-Nine, for the Purpose of Reviewing, and if They See Occasion, Altering and Amending, the Constitution of This State. Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson, 1790.

Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, From the Organization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government. 10 vols. Harrisburg, PA: The State, 1851–52.

Nelson, Craig. Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations. New York: Viking, 2006.

Nelson, William E. “Government by Judiciary: The Growth of the Judicial Power in Colonial Pennsylvania.” Southern Methodist University Law Review 59 (2006): 3.

Paine, Thomas. Common Sense (1776), http://ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/sense2.htm.

Patrick, John J., ed. Founding the Republic: A Documentary History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Pennypacker, Samuel W. Pennsylvania Colonial Cases: The Administration of Law in Pennsylvania prior to A.D. 1700 as shown in the cases decided and in court proceedings. Philadelphia: R. Welsh, 1892.

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Pennsylvania Constitution of 1790.

Poore, Benjamin Perley. The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States. Vol. 2. 2d ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1878.

Powell, John H. “John Dickinson as President of Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania History 28 (1961): 254.

Presser, Stephen B., and Jamail S. Zainaldin. Law and Jurisprudence in American History: Cases and Materials. 5th ed. St. Paul, MN: West, 2004.

(p.389) Ray, William Stanley, ed. The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania from 1682 – 1801. Vol. 5. Harrisburg: C.M. Busch, 1898.

Respublica v. Phillip Urbin Duquet, 2 Yeates 493 (Pa. 1799).

Rowe, G.S. Embattled Bench: The Pennsylvania Supreme Court and the Forging of a Democratic Society, 1684–1809. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1994.

Schwartz, Bernard. The Bill of Rights: A Documentary History. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971.

Selsam, J. Paul. “A History of Judicial Tenure in Pennsylvania.” Dickinson Law Review 38 (1934): 168.

_____. The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776: A Study in Revolutionary Democracy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1936 (reprint 1971).

Shankman, Andrew. “Malcontents and Tertium Quids: The Battle to Define Democracy in Jeffersonian Philadelphia.” Journal of the Early Republic 19 (1999): 43.

Sharpless, Isaac. Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1900.

Surrency, Erwin C. “The Development of the Appellate Function: The Pennsylvania Experience.” American Journal of Legal History 20 (1976): 173.

Thayer, James Bradley. “The Origin and Scope of the American Doctrine of Constitutional Law.” Harvard Law Review 7 (1893): 129.

Treanor, William Michael. “Judicial Review Before Marbury.” Stanford Law Review 58 (2005): 455.

Wood, Gordon S. The Americanization of Benjamin Franklin. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

14. Delaware: A High Court of Errors and Appeals

Bushman, Claudia L., Harold B. Hancock, and Elizabeth Moyne Momsey, eds. Proceedings of the House of Assembly of the State of Delaware, 1781–1792 and of the Constitutional Convention of 1792. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1988.

Calvert, Jane E. Quaker Constitutionalism and the Political Thought of John Dickinson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Charter of Delaware of 1701.

Danson, Edwin. Drawing the Line: How Mason and Dixon Surveyed the Most Famous Border in America. New York: John Wiley, 2001.

Delaware Constitution of 1776.

Delaware Constitution of 1792.

Delaware Constitution of 1897.

Delaware Declaration of Rights of 1776, http://www.lonang.com/exlibris/organic/1776-ddr.htm.

deValinger, Leon Jr., ed. Court Records of Kent County, Delaware, 1680–1705. Washington, DC: American Historical Association, 1959.

_____. “The Development of Local Government in Delaware, 1638–1682.” M.A. thesis, history and political science, University of Delaware, 1935.

Early Delaware Laws (unnamed microform collection).

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15. Georgia: Ineffective and Dependent Judges

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16. Conclusion

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Appendix. Popular Constitutionalism—The Contemporary Assault on Judicial Review

44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island, 517 U.S. 484 (1996).

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, 515 U.S. 200 (1995).

Alexander, Larry, and Lawrence B. Solum. “Popular? Constitutionalism?” Harvard Law Review 118 (2005): 1594 (book review).

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_____. “Why We Have Judicial Review.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2007): 215 (pocket part).

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_____. “The Cycles of Constitutional Theory.” Law & Contemporary Problems 67 (2004): 149.

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_____. First Principles: The Jurisprudence of Clarence Thomas. Expanded ed. New York: New York University Press, 2002.

_____. The Ivory Tower: A Novel. New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2002.

_____. The Law Clerk: A Novel. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2007.

_____. “Michigan’s Controversial Proposition 2, Eliminating Affirmative Action in the State: A Good Example of Popular Constitutionalism?” Findlaw.com. November 16, 2006, http://writ.news.findlaw.com/commentary/20061116_gerber.html.

_____. “The Political Theory of an Independent Judiciary.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2007): 223 (pocket part).

_____. To Secure These Rights: The Declaration of Independence and Constitutional Interpretation. New York: New York University Press, 1995.

_____, ed. Seriatim: The Supreme Court Before John Marshall. New York: New York University Press, 1998.

_____. “The Supreme Court, Part I: The Least Dangerous Branch.” Journal of American History 93 (2006): 971 (movie review).

_____. “Whatever Happened to the Declaration of Independence? A Commentary on the Republican Revisionism in the Political Thought of the American Revolution.” Polity 26 (1993): 207.

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Gerhardt, Michael J., and Larry D. Kramer. “Protect Our Rights, Keep the Filibuster.” Pittsburgh Tribune Review. May 1, 2005, http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_329413.html.

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Hamburger, Philip. Law and Judicial Duty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

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Kramer, Larry D. “Foreword: We the Court.” Harvard Law Review 115 (2001): 4.

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_____. The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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_____. “The Courts’ Perilous Right Turn.” New York Times. June 2, 1999. p. A25 (op-ed).

_____. “Foreword: Leaving Things Undecided.” Harvard Law Review 110 (1996): 6.

_____. “Liberty After Lawrence.” Ohio State Law Journal 65 (2004): 1059.

_____. One Case at a Time: Judicial Minimalism on the Supreme Court. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

_____. Radicals in Robes: Why Extreme Right-Wing Courts are Wrong for America. New York: Basic Books, 2005.

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“A Symposium on The People Themselves: Popular Constitutionalism and Judicial Review.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 81 (2006): 809 (symposium).

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Treanor, William Michael. “Original Understanding and the Whether, Why, and How of Judicial Review.” Yale Law Journal 116 (2007): 218 (pocket part).

Tribe, Laurence H. Letter to the Editor, “Kramer vs. Tribe.” New York Times. November 21, 2004. Sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 6.

_____. “The People’s Court.” New York Times. October 24, 2004. Sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 32.

Tushnet, Mark V. “Clarence Thomas: The Constitutional Problems.” George Washington Law Review 63 (1995): 466 (book review).

_____. A Court Divided: The Rehnquist Court and the Future of Constitutional Law. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005.

_____. “Foreword: The New Constitutional Order and the Chastening of Constitutional Aspiration.” Harvard Law Review 113 (1999): 29.

_____. “Is Judicial Review Good for the Left?” Dissent (Winter 1998): 65.

_____. Making Constitutional Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court, 1961–1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

_____. “A Marxist Analysis of American Law.” Marxist Perspectives 1 (1978): 96.

_____. Posting of Mark Tushnet, mtushnet@law.harvard.edu, to conlawprof@lists.ucla.edu (November 29, 2006).

_____. Taking the Constitution Away from the Courts. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

_____. “Thayer’s Target: Judicial Review or Democracy?” Northwestern University Law Review 88 (1993): 9.

Tushnet, Mark V., and Timothy Lynch. “The Project of Harvard ‘Forewords’: A Social and Intellectual History.” Constitutional Commentary 11 (1994): 463.

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United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144 (1938).

United States v. Dickerson, 166 F.3d 667 (4th Cir. 1999), rev’d, 530 U.S. 428 (2000).

United States v. Wilson, 133 F.3d 251 (4th Cir. 1997).

U.S. Constitution of 1787.

U.S. Declaration of Independence of 1776.