The Evolution of French Medicine
This chapter traces the history of France's medical political economy. Today's medical political economy emerged from very different earlier arrangements: medieval guilds, church charity, and corporatism, that is, organized bodies that represent different economic sectors and perform social welfare functions. Class position, charity, markets, and organized groups determined access to medical care and practice arrangements, but revolutionary social change created a system that guarantees universal coverage and empowers physicians as organized professionals. That history illuminates contemporary physicians' conflicts of interest and responses to them.
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