Abella, V. M. de. 1874. Vade-mecum Filipino, ó, Manual de la conversación familiar español-tagalog: Sequido de un curioso Vocabulario de modismos Manileños, 12th ed. Manila: C. Miralles.
Abueva, José. 1999. Filipino Nationalism: Various Meanings, Constant and Changing Goals, Continuing Relevance. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. 1967. Filipino Naitonalism, 1872–1970. Quezon City:R.P Garcia Publishing.
Ahlquist, Karen, ed. 2006. Chorus and Community. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Albano-Imperial, Guia. 1998. “Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula: Heart of a Dancer.” In The National Artists of the Philippines. Manila: Anvil. pp. 337–346.
Alejandro, Reynaldo. 1978. Philippine Dances. N.p.: Vera-Reyes.
Alzona, Encarnación. 1953. Rizal's Legacy to the Filipino Woman. Pasay City: N.p.
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, rev. ed. London and New York: Verso.
—— . 1998. The Spectre of Comparisons. London and New York: Verso.
Andres, Tomas. 2002. Understanding the Values of the Metro-Manilans/Tagalogs. Quezon City: Giraffe Books.
Angos, Leonilo. 1996. Interview with author. Los Angeles: February 18.
Angulo, Lourdes, ed. 1986. We Were There. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City.
APO Hiking Society Official Website. Available: http://www.apohikingsociety.org. [May 11, 2008].
Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
(p.216) Aquino, Francisca Reyes. 1996. Philippine Folk Dances, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Manila: n.p.
Arillo, Cecilio T. 1986. Breakaway: The Inside Story of the Four-Day Revolution in the Philippines, February 22–25, 1986. Manila: CTA & Associates.
—— . 2000. Greed & Betrayal: The Sequel to the 1986 EDSA Revolution. Quezon City: Charles Morgan Printing & Equipment.
Arnold, Denis, and Emma Wakelin. “Madrigal.” In The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/subscriber/article/opr/t114/e4142. [July 26, 2008].
Atabug, Sonia. 1978. “The Big Cultural Boom.” Philippine Panorama January 22: 19–20.
Averill, Gage. 2006. “‘Mezanmi, Kouman Nou Ye? My Friends, How Are You?’ Musical Constructions of the Haitian Transnation.” In Ethnomusicology: A Contemporary Reader, edited by Jennifer Post. New York and London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 261–273.
Ayala, Jaime Zobel de. 1969. “The Aims of the Cultural Center and Its Relevance to Our Society.” Republic Weekly 1(9): 21.
Azurin, Arnold Molina. 1995. Reinventing the Filipino Sense of Being & Becoming. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
Bakan, Michael. 1998. “Walking Warriors: Battles of Culture and Ideology in the Balinese Gamelan Beleganjur World.” Ethnomusicology 42(3): 441–481.
Bakhle, Janaki. 2005. Two Men and Music: Nationalism in the Making of an Indian Classical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bañas, Raymundo. 1975. Pilipino Music and Theater. Quezon City: Manlapaz.
Barrios, Maria Josephine. 2008. Interview with author. Ann Arbor, MI: January 18.
Barz, Gregory. 2006. “We Are from Different Ethnic Groups, but We Live Here as One Family”: The Musical Performance of Community in a Tanzanian Kwaya.” In Chorus and Community, edited by Karen Ahlquist. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Bauzon, Leslie E. 1985. “Angara's Toughminded Leadership: The Diamond Jubilee Highlighted by Reform of the University System.” In University of the Philippines: The First 75 Years (1908–1983), edited by Oscar M. Alfonso. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. pp. 541–589.
Bayanihan [film]. 1962. Directed by Allegra Fuller Snyder. New York City.
Bayanihan Souvenir Program. 1964 World Tour.
Béhague, Gerard. 2006. “Indianism in Latin American Art-Music Compositions of the 1920s to 1940s: Case Studies from Mexico, Peru, and Brazil.” Latin American Music Review 27(1): 28–37.
(p.217) Belgica, Evelyn Banzuela. 1966. “Music and the Pilipino.” Musical Journal of the Philippines 1(1): 38–40.
Benitez, Conrado. 1987. “That Night in Brussels.” In The Bayanihan Experience. Manila: Bayanihan Folk Arts Center. pp. 10–11.
Benitez, Helena Z. 1987. “A Continuing Mission for All.” In The Bayanihan Experience. Manila: Bayanihan Folk Arts Center. pp. 6–7.
Bernad, Miguel A. 1998. “Defining the Filipino.” In Philippine Graphic Centennial Yearbook. Manila: Weekly Graphic Magazine Publishing. pp. 104–109.
Bilbao, Cesar C. 1986. “I Was Ready to Be Teargassed.” In We Were There, edited by Lourdes Angulo. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City. pp. 123–126.
Bonís, Ferenc. 1983. “Zoltán Kodály, a Hungarian Master of Neoclassicism.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, T. 25, Fasc. 1/4: 73–91.
Bonner, Raymond. 1987. Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. New York: Times Books.
Boyce, James K. 1993. The Political Economy of Growth and Impoverishment in the Marcos Era. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Bresnahan, Roger J. 1981. In Time of Hesitation: American Anti-imperialists and the Philippine-American War. Quezon City: New Day.
Brillantes, Gregorio C. 1998. “The Lost War to Save the First Republic.” In Philippine Graphic Centennial Yearbook. Manila: Weekly Graphic Magazine Publishing. pp. 92–103.
Cadar, Usopay. 1970. “The Bayanihan: How Authentic Is Its Repertoire?” Solidarity 5(12): 45–51.
—— . 1975. “The Role of Kulintang in Maranao Society.” Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology. II(2): 49–62.
Cainglet, Enrique Cantel. 1981. “Hispanic Influences on the West Visayan Folk Song Tradition of the Philippines, 2 Volumes.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Adelaide.
Canave-Dioquino, Corazon. 1998. “The Lowland Christian Philippines.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 4: Southeast Asia. New York and London: Garland. pp. 839–867.
Carunungan, Celso. 1969. “Mrs. Marcos' P50 Million Gift to the President and the People.” Weekly Nation 5(5): 2–4.
Castro, Christi-Anne. 2001/2002. “Dularawan: Composing the Filipino Nation.” Pacific Review of Ethnomusicology 10(1): 52–61.
—— . 2001. “Music, Politics, and the Nation at the Cultural Center of the Philippines.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.
Cavan, Emilia. 1924. Filipino Folk Songs. Manila: Mission Press.
(p.218) Chatterjee, Partha. 1998. “Beyond the Nation? Or Within?” Social Text 56: 57–69.
—— . 1999. “Anderson's Utopia.” Diacritics 29(24): 128–134.
Coloma, Roland Sintos. 2005. “Disidentifying Nationalism: Camilo Osias and Filipino Education in the Early 20th Century.” In Revolution and Pedagogy: Interdisciplinary and Transnational Perspectives on Educational Foundation, edited by E. Thomas Ewing. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 19–38.
Constantino, Renato. 1964, 1997. Julio Nakpil and the Philippine Revolution. Manila: Academic Publishing.
—— . 1975. A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War. New York: Monthly Review Press.
—— . 1982. The Miseducation of the Filipino. Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies.
Coria, Joanquin de. 1872. Nueva Gramática Tagalog Teórica-Práctica. Madrid: J. Antonio García.
Corpuz, O. D. 1989. Roots of the Filipino Nation. Quezon City: AKLAHI Foundation.
Cortes, Rosario Mendoza, Celestina Puyal Boncan, and Ricardo T. José.[A] 2000. The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change. Quezon City: New Day.
Coseteng, Alice. 1965. “Interview with Imelda Marcos.” Graphic Magazine. September.
Covar, Prospero. 1998. Larangan: Seminal Essays on Philippine Culture. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.
Cruz, Romeo V. 1989. “Nationalism in 19th Century Manila.” In Manila: History, People and Culture. Manila: De La Salle University Press. pp. 57–70.
Cullather, Nick. 1993. “America's Boy? Magsaysay and the Illusion of Influence.” The Pacific Historical Review 62(3): 305–338.
Cullinane, Michael. 1989. “Ilustrado Politics: The Response of the Filipino Educated Elite to American Colonial Rule, 1898–1907.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Michigan.
Cushman, Gregory T. 2005. “¿De qué color es el oro? Race, Environment, and the History of Cuban National Music, 1898–1958.” Latin American Music Review 26(2): 164–187.
Dadap, Jerry A. 1986. “A Tale of Two Musicians.” Business Day September 1: 25.
Dadap, Michael. 2000. Interview with author. April 15.
Daughtry, J. Martin. 2003. “Russia's New Anthem and the Negotiation of National Identity.” Ethnomusicology 47(1): 42–67.
Davila, Arlene M. 1997. Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
(p.219) Davis, Fred. 1979. Yearning for Yesterday: A Sociology of Nostalgia. New York: Free Press.
Degirmenci, Koray. 2006. “On the Pursuit of a Nation: The Construction of Folk and Folk Music in the Founding Decades of the Turkish Republic.” International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 37(1): 47–65.
Delmendo, Sharon. 2004. The Star-Entangled Banner: One Hundred Years of America in the Philippines. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Demetrio, Francisco. 1978. Myths and Symbols: Philippines. Manila: Navotas Press.
Dolan, Ronald. 1993. Philippines: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress.
Doronila, Amando. 1997. “President Macapagal's Many Wars.” Philippine Daily Inquirer April 28: 9.
Doronila, Amando. 1992. The State, Economic Transformation, and Political Change in the Philippines, 1946–1972. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Dube, Saurabh, and Ishita Banerjee-Dube, eds. 2006. Unbecoming Modern: Colonialism, Modernity, Colonial Modernities. Delhi: Berghahn Books.
Ebron, Paula. 2002. Performing Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ellison, Katherine. 1988. Imelda: Steel Butterfly of the Philippines. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Enriquez, Elizabeth L. 2003. Radyo: An Essay on Philippine Radio. Manila: CCP, NCCA.
Enriquez, Virgilio. 1984. Neo-colonial Politics and Language Struggle in the Philippines: National Consciousness and Language in Philippine Psychology (1971–1983). Quezon City: Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino.
Epistola, Ernesto V. 1996. Nicanor Abelardo: The Man and the Artist, A Biography. Manila: Rex Book Store.
Escalante, Salvador, and J. Augustus Y. de la Paz. 2000. The EDSA Uprising: The Five-Percent Revolution; EDSA in Retrospect; A Deconstruction. Quezon City: Truth and Justice Foundation.
Evasco, Marjorie. 2001. A Life Shaped by Music: Andrea Ofilada Veneracion and the Philippine Madrigal Singers. Makati City: Bookmark.
Finin, Gerard A. 2005. The Making of the Igorot: Contours of Cordillera Consciousness. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University.
Florentino-Hofileña, Chay. 1998. News for Sale: The Corruption of the Philippine Media. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.
Frishkopf, Michael. 2008. “Nationalism, Nationalization, and the Egyptian Music Industry.” Asian Music 39(2): 28–58.
(p.220) Gaerlan, Barbara. 1998. “The Politics and Pedagogy of Language Use at the University of the Philippines: The History of English as the Medium of Instruction and the Challenge Mounted by Filipino.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.
—— . 1999. “In the Court of the Sultan: Orientalism, Nationalism, and Modernity in Philippine and Filipino American Dance.” Journal of Asian American Studies 2(3): 251–287.
García-Canclini, Néstor. 1995. Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
Geertz, Clifford, ed. 1963. Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa. New York: Free Press.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Giddens, Anthony. 1985. A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, Vol. 2: The Nation-State and Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Gilroy, Paul 1993. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-Consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Greenberg, Clement. 1971. “Necessity of ‘Formalism.’” New Literary History 3(1): 171–175.
Guzman, Leticia Perez de. 1987. “The Bayanihan Story.” In Bayanihan, edited by José Lardizabal et al. Manila: Bayanihan Folk Arts Center. pp. 78–94.
Hagedorn, Katherine. 2001. Divine Utterances: The Performance of Afro-Cuban Santeria. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Hall, Stuart. 1997. “Old and New Identities, Old and New Ethnicities.” In Culture, Globalization and the World System: Contemporary Conditions for the Representation of Identity, edited by Anthony King. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 41–68.
Hamilton-Paterson, James. 1998. America's Boy: A Century of Colonialism in the Philippines. New York: Henry Hold.
Hemley, Robin. 2003. Invented Eden: The Elusive, Disputed History of the Tasaday. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Hernandez, Edith L. 1969. “Mir-i-nisa: Distinctly Filipino.” Manila Times December 1: 21A.
Hila, Antonio. 1992. Musika: An Essay on Philippine Ethnic Music. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.
—— . 1998. “Lucio San Pedro: The Creative Nationalist.” In The National Artists of the Philippines. Manila: Anvil. pp. 307–318.
—— . 2004. Music in History, History in Music. Manila: University of Santo Tomas.
Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, eds. 1983, 1992. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(p.221) Hosillos, Lucila. 1970. “Cultural Nationalism and World Traditions.” Diliman Review 18(4): 306–317.
Hutchinson, John. 1987. The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism. London: Allen and Unwin.
Ileto, Reynaldo. 1997. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840–1910. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
—— . 2005. “Philippine Wars and the Politics of Memory.” Positions 13(1): 215–234.
Isleta, Pat D. 1986. “I Won't Be Home Tonight.” In We Were There, edited by Lourdes Angulo. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City. pp. 51–63.
Jameson, Fredric. 1991. Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Japitana, Norma L. 1982. The Superstars of Pop. Manila: Makati Trade Times.
Jenkins, Shirley. 1954. American Economic Policy Toward the Philippines. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Joaquin, Nick. 1996. One Woman's Liberating: The Life and Career of Estefania Aldaba-Lim. Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil.
—— . 2001. “Culture as History & Culture and History: The Filipino's Becoming.” In Philippine Cultural and Artistic Landmarks of the Past Millennium (Proceedings of). Manila: NCCA. pp. 125–168.
Johnson, Bryan. 1987. The Four Days of Courage: The Untold Story of the People Who Brought Marcos Down. New York: Free Press.
Jose, Regalado. 2007. Correspondence with author. August 22.
—— .2008. Correspondence with author. March 11.
Kahn, Joel. 1998. “Southeast Asian Identities: Introduction.” In Southeast Asian Identities, edited by Joel Kahn. London: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 1–27.
Kalanduyan, Danongan. 1996. “Magindanaon Kulintang Music: Instruments, Repertoire, Performance Contexts, and Social Functions.” Asian Music 27(2): 3–18.
Kalayaan: Sandaang Taong Pag-Gunita (Various Artists). 1998. Dypro Record DYP-316-2.
Karnow, Stanley. 1989. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House.
Kasilag, Lucrecia. 1967. “Asian Music in Education.” Music Educators Journal 53(9): 71–73.
—— . 1977. “Music in a New Era.” In Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation, edited by Alfredo Roces. Manila: Lahing Pilipino. pp. 2583–2589.
—— . 1998. Interview with author. Manila: September 2.
(p.222) —— . 2009. “Philippines: Spanish Period, 1521–1896.” Grove Music Online. November 30, 2009. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/48467.
Kerkvliet, Benedict J., and Resil B. Mojares. 1991. From Marcos to Aquino: Local Perspectives on Political Transition in the Philippines. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Kong, Lily. 1995. “Music and Cultural Politics: Ideology and Resistance in Singapore.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20(4): 447–459.
Kramer, Paul. 2006. The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lanot, Marra Pl. 1969. “A Center for Whom?” Daily Mirror November 18: 20.
Lardizabal, Amparo. 1976. “Our Customs, Beliefs, and Superstitions.” In Readings on Philippine Culture and Social Life. Manila: Rex Book Store. pp. 104–123
Lardizabal, Amparo, and Felicitas Tensuan-Leogardo, eds. 1976. Readings on Philippine Culture and Social Life. Manila: Rex Book Store.
Laurel, José, Jr. (1956), 1974. “The Resurgence of Philippine Nationalism.” In Filipino Nationalism: 1872–1970, edited by Teodoro A. Agoncillo. Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., pp. 312–320.
Leon, Anna Leah de. 1986. “The CCP Secrets.” Manila Times March 24: 13.
Leon, Felipe de. 1966, 1976. “Culture: A Solution to Our Problems.” In Readings on Philippine Culture and Social Life, edited by Amparo Lardizabal and Felicitas Tensuan-Leogardo. Manila: Rex Book Store. pp. 254–259.
Leon, Felipe de, Jr. 1990. “The Filipino's Image in the ‘Kundiman.’” Malaya. June 28: 15–16.
Lico, Gerard. 2003. Edifice Complex: Power, Myth, and Marcos State Architecture. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Lim, Fides. 2006. “Jim Paredes: ‘We Should Awaken Memory.’ In 20 Filipinos 20 Years After People Power: Special EDSA 20th Anniversary Issue. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism.
Lipsitz, George. 1994. Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Focus of Place. London, New York: Verso.
Long Live the Philippines! Mabuhay ang Pilipinas! (Various Artists). 1998. Ivory Records IRC-K-7073.
Lopez, Salvador. 1968. “Maria Clara—Paragon or Caricature?” In Rizal: Contrary Essays, edited by Petronilo Daroy and Dolores Feria. Quezon City: Guro Books. pp. 81–84.
Lopez, Zenaida. 2006. Correspondence with author. September 20.
(p.223) Lumbera, Bienvenido. 1980, 1996. “The Nationalist Literary Tradition.” In Nationalist Literature: A Centennial Forum, edited by Elmer Ordoñez. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press and the Philippine Writers' Academy. pp. 1–16.
Maceda, José. 1963. “The Music of the Magindanao in the Philippines.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.
—— . 1992. “Acculturation and Internationalization: The Philippine Situation.” In World Music-Musics of the World, edited by Max Peter Baumann. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Versa.
—— . 1998a. “Upland Peoples of the Philippines.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 4, Southeast Asia. New York: Garland. pp. 913–928.
—— . 1998b. Gongs and Bamboo: A Panorama of Philippine Musical Instruments. Quezon City: University of Philippines Press.
Maceda, José, et al. “Philippines.” Grove Music Online.[B] Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/48467. [ July 30, 2009].
Maceda, José, Lucrecia Kasilag, et al. 1980. “Philippines.” In the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, pp. 631–652.
Maceda, Teresita. 1998. “The Singing Huks.” Kasaysayan: The Story of the Filipino People, Volume 8, edited by José Y. Dalisay. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest. pp. 132–133.
Majul, Cesar Adib. 1988. “The Moro Struggle in the Philippines.” Third World Quarterly, Islam & Politics 10(2): 897–922.
Mananquil, Millet Martinez. 1979. “Lucresia R. Kasilag: Come to the CCP—Whether in Your Oldest T-Shirt or Finest Jewelry—But Please Come.” Expressweek August 2: 16–17.
Manuel, Arsenio. 1997. Francisco Santiago: Composer, Pianist, Virtuoso. Quezon City: Valerio.
Manuel, Peter. 1987. “Marxism, Nationalism and Popular Music in Revolutionary Cuba.” Popular Music 6(2): 161–178.
—— . 2009. The Horse-Head Fiddle and the Cosmopolitan Reimagination of Tradition in Mongolia. New York and London: Routledge.
Martin, Dalmacio, ed. 1980. A Century of Education in the Philippines, 1861–1961. Manila: Philippine Historical Association.
Mascarinas, Leo. 2007. Correspondence with author. August 18.
—— . 2008. Correspondence with author. February 28, March 2, March 8.
May, Glenn A. 1983. “Why the United States Won the Philippine-American War, 1899–1902.” Pacific Historical Review 52(4): 353–377.
McGuire, Charles Edward. 2006. “Music and Morality: John Curwen's Tonic Sol-fa, the Temperance Movement, and the Oratorios of Edward (p.224) Elgar.” In Chorus and Community, edited by Karen Ahlquist. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 111–138.
Melencio, Cherie. 1986. “I Forgot All about My Groceries.” In We Were There, edited by Lourdes Angulo. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City. pp. 49-50.
Mga Awit Sa Bagong Lipunan. 1974. Manila: ERA4.
Miller, Stuart Creighton. 1982. “Benevolent Assimilation”: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899–1903. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Mirano, Elena Rivera 1992. Musika: An Essay on the Spanish Influence on Philippine Music. Manila: Sentrong Pangkultura ng Pilipinas.
—— . 2008. Correspondence with author. September 6.
—— . 2009. The Life and Works of Marcelo Adonay, Volume 1. Quezon City: University of Philippines Press.
Molina, Antonio. 1977. “The Sentiments of … Kundiman.” In Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation. Manila: Lahing Pilipino. pp. 2026–2029.
Montañez, Kris. 1988. The New Mass Art and Literature. Quezon City: Kalikasan Press.
Muego, Benjamin N. “The Philippine Student Movement of the 1970's and the ‘New Society.’” Paper presented at the Midwest Conference on Asian Affairs, November 1, 1974, at the University of Kansas.
Mulder, Niels. 1997. Inside Philippine Society: Interpretations of Everyday Life. Quezon City: New Day.
Mundo, Clodualdo del, Jr. 2003. Telebisyon: An Essay on Philippine Television. Manila: CCP, NCCA.
“Music Promotion Foundation of the Philippines: Its Birth and Evolution.” 1966. Music of Asia: Program for the Symposium of the National Music Council of the Philippines.
Nakpil, Carmen Guerrero. 1968. “Maria Clara.” In Rizal: Contrary Essays, edited by Petronilo Daroy and Dolores Feria. Quezon City: Guro Books. pp. 85–90.
—— . 1997. “Kundiman and Intermezzo.” Malaya March 21: 5.
Nance, John. 1975. The Gentle Tasaday: A Stone Age People in the Philippine Rain Forest. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Nettl, Paul. 1952. National Anthems. New York: Storm Publishers.
Noble, Lela Garner. 1973. “The National Interest and the National Image: Philippine Policy in Asia.” Asian Survey 13(6): 560–576.
Obusan, Ramón. 2000. Interview with author. Parañaque: March 14.
Ocampo, Ambeth. 1998. The Centennial Countdown. Pasig City: Anvil.
—— . 2005. “Looking Back: The Right Way to Sing the National Anthem.” Philippine Daily Inquirer May 25: A15.
(p.225) Osborne, Milton. 1997. Southeast Asia: An Introductory History, 7th ed. N.p.: Allen & Unwin.
Osit, Jorge. 1984. Felipe de Leon: A Filipino Nationalist and His Music. N.p.: Author.
Paauw, Douglas S. 1963. “Economic Progress in Southeast Asia.” The Journal of Asian Studies 23(1): 69–92.
Pájaro, Eliseo. 1957. “Nationalism and Folk Music.” Comment 2nd quarter: 34–35.
—— . 1966. “Nationalism in Music.” Musical Journal of the Philippines 1(2): 7–11.
—— . 1976. The Filipino Composer and His Role in the New Society. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
Pajaron, Ding. 2000. Interview with author. New York: May 25.
Paredes, Jim. 2007. Correspondence with author. July 13, July 20.
Pedelty, Mark. 2004. Musical Ritual in Mexico City. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Pelaez-Marfori, Berry. 1986. “In the Cultural Scene, 1986 Was a Year of Upheaval and Homecomings.” Manila Chronicle December 30: N.p.
Pfeiffer, William. 1976. Filipino Music: Indigenious [sic], Folk, Modern. Dumaguete City, Philippines: Silliman Music Foundation
Philippine Madrigal Singers. 1998. Bayan Ko, Aawitan Kita (My Country, I Will Sing to You): A Centennial Celebration. BMG Records (Pilipinas). MRCD 133.
Philippine Music Festival, Program Notes. 1974. “The League of Filipino Composers.”
Pickett, Terry. 1996. Inventing Nations: Justifications of Authority in the Modern World. Westport and London: Greenwood Press.
Program for the Inauguration of the Cultural Center of the Philippines. 1969.
Quiambao, Jacob S. 1976. “The Filipino Family and Society.” In Readings on Philippine Culture and Social Life, edited by Amparo Lardizabal and Felicitas Tensuan-Leogardo. Manila: Rex Book Store. pp. 82–103.
Quibuyen, Floro C. 1999. A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony, and Philippine Nationalism. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Quirino, José A. 1956. “How Our Flag Flew Again.” Philippines Free Press, June 9. Available: http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ph-reint.html. [October 12, 2008].
R.C. 1966. “Often Mispronounced Names of Foreign Musicians.” Musical Journal of the Philippines 1(1): 40.
Rafael, Vicente. 1990a. “Nationalism, Imagery, and the Filipino Intelligentsia in the Nineteenth Century.” Critical Inquiry 16(3): 591–611.
(p.226) —— . 1990b. “Patronage and Pornography: Ideology and Spectatorship in the Early Marcos Years.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(2): 282–304.
—— . 1993. Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
—— . 2000. White Love and Other Events in Filipino History. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Rances, Teresa. 2000. Interview with author. Manila: February 29.
Regev, Motti, and Edwin Seroussi. 2004. Popular Music and National Culture in Israel. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.
Rengger, N. J. 1995. Political Theory, Modernity and Postmodernity: Beyond Enlightenment and Critique. Oxford: Blackwell.
Retana, Wenceslao. 1888. El Indio Batangueño: (estudio etnográfico), 3rd ed. Manila: Tipo-Litografia de Chofre y Cia.
Rivera, Juan. 1978. The Father of the First Brown Race Civil Code. Quezon City: UP Law Center.
Rizal, José. 1887. Noli Me Tangere. Berlin: Setzerinnenschule des Lette-Vereins.
Roa, Malou C. 1986. “God Was Not Sleeping After All.” In We Were There, edited by Lourdes Angulo. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City. pp. 29–32.
Romulo, Carlos P. 1943. Mother America: A Living Story of Democracy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Rosaldo, Renato. 1989, 1993. Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis. Boston: Beacon Press.
Rouland, Michael. 2005. “Creating a Cultural Nation: Aleksandr Zataevich in Kazakhstan.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 25(3): 533–553.
Rubio, Hilarion. 1941. “Native Music.” Philippine Collegian March 25: 61.
Salanga, Alfredo Navarro. 1986. “The New CCP.” Manila Times July 18: 14.
Salazar, José S. 1969. “‘Not Where It's At’: Cultural Center is Anti-revolutionary Instrument of Establishment and Therefore Not Truly Cultural, Says Author.” Philippines Free Press November 15: 14.
Samson, Helen F. 1976. Contemporary Filipino Composers: Biographical Interviews. Quezon City: Manlapaz.
Santiago, Francisco. 1928. “Why I Composed the Music for ‘Philippines My Philippines.’” Philippine Collegian November 30: 21.
—— . 1957. The Development of Music in the Philippine Islands. Quezon City: University of the Philippines.
(p.227) Santiago-Felipe, Vilma R. 1969. “Symphony Concert 1: Revealing and Encouraging Outgrowths.” Daily Mirror October 24: N.p.
—— . 1977. “Pulse of the Music Makers.” In Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation, edited by Alfredo R. Roces. Manila: Lahing Pilipino. pp. 2499–2505.
—— . 1998. “Lucrecia R. Kasilag: A Gem of a Person, a Jewel of an Artist.” In The National Artists of the Philippines, edited by Nestor Jardin et al. Pasig City: Anvil. pp. 209–218.
Santos, Bienvenido. 1967. The Day the Dancers Came: Selected Prose Works. Manila: Bookmark.
Santos, Isabel A. 2004. Bayanihan—The National Folk Dance Company of the Philippines: A Memory of Six Continents. Manila: Anvil.
Santos, Ramón. 1991. “The Philippines.” In New Music in the Orient: Essays on Composition in Asia since World War II, edited by Harrison Ryker. The Netherlands: Fritz Knuf.
—— . 1998. “Art Music of the Philippines in the Twentieth Century.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 4: Southeast Asia. New York and London: Garland. pp. 868–882.
—— . 1999. “Traditional Expressive Cultures in Modern Society: An Issue of Survival in Change.” In 1998 Philippine International Dance Conference: Dance in Revolution, Revolution in Dance, edited by Basilio Esteban Villaruz and Leonila Bondoy. Manila: CCP, NCCA. pp. 113–118.
—— . 2001. “Constructing a National Identity through Music.” Bulawan: Journal of Philippines Arts and Culture 2: 20–31.
—— . 2002. “Revivalism and Modernism in Asian Music.” Bulawan: Journal of Philippines Arts and Culture 7: 34–61.
—— . 2005. “José Montserrat Maceda: Rebellion, Non-conformity, and Alternatives.” In Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. pp. 125–178.
Schumacher, John. 1981. Revolutionary Clergy: The Filipino Clergy and the Nationalist Movement, 1850–1903. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Scott, James. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Scott, William Henry. 1985. Cracks in the Parchment Curtain. Quezon City: New Day.
—— . 1994. Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Seagrave, Sterling. 1988. The Marcos Dynasty. New York: Harper & Row.
Shafer, Boyd. 1982. Nationalism and Internationalism: Belonging. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger.
(p.228) Shay, Anthony. 1999a. “Choreographic Politics: The State Folk Ensemble, Representation, and Power.” In 1998 Philippine International Dance Conference: Dance in Revolution, Revolution in Dance, edited by Basilio Esteban S. Villaruz and Leonila Bondoy. Manila: CCP, NCCA. pp. 28–45.
—— . 1999b. “Parallel Traditions: State Folk Dance Ensembles and Folk Dance in ‘the Field.’” Dance Research Journal 31(1): 29–56.
Shrine of Mary, Queen of Peace (Our Lady of EDSA) website. Available: http://www.edsashrine.com/v2/aboutus.php. [May 12, 2008].
Smith, Anthony. 1998. Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Nations and Nationalism. London: Routledge.
“Songs in the Key of Politics.” 2004. Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Available: http://www.pcij.org/imag/2004Elections/Campaign/songs2.hmtl. [November 11, 2008].
Starner, Frances. 1963. “The Philippines: Politics of the ‘New Era.’ ” Asian Survey 3(1): 41–47.
Stone, Christopher. 2008. Popular Culture and Nationalism in Lebanon: The Fairouz and Rahbani Nation. London and New York: Routledge.
“Suits against Center, 4 Gov't Firms Dropped.” 1969. Manila Chronicle December 9: 13.
Tadiar, Neferti X. M. 2002. “Himala (Miracle): The Heretical Potential of Nora Aunor's Star Power.” Signs 27(3): 703–741.
Tariman, Pablo. 1992. “PPO Program Foreign-Oriented: Filipino Works in the Dark.” Malaya February 9: 9.
Tarling, Nicholas, ed. 1992, 1999. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, Volume Two, Part Two: From World War II to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taruskin, Richard. “Nationalism.” Grove Music Online. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.umich.edu/subscriber/article/grove/music/50846. [October 1, 2008].
Tiongson, Nicanor G. 1992. Dulaan: An Essay on the Spanish Influence on Philippine Theater. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines Special Publications Office.
Tokita, Alison McAueen and David Hugues, eds. 2008. The Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music. Hampshire, England: Ashgate.
Torre, Visitacion de la. 1984. The Cultural Center of the Philippines: Crystal Years. Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines.
—— . 1985. Lucrecia R. Kasilag: An Artist for the World. N.p.: Vera-Reyes.
Trimillos, Ricardo. 1999. “Gender in Dance Performance: Constructions and Paradigms from the Asia-Pacific Region.” In 1998 Philippine International Dance Conference: Dance in Revolution, Revolution in Dance, (p.229) edited by Basilio Esteban Villaruz and Leonila Bondoy. Manila: CCP, NCCA. pp. 145–154.
Tuohy, Sue. 2001. “The Sonic Dimensions of Nationalism in Modern China: Musical Representation and Transformation.” Ethnomusicology 45(1): 107–131.
Turino, Thomas. 2000. Nationalists, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Urlanda, Randy V. 1998. “Come Dance, at the Ball of the Century.” In Kalayaan: Philippine Centennial Issue. Manila: Manila Bulletin. pp. 77–79.
Urtula, Lucrecia. 1987. “Keeping in Step with Yesterday: The Choreography.” In Bayanihan, edited by José Lardizabal et al. Manila: Bayanihan Folk Arts Center. pp. 117–129.
Veneracion, Andrea. 2000. Interview with author. Quezon City: April 4.
Viana, Augusto V. de. 2006. The I Stories: The Events in the Philippine Revolution and the Filipino-American War as Told by Its Eyewitnesses and Participants. España, Manila: University of Santo Tomas.
Villa, Maricor de. 1984. “The Cultural Center: A Grand Folly or a Home for the Arts.” Philippine Panorama 13(36): 32–37.
Villa, Rodrigo L. 1967, 1976. “Filipino Identity in Folk Dances.” In Readings on Philippine Culture and Social Life, edited by Amparo Lardizabal and Felicitas Tensuan-Leogardo. Manila: Rex Book Store. pp. 163–168.
Villaluz, Dina F. 1986. “The Tanks Stopped on the Fourth Hymn.” In We Were There, edited by Lourdes Angulo. Manila: Staff Members of Asian Development Bank, Pasay City. pp. 97–98.
Villanueva, Paz. 2007 Correspondence with author. August 4.
Wendt, Reinhard. 1998. “Philippine Fiesta and Colonial Culture,” Philippine Studies 46(1): 3–23.
Wurfel, David. 1988. Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Yano, Christine. 2003. Tears of Longing: Nostalgia and the Nation in Japanese Popular Song. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center.
Yusah, Patricia. 2000. Personal correspondence with author, August 16.
—— . 2006. Interview with author. Lexington, MA: August 6.
Zaide, Sonia. 1999. The Philippines: A Unique Nation, 2nd ed. Quezon City: All-Nations. (p.230)