Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Freedom to Be Racist?$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Erik Bleich

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199739684

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739684.001.0001

Subscriber Login

Forgotten your password?

Punishing Racial Discrimination and Hate Crimes

Chapter:
(p.106) 6 Punishing Racial Discrimination and Hate Crimes
Source:
The Freedom to Be Racist?
Author(s):

Erik Bleich

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199739684.003.0006

It is tempting to assume that liberal democracies have always targeted racial discrimination and hate crimes for specific punishment. But meaningful laws only materialized starting in the 1960s and 1980s respectively. This chapter focuses first on the development of American anti-discrimination laws in the 1960s and hate crime laws in the 1980s and 1990s. Looking closely at this history shows how the country most committed to freedom in some domains was the quickest to forego it in others, and just how extensive its laws against racist opinion-as-motive have become. It then turns to developments in Europe. Many European governments have followed in the United States’ footsteps by establishing laws against racial discrimination and hate crimes, although seldom with similar vigor. Looking in depth at the United States, Britain, and Germany demonstrates the origins, spread, and limits of penalizing racist opinion-as-motive in liberal democracies. Ultimately, this chapter also reveals the internal tensions and transnational differences among countries that attempt to balance upholding freedom and fighting racism in a variety of domains.

Keywords:   freedom of opinion, racism, discrimination, hate crime, United States, Britain, Germany

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .