Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
States of PassionLaw, Identity, and Social Construction of Desire$

Yvonne Zylan

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199735082

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735082.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 27 February 2017

(p.279) References

(p.279) References

States of Passion
Oxford University Press

Cases cited

United States v. Carolene Products, 304 144 (1938).

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).

Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).

Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969).

Kramer v. Union Free School District, 395 U.S. 621 (1969).

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S. 677 (1973).

Williams v. Saxbe, 413 F. Supp. 654, (D. D.C. 1976).

Barnes v. Costle, 561 F.2d 983, (D.C. Cir. 1977).

City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, 473 U.S. 432 (1985).

Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 477 U.S. 57 (1986).

Lyng v. Castillo, 477 U.S. 635 (1986).

Elden v. Sheldon, 46 Cal.3d 267, (Calif. Sup. Ct. 1988).

Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989).

Bennett v. Texas, 831 S.W.2d 20 (Ct. App. Tex. 1992).

Dillon v. Frank, 952 F.2d 403 (6th Cir. 1992).

Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476 (1993).

Baehr v. Lewin, 852 P.2d 44 (Sup. Ct. Hawai’i 1993).

In re Joshua H., 13 Cal. App. 4th 1734 (Cal. Ct. App. 1993).

Commonwealth v. Pierce, 642 N.E.2d 579 (Sup. Jud. Ct. Mass. 1994).

In re MS, 10 Cal. 4th 698 (Cal. Sup. Ct. 1995).

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996).

Dean v. District of Columbia, 653 A.2d 307 (D.C. Ct. App. 1995).

(p.280) McWilliams v. Fairfax County Supervisors, 72 4th Cir. 1191 (4th Cir. 1996).

Wrightson v. Pizza Hut of Am., Inc., 99 F.3d 138, (4th Cir. 1996).

Quick v. Donaldson Co., 90 F.3d 1372 (8th Cir. 1996).

Hopkins v. Baltimore Gas & Elec. Co., 77 F.3d 745 (4th Cir. 1996).

Wiggins v. State, 1997 12453 (Tenn. Ct. Crim. App. 1997).

Johnson v. Hondo, 125 F.3d 408 (7th Cir. 1997).

Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Svcs, 523 U.S. 75 (1998).

Dawn D. v. Superior Court, 17 Cal. 4th 932 (Sup. Ct. Calif. 1998).

Broome v. State, 687 N.E.2d 590 (Ct. App. Ind. 1998).

Burlington v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1998).

Smith v. U.S. Truck, Inc., 1998 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3455 (W.D. Ark. 1998).

Baker v. State, 744 A.2d 864 (Sup. Ct. Vt. 1999).

Parsons v. Galetka, 57 F. Supp. 2d 1151 (Utah Dist. Ct. 1999).

Shepherd v. Slater Steels Corp., 168 F.3d 1001 (7th Cir.1999).

Breitenfeldt v. Long Prairie Packing Co., 48 F. Supp. 2d 1170 (D. Ct. Minn. 1999).

Higgins v. New Balance Shoe, 194 F.3d 252 (1st Cir. 1999).

Kelly v. Oakland, 198 F.3d 779 (9th Cir. 1999).

Merritt v. Del. River Port Auth., LEXSEE 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5896 (E.D. Penn. 1999).

Carney v. City of Shawnee, 38 F. Supp. 2d 905 (D. Kan. 1999).

Brewer v. Hillard, 15 S.W.3d 1 (Ky. Ct. App. 1999).

Cuevas v. State of Florida, 770 So. 2d 703 (Dist. Ct. App. Fla. 2000).

Hampel v. Food Ingredients Specialties, Inc., 729 N.E.2d 726 (Sup. Ct. Ohio 2000).

Simonton v. Runyon, 2000 U.S. App. LEXIS 21139 (2d Cir. 2000).

Hamner v. St. Vincent Hosp. and Health Care Ctr., Inc., 224 F.3d 701 (7th Cir. 2000).

State v. Timothy K., 27 P.3d 1263 (Ct. App. Wash. 2001).

People v. Diaz, 188 Misc. 2d 341 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2001).

Rene v. MGM Hotels, Inc., 243 F.3d 1206 (9th Cir. 2001).

La Day v. Catalyst Technology, 302 F.3d 474 (5th Cir. 2002).

English v. Pohanka of Chantilly, Inc., 190 F. Supp. 833 (E.D. Va. 2002).

Samborski v. West Valley Nuclear Svcs. Co., Inc., 2002 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12745 (W.D.N.Y. 2002).

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003).

Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health, 798 N.E.2d 941 (Sup. Jud. Ct. Mass. 2003).

(p.281) Standhardt v. Superior Court, 77 P.3d 451 (Ariz. Ct. App. 2003).

Marcicky v. Renico, 2003 WL 22272142 (E.D. Mich. 2003).

Dick v. Phone Directories Comp., Inc., 265 F. Supp. 2d 1274 (W.D. Utah 2003).

Lockyer v. City and County of San Francisco, 33 Cal. 4th 1055 (Sup. Ct. Calif. 2004).

Yanowitz v. L’Oreal USA, Inc., 36 1028 (Calif. Sup. Ct. 2005).

Commonwealth v. Cutts, 831 N.E.2d 1279 (Sup. Jud. Ct. Mass. 2005).

Shafer v. Kal Kan Foods, Inc., 417 F.3d 665 (7th Cir. 2205).

Dawson v. Bumble & Bumble, 398 F.3d 211 (2nd Cir. 2005).

Hernandez v. Robles, 855 N.E.2d 1 (Ct. App. N.Y. 2006).

Andersen v. State of Washington, 138 P.3d 963 (Sup. Ct. Wash. 2006).

Lewis v. Harris, 908 A.2d 196 (Sup. Ct. N.J. 2006).

Vickers v. Fairfield Medical Center, 453 F.3d 757 (6th Cir. 2006).

Conaway v. Deane, 932 A.2d 571 (Ct. App. Md. 2007).

People v. Fox, 17 Misc. 3d 281 (Sup. Ct. N.Y. 2007).

Russell v. University of Texas of the Permian Basin, 234 Fed. Appx. 195 (5th Cir. 2007).

In re Marriage Cases, 43 Cal. 4th 757 (Sup. Ct. Calif. 2008).

Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health, 957 A.2d 407 (Sup. Ct. Conn. 2008).

State v. Christian, 984 So.2d 132 (Ct. App. La. 2008).

Varnum v. O’Brien, 763 N.W.2d 862 (Sup. Ct. Iowa 2009).

Strauss v. Horton, 46 Cal. 4th 364 (Sup. Ct. Calif. 2009).

Love v. Motiva Enterprises LLC, 349 Fed. Appx. 900 (5th Cir. 2009).

Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010).

Legislative materials

1988. Congressional Record, United States House of Representatives, “H.R. Rep. No. 100–575.”

1989. Congressional Record, United States House of Representatives. “Hate Crime Statistics Act.”.

1990. Congressional Record, United States House of Representatives. “Hate Crime Statistics Act.”

2007. Congressional Record, United States House of Representatives “Matthew Shepard Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007.”

2009. Congressional Record, United States House of Representatives, “Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2009.” H.R. 3017.

(p.282) 2010. State of California, “California Fair Employment and Housing Act.” Cal. Govt Code Sec 12900 et seq.

2010. 42 U.S.C. 1981 § 2000e, et seq.

Secondary Sources

Abrams, Kathryn. 1998. “The New Jurisprudence of Sexual Harassment.” Cornell Law Review 83:1169–1230.

Adam, Barry D. 1998. “Theorizing Homophobia.” Sexualities 1:387–404.

Althusser, Louis. 2001. Lenin and philosophy, and other essays. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Amenta, Edwin, Neal Caren, Elizabeth Chiarello, and Yang Su. 2010. “The Political Consequences of Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 36:287–307.

Amenta, Edwin, Bruce G. Carruthers, and Yvonne Zylan. 1992. “A Hero for the Aged? The Townsend Movement, the Political Mediation Model, and U.S. Old-Age Policy, 1934–1950.” American Journal of Sociology 98:308.

American Civil Liberties Union, Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders, Lambda Legal, National Center for Lesbian Rights, Equality Federation, Freedom to Marry, Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation, Human Rights Campaign, and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. 2009. “Make Change, Not Lawsuits.”

Andenæs, Johannes. 1974. Punishment and deterrence. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Andersen, Ellen Ann. 2006. Out of the closets & into the courts : legal opportunity structure and gay rights litigation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Anderson, Eric. 2005. In the game : gay athletes and the cult of masculinity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Andriote, John-Manuel. 1999. Victory deferred : how AIDS changed gay life in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

APA Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation. 2009. “Report of the Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation.” Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Concerns Office, Public Interest Directorate.

Aristotle. 1962. The Politics. Translated by E. Barker. New York: Oxford University Press.

(p.283) Armstrong, Elizabeth A. 2002. Forging gay identities : organizing sexuality in San Francisco, 1950–1994. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Balkin, J.M. 1997. “The Constitution of Status.” Yale Law Journal 106:2313.

Ball, Carlos A. 2006. “The Backlash Thesis and Same Sex Marriage: Learning from Brown v. Board and its Aftermath.” William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 14.

Bandes, Susan A. 1999. The passions of law. New York: New York University Press.

Barber, Sotirios A. 2005. Welfare and the Constitution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Barclay, Scott, Mary Bernstein, and Anna-Maria Marshall. 2009. Queer mobilizations : LGBT activists confront the law. New York: New York University Press.

Barclay, Scott and Shauna Fisher. 2008. “Said and Unsaid: State Legislative Signaling to State Courts over Same Sex Marriage 1990–2004.” Law & Policy 30:254–275.

Barclay, Scott and Anna-Maria Marshall. 2003. “In Their Own Words: How Ordinary People Construct the Legal World.” Law & Social Inquiry 28:617–28.

Barclay, Scott and Anna-Maria Marshall. 2005. “Supporting a Cause, Developing a Movement, and Consolidating a Practice: Cause Lawyers and Sexual Orientation Litigation in Vermont.” Pp. 171–202 in The Worlds Cause Lawyers Make, edited by A. Sarat and S. A. Scheingold. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Beale, Sara Sun. 2000. “Federalizing Hate Crimes: Symbolic Politics, Expressive Law, or Tool for Criminal Enforcement?” Boston University Law Review 80:1227–1272.

Beauvoir, Simone de. 1953. The second sex. New York,: Knopf.

Bell, Alan P., Martin S. Weinberg, and Institute for Sex Research. 1978. Homosexualities : a study of diversity among men and women. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Benjamin, Jessica. 1983. “Master and Slave: the fantasy of erotic domination.” Pp. 280 – 299 in Powers of Desire: the politics of sexuality, edited by A. B. Snitow, C. Stansell, and S. Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Benjamin, Jessica. 1988. The bonds of love : psychoanalysis, feminism, and the problem of domination. New York: Pantheon Books.

(p.284) Benjamin, Jessica. 1995. Like subjects, love objects : essays on recognition and sexual difference. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Benjamin, Jessica. 1998. Shadow of the other : intersubjectivity and gender in psychoanalysis. New York: Routledge.

Benjamin, Jessica. 2006. “Two-Way Streets: Recognition of Difference and the Intersubjective Third.” differences 17:116–146.

Bentham, Jeremy. 1996. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Edited by J. H. a. H. Burns, H.L.A. New York: Oxford.

Berger, Peter L. and Thomas Luckmann. 1990. The social construction of reality : a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Anchor Books.

Bernstein, Elizabeth. 2007. Temporarily yours: intimacy, authenticity, and the commerce of sex. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bernstein, Elizabeth and Laurie Schaffner. 2005. Regulating sex: the politics of intimacy and identity. New York: Routledge.

Bernstein, Mary. 1997. “Celebration and Suppression: the Uses of Identity by the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” The American Journal of Sociology 103:531–565.

Bernstein, Mary. 2003. “Nothing Ventured, Nothing Gained? Conceptualizing Social Movement ‘Success’ in the Lesbian and Gay Movement.” Sociological Perspectives 46:353–379.

Bernstein, Mary. 2005. “Liberalism and Social Movement Success: The Case of United States Sodomy Statutes.” Pp. 3–18 in Regulating Sex: The Politics of Intimacy and Identity, edited by E. Bernstein and L. Schaffner. New York: Routledge.

Bernstein, Mary and Renate Reimann. 2001. Queer families, queer politics : challenging culture and the state. New York: Columbia University Press.

Berrill, Kevin T. and Gregory M. Herek. 1992. “Primary and Secondary Victimization in anti-gay hate crimes.” Pp. 289–305 in Hate Crimes, edited by G. M. Herek and K. T. Berrill. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bersani, Leo. 1987. “Is the Rectum a Grave?” October 43:197–222.

Bersani, Leo. 1995. Homos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Black, Donald J. 1976. The behavior of law. New York: Academic Press.

Block, Fred L. 1987. Revising state theory : essays in politics and postindustrialism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. Symbolic interactionism; perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall.

(p.285) Boso, Luke. 2009. “Disrupting Sexual Categories of Intimate Preference.” Hastings Women’s Law Journal 21:59–98.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1984. Distinction : a social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1987. “The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the Juridical Field.” Hastings Law Journal 38:805–853.

Bourdieu, Pierre and John B. Thompson. 1991. Language and symbolic power. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Boyd, Susan B. 1997. Challenging the public/private divide : feminism, law, and public policy. Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

Braidotti, Rosi. 1994. Nomadic subjects : embodiment and sexual difference in contemporary feminist theory. New York: Columbia University Press.

Braidotti, Rosi and Judith Butler. 1997. “Feminism by any other name. Interview.” Pp. 31–67 in Feminism meets queer theory, edited by E. Weed and N. Schor. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

Brick, Michael. 2007. “To Commit a Hate Crime, Must the Criminal Truly Hate the Victim?,” The New York Times, June 20, 2007.

Brigham, John. 1996. The constitution of interests : beyond the politics of rights. New York: New York University.

Brodin, Mark S. 1982. “The Standard of Causation in the Mixed-Motive Title VII Action: A Social Policy Perspective.” Columbia Law Review 82:292–326.

Brower, Todd. 2009. “Social Cognition ‘At Work’: Schema Theory and Lesbian and Gay Identity in Title VII.” Law & Sexuality 18:1–77.

Brown, Lyn Mikel and Carol Gilligan. 1992. Meeting at the crossroads : women’s psychology and girls’ development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Brown, Wendy. 1995. States of injury : power and freedom in late modernity. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Brown, Wendy and Janet Halley. 2002. “Left Legalism/Left Critique.” Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Brush, Lisa. 2002. “Changing the Subject: Gender and Welfare Regime Studies.” Social Politics 9:161–186.

Burke, Kenneth. 1969. A grammar of motives. Berkeley,: University of California Press.

Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.

(p.286) Butler, Judith. 1997. Excitable speech : a politics of the performative. New York: Routledge.

Butler, Judith. 1999. Subjects of desire : Hegelian reflections in twentieth-century France. New York: Columbia University Press.

Butler, Judith. 2002. “Is Kinship Always Already Heterosexual?” differences 13:14–44.

Butler, Judith. 2004. Undoing gender. New York; London: Routledge.

Butler, Judith. 2005. Giving an Account of Oneself. New York: Fordham University Press.

Butler, Judith 2009. “Interview with Judith Butler: “Gender is Extramoral”.” MRZine, May 16, 2009.

Calhoun, Craig. 1989. “Commentary: Social Theory And The Law: Systems Theory, Normative Justification, And Postmodernism.” Northwestern University Law Review 83:398–460.

Chauncey, George. 2004. Why marriage? : the history shaping today’s debate over gay equality. New York: Basic Books.

Cherlin, Andrew J. 1992. Marriage, divorce, remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cherlin, Andrew J. 2009. The marriage-go-round : the state of marriage and the family in America today. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The reproduction of mothering : psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Cixous, Hélène and Marta Segarra. 2010. The portable Cixous. New York: Columbia University Press.

Cohen, Michael D., James G. March, and Johan P. Olsen. 1972. “A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice.” Administrative Science Quarterly 17:1–25.

Comstock, Gary David. 1992. “Dismantling the Homosexual Panic Defense.” Law & Sexuality Review 2:81–102.

Conley, John M. and William M. O’Barr. 2005. Just words : law, language, and power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Connell, R. W. 1987. Gender and power : society, the person, and sexual politics. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Connell, R. W. 2005. Masculinities. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.

Cossman, Brenda. 2007. Sexual citizens : the legal and cultural regulation of sex and belonging. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Cott, Nancy F. 2000. Public vows : a history of marriage and the nation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

(p.287) Cotterrell, Roger. 1999. Emile Durkheim : law in a moral domain. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Cover, Susan M. 2009. “Fight Goes On Over Marriage, The Portland Press Herald, March 4, 2009.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43:1241–1299.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1995. Critical race theory : the key writings that formed the movement. New York: New Press.

Cress, Daniel M. and David A. Snow. 2000. “The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation, and Framing.” The American Journal of Sociology 105:1063–1104.

Crimp, Douglas. 2002. Melancholia and moralism : essays on AIDS and queer politics. Cambridge: MIT Press.

D’Emilio, John. 1983. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

D’Emilio, John and Estelle B. Freedman. 1997. Intimate matters : a history of sexuality in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

De Lauretis, Teresa. 1984. Alice doesn’t : feminism, semiotics, cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

De Lauretis, Teresa. 1994. The practice of love : lesbian sexuality and perverse desire. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

De Lauretis, Teresa and Patricia White. 2007. Figures of resistance : essays in feminist theory. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Deflem, Mathieu. 2008. Sociology of law : visions of a scholarly tradition. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. 2000. Critical race theory : the cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. 2001. Critical race theory : an introduction. New York: New York University Press.

Diefenbach, Clare. 2007. “Article: Same-Sex Sexual Harassment After Oncale: Meeting the “Because of … Sex” Requirement.” Berkeley J. Gender L. & Just. 22.

Dillof, Anthony M. 1997. “Punishing Bias: An Examination Of The Theoretical Foundations Of Bias Crime Statutes.” Northwestern University Law Review 91:1015.

DiMaggio, Paul and Walter W. Powell. 1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.” American Sociological Review 48: 147–160.

(p.288) Dong, Arthur. 2005. “Licensed to Kill.” Deep Focus Productions, Inc.

Douglas, Mary. 1986. How institutions think. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Dressler, Joshua. 1995. “When ‘Heterosexual’ Men Kill ‘Homosexual’ Men: Reflections on Provocation Law, Sexual Advances, and the ‘Reasonable Man’ Standard.” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 85:726–763.

Durkheim, Emile. 1952. Suicide, a study in sociology. London,: Routledge & K. Paul.

Durkheim, Emile. 1982. “What is a Social Fact?” Pp. 50–59 in The Rules of the Sociological Method, edited by S. Lukes. New York: Free Press.

Durkheim, Emile and W. D. Halls. 1984. The division of labor in society. New York: Free Press.

Dworkin, Andrea. 1987. Intercourse. New York: Free Press.

Dworkin, Ronald. 1977. Taking rights seriously. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Edelman, Lauren B. 2002. “Legality and the Endogeneity of Law.” Pp. 187–202 in Legality and Community, edited by L. B. Edelman. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Ehrenreich, Rosa. 1999. “Dignity and Discrimination: Toward a Pluralistic Understanding of Workplace Harassment.” Georgetown Law Journal 88:1–64.

Ehrlich, Howard 1992. “The Ecology of Anti-Gay Violence.” Pp. 105–110 in Hate Crimes: confronting violence against lesbians and gay men, edited by G. M. Herek and K. T. Berrill. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Elder-Vass, Dave. 2008. “Integrating Institutional, Relational and Embodied Structure: An Emergentist Perspective.” British Journal of Sociology 59:281–299.

Emirbayer, Mustafa. 1997. “Manifesto for a Relational Sociology.” The American Journal of Sociology 103:281–317.

Eribon, Didier and Michael Lucey. 2004. Insult and the making of the gay self. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Eskridge, William N. 1999. Gaylaw : challenging the apartheid of the closet. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Eskridge, William N. 2002. Equality practice : civil unions and the future of gay rights. New York: Routledge.

Eskridge, William N. 2008. Dishonorable passions : sodomy laws in America, 1861–2003. New York: Viking.

(p.289) Ewick, Patrick and Susan S. Silbey. 1995. “Subversive Stories and Hegemonic Tales: Toward a Sociology of Narrative.” Law & Society Review 29:197–226.

Ewick, Patricia and Susan S. Silbey. 1998. The common place of law: stories from everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ewick, Patricia and Susan S. Silbey. 1999. “Common Knowledge and Ideological Critique: the Significance of Knowing That the ‘Haves’ Have Come Out Ahead.” Law & Society Review 33:1025–1041.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 2000. Sexing the body : gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Fee, Elizabeth and Daniel M. Fox. 1992. AIDS : the making of a chronic disease. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Felstiner, William L. F., Richard L. Abel, and Austin Sarat. 1980. “The Emergence and Transformation of Disputes: Naming, Blaming, Claiming.” Law & Society Review 15:631–654.

Fetner, Tina. 2008. How the religious right shaped lesbian and gay activism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Fineman, Martha. 1991. The illusion of equality : the rhetoric and reality of divorce reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fineman, Martha. 1995. The neutered mother, the sexual family, and other twentieth century tragedies. New York: Routledge.

Fineman, Martha. 2004. The autonomy myth : a theory of dependency. New York: New Press.

Fineman, Martha and Terence Dougherty. 2005. Feminism confronts homo economicus : gender, law, and society. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Fineman, Martha, Jack E. Jackson, and Adam P. Romero. 2009. Feminist and queer legal theory : intimate encounters, uncomfortable conversations. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Fineman, Martha and Nancy Sweet Thomadsen. 1991. At the boundaries of law : feminism and legal theory. New York: Routledge.

Foner, Eric. 2002. Reconstruction : America’s unfinished revolution, 1863–1877. New York: Perennial Classics.

Foucault, Michel. 1972. The archaeology of knowledge. New York,: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1990. The History of Sexuality, Vol. I. Translated by R. Hurley. New York: Vintage Books.

Foucault, Michel. 1995. Discipline and punish : the birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books.

(p.290) Foucault, Michel, Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller. 1991. The Foucault effect : studies in governmentality : with two lectures by and an interview with Michel Foucault. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Foucault, Michel and Colin Gordon. 1980. Power/knowledge : selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books.

Foucault, Michel and David Couzens Hoy. 1986. Foucault : a critical reader. Oxford, UK; New York, NY, USA: B. Blackwell.

Foucault, Michel, Michel Senellart, and Arnold Ira Davidson. 2007. Security, territory, population : lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–1978. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Franke, Katherine. 2006. “Sexuality and Marriage: the Politics of Same-Sex Marriage Politics.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15:236–248.

Franke, Katherine M. 1997. “What’s Wrong With Sexual Harassment?” Stanford Law Review 49:691–772.

Franke, Katherine M. 2004. “The Domesticated Liberty of Lawrence v. Texas.” Columbia Law Review 104:1399.

Franke, Katherine M. 2006. “The Politics of Same-Sex Marriage Politics.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 15:236.

Fraser, Nancy and Linda Gordon. 1994. “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the U.S. Welfare State.” Signs 19:309–336.

Freeman, Jo. 1975. The Politics of Women’s Liberation: a case study of an emerging social movement and its relation to the policy process. New York: Longman.

Freeman, Jo. 2008. We will be heard : women’s struggles for political power in the United States. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Freud, Sigmund and James Strachey. 2005. Civilization and its discontents. New York: Norton.

Friedman, Lawrence M. 1994. Total Justice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Friedman, Lawrence M. 2005. A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Fuss, Diana. 1991. Inside/out : lesbian theories, gay theories. New York: Routledge.

(p.291) Gabel, Peter. 1980. “Reification in Legal Reasoning.” Research in Law and Sociology 3:25–51.

Gabilondo, Jose. 2006. “Asking the Straight Question: How to Come to Speech in Spite of Conceptual Liquidation as a Homosexual.” Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal 21:1–45.

Gamson, Joshua. 1998. Freaks talk back : tabloid talk shows and sexual nonconformity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gamson, William A. 1990. The strategy of social protest. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub.

Garfinkel, Harold. 1967. Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,: Prentice-Hall.

Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. 1998. “GLAAD and National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs Express Sorrow and Horror at Attack on Gay Man in Wyoming.”

Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. 2007. “Covering Hate Crimes.”

Ghaziani, Amin. 2008. The dividends of dissent : how conflict and culture work in lesbian and gay marches on Washington. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gibbs, Jack P. 1975. Crime, punishment, and deterrence. New York: Elsevier.

Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The constitution of society : outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Giddens, Anthony. 1992. The transformation of intimacy : sexuality, love, and eroticism in modern societies. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Gilligan, Carol, Nona Lyons, Trudy J. Hanmer, and Emma Willard School (Troy N.Y.). 1990. Making connections : the relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard School. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Glendon, Mary Ann. 1991. Rights talk : the impoverishment of political discourse. New York: Free Press.

Glendon, Mary Ann. 1994. A nation under lawyers : how the crisis in the legal profession is transforming American society. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Goffman, Erving. 1961/2007. Asylums : essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

Goffman, Erving. 1969. The presentation of self in everyday life. London,: Allen Lane.

(p.292) Gray, John. 1992. Men are from Mars, women are from Venus : a practical guide for improving communication and getting what you want in your relationships. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Greenberg, David F. 1988. The construction of homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994a. “Experimental Desire: Rethinking Queer Subjectivity.” Pp. 133–157 in Supposing the Subject, edited by J. Copjec. London: Verso.

Grosz, E. A. 1994b. Volatile bodies : toward a corporeal feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Grosz, Elizabeth A. 1997. “The Labors of Love: Analyzing Perverse Desire: An Interrogation of Teresa De Lauretis’s The Practice of Love.” Pp. 292–314 in Feminism meets queer theory, edited by E. Weed and N. Schor. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

Habermas, Jurgen. 1973. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon Press.

Habermas, Jürgen. 1996. Between facts and norms : contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hacker, Jacob S. 2004. “Privatizing Risk Without Privatizing the Welfare State: the Hidden Politics of Social Policy Retrenchment in the United States.” American Political Science Review 98:243–260.

Halley, Janet. 1993. “The Construction of Heterosexuality.” Pp. 82–102 in Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory, edited by M. Warner. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Halley, Janet. 1994. “Sexual Orientation and the Politics of Biology.” Stanford Law Review 46.

Halley, Janet. 1998. “Gay Rights and Identity Imitation: Issues in the Ethics of Representation.” Pp. 115–146 in The Politics of Law: a Progressive Critique, edited by D. Kairys. New York: Basic Books.

Halley, Janet. 2002. “Sexuality Harassment.” Pp. 80–104 in Left Legalism/Left Critique, edited by W. Brown and J. Halley. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Halley, Janet. 2006. Split decisions : how and why to take a break from feminism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Handler, Joel F. 1990. Law and the search for community. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Haney-López, Ian. 1996. White by law : the legal construction of race. New York: New York University Press.

Harel, Alon and Gideon Parchomovsky. 1999. “On Hate and Equality.” Yale Law Journal 109.

(p.293) Harney, Diane M. 1999. “Lesbians on the Frontline: Battling AIDS, Gays, and the Myth of Community.” Pp. 167–179 in Power in the Blood: a handbook on AIDS, politics, and communication, edited by W. N. Elwood. New York: Routledge.

Harrison, Cynthia. 1988. On Account of Sex: the politics of women’s issues, 1945–1968. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hart, H. L. A. 1968. Punishment and responsibility: essays in the philosophy of law. Oxford: Clarendon P.

Hart, H. L. A. and Tony Honoré. 1985. Causation in the law. New York:Oxford University Press.

Harvard Law Review. 1990. Sexual orientation and the law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Heimer, Carol A. 1996. “Explaining Variation in the Impact of Law: Organizations, Institutions, and Professions.” Studies in Law, Politics, and Society 15:29–59.

Heimer, Carol A. 2001. “Cases and Biographies: An Essay on Routinization and the Nature of Comparison.” Annual Review of Sociology 27:47–76.

Herek, Gregory M. 1992. “The Social Context of Hate Crimes: Notes on Cultural Heterosexism.” in Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men, edited by G. M. Herek and K. T. Berrill. New York: Sage.

Herek, Gregory M. and Kevin T. Berrill. 1992. Hate Crimes: confronting violence against lesbians and gay men. New York: Sage Publications.

Heydebrand, Wolf V. and Carroll Seron. 1990. Rationalizing justice : the political economy of federal district courts. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hilderbrand, Lucas. 2006. “Retroactivism.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 12:303–317.

Hill Collins, Patricia. 2004. Black sexual politics : African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.

Hoff-Wilson, Joan. 1991. Law, gender, and injustice : a legal history of U.S. women. New York: New York University Press.

Holmes, Oliver W. 1897. “The Path of the Law.” Harvard Law Review 10(8): 457–478.

Hooks, Bell. 2000. Feminist theory : from margin to center. Cambridge: South End Press.

Howe, Adrian. 2000. “Homosexual Advances in Law: Murderous Excuse, Pluralized Ignorance and the Privilege of Unknowing.” Pp. 84–99 in Sexuality in the Legal Arena, edited by C. F. Stychin and D. Herman. London: The Athlone Press.

(p.294) Hull, Kathleen. 2006. Same-sex marriage : the cultural politics of love and law. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hulse, Carl. 2009. “House Votes to Expand Hate Crimes Definition The New York Times, October 8, 2009.

Human Rights Campaign. 2000. “The State of the Workplace for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Americans 2000.” Human Rights Campaign, Washington, D.C.

Hunt, Alan. 1993. Explorations in law and society : towards a constitutive theory of law. New York: Routledge.

Hunt, Alan and Gary Wickham. 1994. Foucault and law : towards a sociology of law as governance. London; Boulder, Colo.: Pluto Press.

Hurd, Heidi M. 1994. “What in the World is Wrong?” Journal of Conteporary Legal Issues 5:157–216.

Hurd, Heidi M. 2001. “Why Liberals Should Hate Hate Crime Legislation.” Law and Philosophy 20:215–232.

Hurd, Heidi M. and Michael S. Moore. 2004. “Punishing Hatred and Prejudice.” Stanford Law Review 56:1081–1146.

Hyde, Alan. 1997. Bodies of law. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Iganski, Paul. 2001. “Hate Crimes Hurt More.” American Behavioral Scientist 45:627–38.

Ingraham, Chrys. 2008. White weddings : romancing heterosexuality in popular culture. New York: Routledge.

Irigaray, Luce. 1985. This sex which is not one. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Jacob, Pierre. 2010. ““Intentionality”.” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by E. N. Zalta.

Jacobs, James B. and Kimberly Potter. 2000. Hate Crimes: criminal law and identity politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Jenness, Valerie. 1999. “Managing differences and making legislation: social movements and the racialization, sexualization, and gendering of federal hate crime law in the U.S., 1985–1998.” Social Problems 46:548–571.

Jenness, Valerie and Kendal Broad. 1997. Hate Crimes: new social movements and the politics of violence. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Jenness, Valerie and Ryken Grattet. 2004. Making Hate a Crime: from social movement to law enforcement. New York: Russell Sage.

Jessop, Bob. 1990. State theory : putting the Capitalist state in its place. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press.

(p.295) Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. 2006. “Legitimacy as a Social Process.” Annual Review of Sociology 32:53–77.

Jones, Owen D. and Timothy H. Goldsmith. 2005. “Law and Behavioral Biology.” Columbia Law Review 105: 405–502.

Kahan, Dan M. 1996. “What Do Alternative Sanctions Mean?” University of Chicago Law Review 63:591–653.

Kahan, Dan M. 1998. “The Anatomy of Disgust in Criminal Law.” Michigan Law Review 96:1621–1657.

Kahan, Dan M. and Martha G. Nussbaum. 1996. “Two Conceptions of Emotion in Criminal Law.” Columbia Law Review 96: 269–374.

Kairys, David. 1998. The politics of law : a progressive critique. New York: Basic Books.

Katz, Leo, Michael S. Moore, and Stephen J. Morse. 1999. Foundations of criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kayal, Philip M. 1993. Bearing witness : Gay Men’s Health Crisis and the politics of AIDS. Boulder: Westview Press.

Kennedy, Duncan. 1993. Sexy dressing, etc. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Kennedy, Duncan and Paul Carrington. 2004. Legal education and the reproduction of hierarchy : a polemic against the system : a critical edition. New York: New York University Press.

Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky and Madeline D. Davis. 1994. Boots of leather, slippers of gold : the history of a lesbian community. New York: Penguin Books.

Kimmel, Michael S. 2007. The gendered society. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Kimmel, Michael S. and Michael A. Messner. 2007. Men’s lives. Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.

Kinsey, Alfred C., Wardell Baxter Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Martin. 1948. Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia,: W. B. Saunders Co.

Klein, Bennett and Daniel Redman. 2009. “From Separate to Equal: Litigating Marriage Equality in a Civil Union State.” Connecticut Law Review 41:1381–1396.

Kmiec, Douglas W. 1989–1990. “Judicial Selection and the Pursuit of Justice: the Unsettled Relationship Between Law and Morality.” Catholic University Law Review 19: 1–27.

Kmiec, Keenan D. 2004. “The Origin and Current Meanings of “Judicial Activism”.” California Law Review 92:1441–47.

(p.296) Koppelman, Andrew. 2004. “The Decline and Fall of the Case Against Same Sex Marriage.” University of St. Thomas Law Journal 2: 5–32.

Kornhauser, Lewis A. 2004. “Governance Structures, Legal Systems, and the Concept of Law.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 79:355–381.

Kotulski, Davina. 2004. Why you should give a damn about gay marriage. Los Angeles: Advocate Books.

Lacan, Jacques and Bruce Fink. 2006. Ecrits : The first complete edition in English. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Lacey, Nicola. 2006. “Analytical Jurisprudence Versus Descriptive Sociology Revisited.” Texas Law Review 84:945–982.

Landsman, Stephan. 1984. The adversary system : a description and defense. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Lawrence, Frederick. 1999. Punishing Hate: bias crimes under American Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Lawson, Joel. 2000. “Ex-Gay Leader Confronted in Gay Bar,” Southern Voice, September 21, 2000.

Lee, Cynthia. 2003. Murder and the reasonable man : passion and fear in the criminal courtroom. New York: New York University Press.

Leeser, Jaimie. 2003. “The Causal Role of Sex in Sexual Harassment.” Cornell Law Review 88:1750–1793.

Lehring, Gary L. 2003. Officially gay : the political construction of sexuality by the U.S. military. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Levin, Jack and Jack McDevitt. 2002. Hate Crimes Revisited: America’s War on Those Who Are Different. Cambridge: Westview Press.

Levit, Nancy. 2010. “Theorizing and Litigating the Rights of Sexual Minorities.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 19:21–63.

Levit, Nancy and Robert R. M. Verchick. 2006. Feminist legal theory : a primer. New York: New York University Press.

Lewis, C.S. 1987. “The Humanitarian Theory of Punishment.” The AMCAP Journal 13:147–153.

Lind, E. Allan and Tom R. Tyler. 1988. The social psychology of procedural justice. New York: Plenum Press.

Lithwick, Dahlia. 2009. “Once More, Without Feeling: the GOP’s Misguided and Confused Campaign Against Judicial Empathy.” Slate.com: Jurisprudence, http://www.slate.com/id/2218103/

Lorber, Judith. 1994. Paradoxes of gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.

(p.297) Lorber, Judith and Susan A. Farrell. 1991. The Social construction of gender. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Luhmann, Niklas and Martin Albrow. 1985. A sociological theory of law. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Luhmann, Niklas, Klaus A. Ziegert, and Fatima Kastner. 2004. Law as a social system. New York: Oxford University Press.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1979. Sexual harassment of working women : a case of sex discrimination. New Haven: Yale University Press.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1987. Feminism unmodified : discourses on life and law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1989. Toward a feminist theory of the state. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1993. Only words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Maltz, Earl M. 1992. “Slavery, Federalism, and the Structure of the Constitution.” The American Journal of Legal History 36:466–498.

Mansbridge, Jane J. 1986. Why We Lost the ERA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

March, James G. and Johan P. Olsen. 1984. “The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life.” The American Political Science Review 78:734–749.

Marcus, Ruth. 1990. “Powell Regrets Backing Sodomy Law,” The Washington Post, October 26, 1990.

Marcuse, Herbert. 1955. Eros and civilization; a philosophical inquiry into Freud. Boston: Beacon Press.

Marshall, Anna-Maria. 2005. Confronting sexual harassment: the law and politics of everyday life. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Marx, Groucho. 1967/2007. The Groucho letters. New York: Simon & Schuster.

McAdam, Doug. 1988. Freedom Summer. New York: Oxford University Press.

McAdam, Doug. 1995. ““Initiator” and “Spin-off” Movements: Diffusion Processes in Protest Cycles.” Pp. 217–240 in Repertoires and cycles of collective action, edited by M. Traugott. Chapel Hill, NC: Duke University Press.

McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer N. Zald. 1996. Comparative perspectives on social movements : political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framings. New York: Cambridge University Press.

(p.298) McAdam, Doug, Sidney G. Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 2001. Dynamics of contention. New York: Cambridge University Press.

McAdams, Richard H. 1997. “The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms.” Michigan Law Review 96(2):338–433.

McCann, Michael W. 1994. Rights at work : pay equity reform and the politics of legal mobilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

McCann, Michael W. 2006. Law and social movements. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

McDevitt, Jack, Jennifer Balboni, Luis Garcia, and Joann Gu. 2001. “Consequences for Victims: A Comparison of Bias- and Non-Bias-Motivated Assaults.” American Behavioral Scientist 45:697–713.

McVeigh, Rory, Michael R. Welch, and Thoroddur Bjarnason. 2003. “Hate Crime Reporting as a Successful Social Movement Outcome.” American Sociological Review 68:843–867.

Meier, Diane S. 2008. “Gender Trouble in the Law: Arguments Against the Use of Status/Conduct Binaries in Sexual Orientation Law.” Washington & Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice 15:147–189.

Melucci, Alberto. 1996. Challenging codes : collective action in the information age. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Melucci, Alberto, John Keane, and Paul Mier. 1989. Nomads of the present : social movements and individual needs in contemporary society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Merry, Sally Engle. 1990. Getting justice and getting even : legal consciousness among working-class Americans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Messner, Michael A. 2002. Taking the field : women, men, and sports. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Meyer, David S. 2004. “Protest and Political Opportunities.” Annual Review of Sociology 30:125–145.

Miliband, Ralph. 1969. The state in capitalist society. New York,: Basic Books.

Mills, C. Wright. 1959. The sociological imagination. New York,: Oxford University Press.

Mison, Robert B. 1992. “Homophobia in Manslaughter: The Homosexual Advance as Insufficient Provocation.” California Law Review 80:133–178.

(p.299) Moi, Toril. 2005. Sex, Gender, and the Body: The Student Edition of What Is a Woman? New York: Oxford University Press.

Moore, Michael S. 1987. “The Moral Worth of Retribution.” Pp. 212–17 in Responsibility, Character and the Emotions, edited by F. Schoeman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, Aldon. 1986. Origins of the Civil Rights Movements: black communities organizing for change. New York: The Free Press.

Namaste, Ki. 1996. “The Politics of Inside/Out: Queer Theory, Poststructuralism, and a Sociological Approach to Sexuality.” Pp. 194–212 in Queer Theory/Sociology, edited by S. Seidman. New York: Blackwell Publishers.

National Center For Lesbian Rights. 2003. “Hate-Crime Assailant Pleads Guilty to Aggravated Battery Charges.”

National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. 2007. “Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 2006: A Report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs.”

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. 2007. “Hate Crime Laws in the United States as of May 2007.”

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Action Fund. 2009. “National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Action Fund testimony submitted to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary hearing on ‘The Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009’.”

Nestle, Joan. 1992. The Persistent desire : a femme-butch reader. Boston: Alyson Publications.

Nestle, Joan. 2003. A restricted country. San Francisco, Calif.: Cleis Press.

Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2001. Upheavals of Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2004. Hiding from Humanity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nussbaum, Martha Craven. 2010. From disgust to humanity : sexual orientation and constitutional law. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Padgug, Robert A. and Gerald M. Oppenheimer. 1992. “Riding the Tiger: AIDS and the Gay Community.” Pp. 245–278 in AIDS: the Making of a Chronic Disease, edited by E. Fee and D. M. Fox. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Parsons, Talcott. 1937. The structure of social action; a study in social theory with special reference to a group of recent European writers. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, inc.

(p.300) Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The social system. Glencoe, Ill.,: Free Press.

Parsons, Talcott. 1961. Theories of society; foundations of modern sociological theory. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

Parsons, Talcott. 1977. Social systems and the evolution of action theory. New York: Free Press.

Pascoe, C. J. 2007. Dude, you’re a fag : masculinity and sexuality in high school. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Patton, Cindy. 1993. “Tremble, Hetero Swine!” Pp. 143–177 in Fear of a Queer Planet, edited by M. Warner. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Paul, Jay. 1984. “The Bisexual Identity: An Idea Without Social Recognition.” Journal of Homosexuality 9:45–63.

Phelan, Shane. 2001. Sexual strangers : gays, lesbians, and dilemmas of citizenship. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Pickel, Andreas. 2007. “Rethinking Systems Theory.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37:391–407.

Pinello, Daniel R. 2003. Gay rights and American law. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pinello, Daniel R. 2006. America’s struggle for same-sex marriage. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Piven, Frances Fox and Richard A. Cloward. 1979. Poor people’s movements : why they succeed, how they fail. New York: Vintage books.

Piven, Frances Fox and Richard A. Cloward. 1993. Regulating the poor : the functions of public welfare. New York: Vintage Books.

Plato. 1998. Symposium, Edited by C. J. Rowe. Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips.

Poirier, Marc R. 2008a. “Microperformances of identity: Visible Same-Sex Couples and the Marriage Controversy.” Washington & Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice 15:3–84.

Poirier, Marc R. 2008b. “Where is Same Sex Marriage?” Florida International University Law Review 3:307–339.

Poirier, Marc R. 2009. “Name Calling: Identifying Stigma in the “Civil Union”/”Marriage” Distinction.” Connecticut Law Review 41:1425–1494.

Polikoff, Nancy D. 2008. Beyond straight and gay marriage : valuing all families under the law. Boston: Beacon Press.

Posner, Richard. 1985. “An Economic Theory of the Criminal Law.” Columbia Law Review 85:1193–1231.

Posner, Richard. 1992. Sex and Reason. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

(p.301) Poulantzas, Nicos Ar. 1969. “The Problem of the Capitalist State.” New Left Review 1.

Poulantzas, Nicos Ar. 1978. State, power, socialism. London: NLB.

Pound, Roscoe. 1942. Social control through law. New Haven Yale University Press.

Powell, Walter W. 1996. “Fields of Practice: Connections Between Law and Organizations.” Law & Social Inquiry 21:959–966.

Powell, Walter W. and Paul DiMaggio. 1991. The New institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Riley, Denise. 1988/2003. Am I That Name?: Feminism and the Category of “Women” in History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Robertson, Campbell and Clifford Krauss. 2010. “Robots Work to Stop Leak of Oil in the Gulf,” The New York Times, April 26, 2010.

Robson, Ruthann. 2009. “Compulsory Matrimony.” Pp. 313–328 in Feminist and Queer Legal Theory: Intimate Encounters, Uncomfortable Conversations, edited by M. Fineman, J. E. Jackson, and A. P. Romero. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Rosenberg, Gerald N. 1991. The hollow hope : can courts bring about social change? Chicago: University of Chicago.

Rubin, Gayle. 1975. “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy of Sex”.” Pp. 157–210 in Toward and Anthropology of Women, edited by R. Reiter. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Rubin, Henry. 2003. Self-made men : identity and embodiment among transsexual men. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

Saad, Lydia. 2007. “Tolerance for Gay Rights at High-Water Mark: Public Evenly Divided Over Whether Homosexuality is Morally Acceptable or Wrong.” in Gallup News Service, May 29, 2007.

Saliers, Emily and Amy Ray. 1997. “Get out the map, Shaming of the Sun.

Sandalow, Marc. 2000. “Exuberant Gay March in D.C.: Hundreds of Thousands Join Call for Equality.” in The San Francisco Chronicle, May 1, 2000.

Sarat, Austin and Stuart A. Scheingold. 2005. The worlds cause lawyers make : structure and agency in legal practice. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Law and Politics.

Sarat, Austin and Stuart A. Scheingold. 2006. Cause lawyers and social movements. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law and Politics.

Sarat, Austin and Stuart A. Scheingold. 2008. The cultural lives of cause lawyers. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

(p.302) Sarat, Austin and Jonathan Simon. 2001. “Beyond Legal Realism?: Cultural Analysis, Cultural Studies, and The Situation of Legal Scholarship.” Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities 1:3–34.

Savage, Dan. 2005. The commitment : love, sex, marriage, and my family. New York: Dutton.

Schacter, Jane S. 2009. “The Other Same-Sex Marriage Debate.” Chicago-Kent Law Review 84: 379–402.

Scheingold, Stuart A. 1974. The politics of rights : lawyers, public policy, and political change. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Scheingold, Stuart A. and Austin Sarat. 1998. Cause Lawyering: political commitments and professional responsibilities. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schmeiser, Susan. 2009. “Changing the Immutable.” Connecticut Law Review 41:1495–1522.

Schrock, Douglas, Lori Reid, and Emily M. Boyd. 2005. “Transsexuals’ Embodiment of Womanhood.” Gender & Society 19:317–335.

Schultz, Vicki. 1998. “Reconceptualizing Sexual Harassment.” Yale Law Journal 107:1683–1805.

Schultz, Vicki. 2003. “The Sanitized Workplace.” Yale Law Journal 112:2061–2193.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1990. Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1993. Tendencies. Durham: Duke University Press.

Seidman, Steven. 1993. “Identity and Politics in a ‘Postmodern’ Gay Culture: Some Historical and Conceptual Notes.” Pp. 105–142 in Fear of a Queer Planet, edited by M. Warner. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Seidman, Steven. 1996. Queer Theory/Sociology, Edited by C. C. Lemert. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.

Seidman, Steven. 2010. The social construction of sexuality. New York: W. W. Norton.

Seron, Carroll and Frank Munger. 1996. “Law and Inequality: Race, Gender … and, of Course, Class.” Annual Review of Sociology 22:187–212.

Shaman, Jeffrey M. 1996. “The Impartial Judge: Detachment or Passion?” DePaul Law Review 45: 605–632.

Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting soldiers and mothers : the political origins of social policy in the United States. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

(p.303) Smith, Dorothy E. 1990. The Conceptual Practices of Power: A Feminist Sociology of Knowledge. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Smythe, Michael A. 2006. “Queers and Provocateurs: Hegemony, Ideology, and the ‘Homosexual Advance’ Defense.” Law & Society Review 40:903–927.

Socarides, Charles W. 1978. Homosexuality. New York: J. Aronson.

Soule, Sarah and Jennifer Earl. 2001. “The Enactment of State-Level Hate Crime Law in the United States: Intrastate and Interstate Factors.” Sociological Perspectives 44:281–305.

Soule, Sarah A. and Yvonne Zylan. 1997. “Runaway Train? The Diffusion of State-Level Reform in ADC/AFDC Eligibility Requirements, 1950–1967.” The American Journal of Sociology 103:733–762.

Spaulding, Pam. 2010. “Republican Sexual Hypocrites, 2010 Edition: Add Anti-Gay California State Senator Roy Ashburn.” in Pam’s House Blend, http://www.pamshouseblend.com/diary/15414/republican-sexual-hypocrites-2010-edition-add-antigay-california-state-senator-roy-ashburn.

Stein, Arlene and Kenneth Plummer. 1996. ““I Can’t Even Think Straight”:‘Queer’ Theory and the Missing Sexual Revolution in Sociology” Pp. 129–144 in Queer Theory/Sociology, edited by S. Seidman. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.

Storrow, Richard F. 1998. “Same-Sex Sexual Harassment Claims After Oncale: Defining the Boundaries of Actionable Conduct.” American University Law Review 47: 677–745

Stryker, Robin. 2007. “Half Empty, Half Full, or Neither: Inequality, and Social Change in Capitalist Democracies.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3:69–97.

Stychin, Carl F. 1998. A nation by rights : national cultures, sexual identity politics, and the discourse of rights. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Stychin, Carl F. 2003. Governing sexuality : the changing politics of citizenship and law reform. Portland: Hart Pub.

Stychin, Carl F. and Didi Herman. 2001. Law and sexuality : the global arena. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Suchman, Mark C. and Lauren B. Edelman. 1996. “Legal Rational Myths: The New Institutionalism and the Law and Society Tradition.” Law & Social Inquiry 21:903–941.

Sudnow, David. 1965. “Normal Crimes: Sociological Features of the Penal Code in a Public Defender Office.” Social Problems 12:255–276.

(p.304) Suffredini, Kara S. 2001. “Pride and Prejudice: the homosexual panic defense.” B.C. Third World Law Journal 21: 279–314.

Sullivan, Andrew. 1996. Virtually normal : an argument about homosexuality. New York: Vintage Books.

Sunstein, Cass R. 1989. “Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Note on the Relationship Between Due Process and Equal Protection.” University of Chicago Law Review 55:1161–79.

Sunstein, Cass R. 1990. After the Rights Revolution: Reconceiving the Regulatory State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sunstein, Cass R. 1996. “On the Expressive Function of Law.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144:2021–2053.

Sutton, John R. 1996. “Rethinking Social Control.” Law & Social Inquiry 21:943–958.

Swartz, David. 1997. Culture & power : the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tamanaha, Brian Z. 2001. A general jurisprudence of law and society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tamanaha, Brian Z. 2006. Law as a means to an end : threat to the rule of law. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tarrow, Sidney G. 1998. Power in movement : social movements and contentious politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, Verta, Katrina Kimport, Nella Van Dyke, and Ellen Andersen. 2009. “Culture and Mobilization: Tactical Repertoires, Same-Sex Weddings, and the Impact on Gay Activism.” American Sociological Review 74:865–890.

The New York Times. 2009. “Obama’s Remarks on the Resignation of Justice Souter, in The New York Times, May 1, 2009.

Thorne, Barrie. 1993. Gender play : girls and boys in school. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Thorne, Barrie and Marilyn Yalom. 1992. Rethinking the family : some feminist questions. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Touraine, Alain. 1977. The self-production of society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Touraine, Alain. 1981. The voice and the eye : an analysis of social movements. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Traugott, Mark. 1995. Repertoires and cycles of collective action. Durham: Duke University Press.

Tushnet, Mark. 1984. “A Critique of Rights.” Texas Law Review 62:1363–1403.

(p.305) Tyler, Carole-Anne. 1997. “Passing: Narcissism, Identity, and Difference.” in feminism meets queer theory, Differences, edited by E. Weed and N. Schor. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2006. “Hate Crime Statistics, 2005.” Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

United States Bureau of the Census. 2010. “2010 Statistical Abstracts, “Marital Status of the Population by Sex and Age, 2008”.” Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. 2009. “Who Marries and When? Age at First Marriage in the United States, 2002.” Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Valocchi, Stephen. 2009. “The Importance of Being ‘We’: Collective Identity and the Mobilizing Work of Progressive Activists in Hartford, Connecticut.” Mobilization 14:65–84.

Warner, Michael. 1991. “Introduction: Fear of a Queer Planet.” Social Text:3–17.

Warner, Michael. 1999. The trouble with normal : sex, politics, and the ethics of queer life. New York: Free Press.

Warner, Michael and Social Text Collective. 1993. Fear of a queer planet : queer politics and social theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Weber, Max. 1954. Max Weber on law in economy and society. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press.

Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: an outline of interpretive sociology. Translated by G. Roth and C. Wittich. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Weed, Elizabeth and Naomi Schor. 1997. Feminism meets queer theory. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.

Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its discontents : meanings, myths, & modern sexualities. Boston: Routledge & K. Paul.

Weisberg, D. Kelly. 1993. Feminist legal theory : foundations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Wells, Michael L. 2007. “Sociological Legitimacy in Supreme Court Opinions.” Washington & Lee Law Review 64:1011–1070.

West, Candace and Don H. Zimmerman. 1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender & Society 1:125–151.

West, Robin. 2007. Marriage, sexuality, and gender. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.

(p.306) Weston, Kath. 1991. Families we choose : lesbians, gays, kinship. New York: Columbia University Press.

Williams, Patricia J. 1991. The alchemy of race and rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, Edward O. 1978. On human nature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Wittig, Monique. 1992. The straight mind and other essays. Boston: Beacon Press.

Wolfson, Evan. 1994. “Crossing the Threshold: Equal Marriage Rights for Lesbians and Gay Men and the Intra-Community Critique.” New York University Review of Law & Social Change 21:567–615.

Yoshino, Kenji. 2006. Covering : the hidden assault on our civil rights. New York: Random House.

Yoshino, Kenji. 2007. “Marriage, Trademarked.” in Slate: Jurisprudence, http://www.slate.com/id/2169615/.

Zald, Mayer N. and John D. McCarthy. 1987. Social movements in an organizational society : collected essays. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.

Zimring, Franklin E. and Gordon Hawkins. 1973. Deterrence; the legal threat in crime control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Zylan, Yvonne. (in progress) “The Salacious State: Postmodern Patriarchy and the Enforcement of the Marriage Contract.”

Zylan, Yvonne. 1995. “The Divided Female State: gender, citizenship, and U.S. social policy development, 1945–1990.” New York University, Dept. of Sociology (Ph.D. Dissertation).

Zylan, Yvonne. 1996. “Comment on Fraser and Gordon’s “A Genealogy of Dependency: Tracing a Keyword of the U.S. Welfare State”.” Signs 21:515–530.

Zylan, Yvonne. 2000. “Maternalism Redefined: Gender, the State, and the Politics of Day Care, 1945–1962.” Gender & Society 14:608–629

Zylan, Yvonne. 2006. “Finding the Sex in Sexual Harassment: How Title VII and Tort Schemes Miss the Point of Same-Sex Hostile Environment Harassment.” Michigan Journal of Law Reform 39:391–431.

Zylan, Yvonne. 2009. “Passions We Like … And Those We Don’t: Anti-Gay Hate Crime and the Discursive Construction of Sex, Gender, and the Body.” Michigan Journal of Gender & Law 16:1–48.

Zylan, Yvonne and Sarah A. Soule. 2000. “Ending Welfare As We Know It (Again): Welfare State Retrenchment, 1989–1995.” Social Forces 79:623–652.