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Stereotype ThreatTheory, Process, and Application$
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Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199732449

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.001.0001

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Stereotype Threat Spillover

Stereotype Threat Spillover

The Short- and Long-term Effects of Coping with Threats to Social Identity

Chapter:
7 Stereotype Threat Spillover
Source:
Stereotype Threat
Author(s):

Michael Inzlicht

Alexa M. Tullett

Jennifer N. Gutsell

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732449.003.0007

Experiencing prejudice has consequences. When people feel like they are being judged by a negative stereotype about their group, they perform poorly in the domain in which the stereotype applies—a phenomenon known as stereotype threat. Unfortunately, the effects of stereotype threat do not end in the threatening environment, but also spill over into other domains, where they can have further detrimental consequences. In this chapter, we present a model detailing the social-psychological processes whereby someone confronted with a negative stereotype comes to suffer effects in areas unrelated to the source of threat, an experience we call stereotype threat spillover. This model is based on identity-threat models of stigma, process models of stereotype threat, and theories of stress and coping. We first describe some of the short-term effects of spillover, including aggression, risky decision-making, and overeating. We then discuss long-term effects, including both physical health problems like obesity and hypertension, as well as mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. We end on a positive note when we outline traits and offer strategies that allow individuals to overcome the negative outcomes set in motion by the powerful experience of prejudice.

Keywords:   stereotype threat, spillover, self-control, ego-depletion, eating, aggression, decision making, health

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