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Bosnia RemadeEthnic Cleansing and its Reversal$

Gerard Toal and Carl T. Dahlman

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780199730360

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730360.001.0001

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(p.327) Appendix

(p.327) Appendix

Source:
Bosnia Remade
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Appendix Table 1. Census Counts and Ethnic Structure of the Population of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1948–1991

Count

1948

1953

1961

1971

1981

1991

Croats

614,123

654,227

711,665

772,491

758,140

760,852

Muslims

788,403

891,798

842,248

1,482,430

1,630,033

1,902,956

Serbs

1,135,147

1,264,045

1,406,057

1,393,148

1,320,738

1,366,104

Yugoslavs

275,883

43,796

326,316

242,682

Others

26,635

37,389

42,095

54,246

89,029

104,439

Total

2,564,308

2,847,459

3,277,948

3,746,111

4,124,256

4,377,033

Percentage

1948

1953

1961

1971

1981

1991

Croats

23.9

23.0

21.7

20.6

18.4

17.4

Muslims

30.7

31.3

25.7

39.6

39.5

43.5

Serbs

44.3

44.4

42.9

37.2

32.0

31.2

Yugoslavs

8.4

1.2

7.9

5.5

Others

1.0

1.3

1.3

1.4

2.2

2.4

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

(p.328)

Table A.2. Least Ethnically Diverse Opštine According to the 1991 Census

Opština

Croats

Muslims

Serbs

Yugoslavs and Others

Population

Area (km2)

Pop. Density

Grude

99.1%

0.0%

0.1%

0.8%

16,358

218

75

Posušje

99.0%

0.0%

0.1%

0.9%

17,134

372

46

Široki Brijeg

98.9%

0.0%

0.5%

0.5%

27,180

388

70

Čitluk

98.3%

0.7%

0.1%

0.9%

15,083

181

83

Cazin

0.2%

97.3%

1.2%

1.3%

63,409

381

166

Drvar

0.2%

0.2%

97.0%

2.6%

17,126

950

18

Bosansko Grahovo

2.7%

0.1%

94.9%

2.2%

8,311

780

11

Šekovići

0.1%

3.4%

93.8%

2.7%

9,629

195

49

Ljubuški

92.2%

5.6%

0.2%

2.0%

28,340

289

98

Velika Kladuša

1.4%

91.3%

4.3%

3.0%

52,908

304

174

Ljubinje

0.9%

8.0%

89.8%

1.3%

4,172

326

13

Srbac

0.6%

4.3%

88.7%

6.3%

21,840

447

49

Čelinac

0.4%

7.7%

88.5%

3.4%

18,713

365

51

Neum

87.7%

4.4%

4.8%

3.1%

4,325

230

19

Tomislavgrad

86.6%

10.5%

1.9%

1.0%

30,009

967

31

Laktaši

8.6%

1.4%

81.0%

9.0%

29,832

387

77

Živinice

7.3%

80.3%

6.4%

6.0%

54,783

281

195

Bileća

0.3%

14.7%

80.0%

5.0%

13,284

633

21

Kalesija

0.1%

79.3%

18.3%

2.3%

41,809

272

154

Šipovo

0.2%

19.0%

79.2%

1.6%

15,579

470

33

Glamoč

1.5%

17.9%

79.0%

1.6%

12,593

1,096

11

Sarajevo Stari Grad

2.2%

77.7%

10.1%

10.0%

50,744

123

413

Mrkonjić Grad

7.8%

11.9%

76.9%

3.4%

27,395

679

40

Breza

4.9%

75.5%

12.3%

7.3%

17,317

83

209

Srebrenica

0.1%

75.2%

22.7%

2.0%

36,666

527

70

Orašje

75.1%

6.7%

14.9%

3.3%

28,367

166

171

(p.329) (p.330)

Table A.3. Population Counts and Estimates of Zvornik, Jajce, and Doboj, 1991–2005

Prewar Population Structure (Actual and Estimated)

1997 Population Structure (Estimated)

2004‐05 Population Structure

Population

Ethnic Structure (%)

Population

Domicile

Displaced

Ethnic Structure (%)

Population

Ethnic Structure (%)

Total

Bosniaks

Croats

Serbs

Yugo.

Others

Total

Population

Population

Bosniak

Croat

Serb

Total

Bosniak

Croat

Serb

Other

Zvornik, prewar territory

81,295

59.2

0.2

38.0

1.5

1.2

63,511

35,461

27,131

66,122

Zvornik (RS)

70,120

57.1

0.2

39.8

1.7

1.2

50,000

30,282

18,799

|100

51,688

Sapna (FBiH)

11,175

72.4

0.1

26.4

0.3

0.8

13,511

5,179

8,332

|100

14,434

99.1

1

0.4

0.4

Jajce, prewar territory

45,007

38.6

35.1

19.2

5.5

1.5

13,526

11,222

304

25,068

Jajce (FBiH)

43,203

38.5

36.4

18.0

5.7

1.5

11,526

11,222

304

23,752

27.7

67.7

4.6

〈1

Jajce, HDZ admin. area

38,776

35.5

40.5

16.1

6.3

1.6

9,966

9,875

91

|100

n/a

Jajce‐Vinac, SDA admin area

4,427

64.3

0.1

35.0

0.4

0.2

1,560

1,347

213

|100

n/a

Jezero (RS)

1,804

41.9

5.3

49.2

2.2

1.4

2,000

|100

1,316

Doboj, prewar territory

102,549

40.1

12.9

38.8

5.6

2.5

Doboj (RS)

93,179

32.0

12.8

46.4

6.1

2.7

68,196

49,423

17,617

|99

80,464

Doboj East (FBiH)

8,273

98.9

0.0

0.3

0.5

0.4

22,078

10,500

11,578

|99

10,686

99.7

0.0

0.2

0.1

Doboj South (FBiH)

3,259

93.4

3.0

0.6

1.8

1.2

3,815

2,267

1,548

99.2

0.1

0.8

4,844

99.1

0.8

0.1

0.0

Usora (FBiH)

11,257

28.1

68.1

0.9

1.7

1.2

7,930

5.1

0.3

94.6

7,088

6.5

92.9

0.6

0.0

Italics indicate estimates.

Prewar population structures for postwar territories were imputed by the authors from 1991 census data.

Estimates for 1997 based on UNHCR data.

Population figures for 2004–5 based on entity demographic publications. Federation data from 30 June 2005; RS data from 2004.

(p.331)

Table A.4. Statistical Estimates of Displacement and UNHCR Populations of Concern, 1993–2009

Category

1993*

1994*

1995*

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006**

2007**

2008**

2009**

Persons of Concern in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Refugees

40,000

40,000

65,645

38,152

32,745

28,022

22,517

22,215

10,568

10,318

7,367

7,257

Asylum seekers

3

22

80

386

457

701

454

215

91

627

480

Returned refugees

1

99

815

100,618

120,852

129,073

31,783

18,715

18,665

41,705

14,012

2,447

1,273

1,419

3,092

971

Internally displaced

1,290,000

1,282,587

1,097,800

760,146

816,000

836,430

809,545

518,252

438,253

367,491

327,188

309,240

182,747

135,500

130,984

124,529

Returned IDPs

58,360

29,570

43,385

59,347

80,172

70,775

40,303

17,948

5,164

4,184

4,516

715

Total Persons of Concern

1,035,212

1,035,073

950,380

634,546

570,221

508,450

404,721

352,304

199,967

151,512

146,586

194,448

Returns per year

Minority returns

11,676

33,847

41,191

41,007

67,445

92,061

102,111

44,868

14,199

5,815

4,596

6,917

1,564

293

Majority returns

241,104

144,728

98,379

34,028

10,509

6,804

5,798

9,447

6,191

622

1,007

661

117

8

Total returns

252,780

178,575

139,570

75,035

77,954

98,865

107,909

54,315

20,390

6,437

5,603

7,578

1,681

301

Refugees outside BiH

Serbia and Mont.

200,901

98,200

84,747

250,744

241,438

200,937

198,213

189,959

143,094

121,449

99,785

95,297

46,951

Croatia

287,000

183,600

193,544

158,659

68,340

28,659

24,960

20,889

20,421

7,672

3,930

3,204

2,545

Slovenia

44,321

29,156

18,804

8,337

4,636

3,462

3,122

2,804

2,381

353

2,001

214

137

United States

1,887

9,248

19,413

31,656

53,082

82,137

97,504

106,410

108,803

92,293

61,834

39,393

20,446

Sweden

29,298

47,793

49,340

49,409

50,931

51,871

52,472

52,891

53,396

53,435

25,836

7,177

5,736

Germany

350,000

320,000

330,000

245,000

100,000

50,000

30,000

24,000

40,531

38,688

30,083

9,223

Austria

74,131

69,885

68,087

66,869

1,398

1,402

1,255

Denmark

2,712

6,048

23,629

25,598

26,987

27,222

27,344

27,519

26,139

27,851

25,395

22,176

4,633

Netherlands

4,668

11,134

18,299

22,042

23,675

23,833

23,969

24,229

24,439

24,556

19,943

13,518

6,435

Norway

13,783

14,051

14,268

14,339

14,385

13,276

4,991

3,875

Switzerland

4,499

5,144

10,410

5,854

7,287

7,964

8,043

7,654

6,945

6,553

6,165

Turkey

16,773

20,000

5,614

1,770

887

617

514

634

627

574

494

494

Others

47,640

40,905

37,478

38,148

41,074

33,962

32,185

26,579

20,818

16,123

10,658

7,341

7,659

Total

618,427

776,084

769,753

993,868

849,241

640,075

598,193

504,981

447,321

406,448

300,006

228,831

109,930

Asylum seekers outside BiH

75,999

24,570

17,429

6,706

8,376

10,271

6,755

11,429

10,814

8,210

5,590

5,424

4,391

(*) UNHCR estimates of wartime displacement vary considerably.

(**) Complete figures not yet available for 2006–2009.

Data sources: UNHCR Year Books and Country Data Sheets 1993–2008; UNHCR‐Bosnia Statistics Package 1996–2009.

(p.332) (p.333)

Table A.5. Minority Returns to Zvornik, Doboj, and Jajce

1996–1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

B**

C

S

Total

B

C

S

Total

B

C

S

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

Zvornik (RS)

0

463

463

2,357

2,357

3,222

3,222

2,333

2,333

3,562

3,562

Sapna (FBiH)

0

3

3

81

81

147

147

126

108

234

Doboj (RS)

66

79

145

1,260

5

1,265

1,841

23

1,864

3,091

33

3,124

9,121

113

9,234

6,809

234

122

7,165

Doboj East (FBiH)

0

4

4

Doboj South (FBiH)

0

13

11

24

Usora (FBiH)

0

4

4

8

8

Jajce (FBiH)

2,591

2,591

3,383

3,383

1,120

10

13

1,143

288

33

10

331

459

218

6

683

682

65

340

2

1,089

Jezero (RS)

0

164

4

168

60

60

2003

2004

2005

2006*

2007

1996–2007

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

B

C

S

O

Total

Zvornik (RS)

1,422

1,422

1,385

1,385

138

138

0

0

14,882

0

0

0

14,882

Sapna (FBiH)

123

123

243

243

0

0

0

0

3

720

108

831

Doboj (RS)

1,336

141

118

1,595

448

448

181

181

111

40

151

4

3

7

24,268

671

0

240

25,179

Doboj East (FBiH)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

4

Doboj South (FBiH)

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

11

0

24

Usora (FBiH)

2

1

3

0

0

0

0

10

0

5

0

15

Jajce (FBiH)

4

22

2

28

175

100

118

3

396

32

1

33

18

8

26

47

10

57

8,799

175

763

23

9,760

Jezero (RS)

0

0

0

0

0

224

4

0

0

228

(*) UNHCR has not released complete local data for 1996 nor since 2007.

(**) B(osniak), C(roat), S(erb).

(p.334)

Table A.6. Election Data for Zvornik, Doboj, and Jajce

Zvornik

1997

2000

2004

2008

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

SDA (1)

1,154

4.2

16,522

88.0

17,676

38.4

28

59

0.2

6,193

67.0

6,252

17.1

6

3,487

15.2

5

3,132

10.5

3

SBiH (1)

194

0.9

0

SDS

12,188

44.7

629

3.4

12,817

27.8

20

10,234

37.4

146

1.6

10,380

28.3

9

4,589

20.0

7

3,769

12.6

4

SRS

8,309

30.5

633

3.4

8,942

19.4

14

747

3.3

1

711

2.4

0

SPRS

3,401

12.5

176

0.9

3,577

7.8

6

3,502

12.8

69

0.7

3,571

9.8

3

1,976

8.6

3

1,292

6.1

1

SNS‐Plavšić

6,971

25.5

46

0.5

7,017

19.2

6

SDP

54

0.2

333

1.8

387

0.8

0

56

0.2

2,400

26.0

2,456

6.7

2

837

3.7

1

1,913

6.4

2

SNSD‐Dodik (2)

229

0.8

42

0.2

271

0.6

0

2,105

7.7

63

0.7

2,168

5.9

2

2,020

8.9

3

8,537

28.5

10

PDP‐Ivanić

945

3.5

18

0.2

963

2.6

1

2,084

9.1

3

1,899

6.3

2

D. Spasojević

952

3.5

12

0.1

964

2.6

1

DSRS

1,367

5.0

44

0.5

1,411

3.9

1

902

3.9

1

1,817

6.1

2

DNS

4,248

18.5

7

6,109

20.4

7

Others

1,945

7.1

430

2.3

2,375

5.2

2

1,184

4.2

255

2.7

1,439

3.9

1,861

8.0

751

0.8

Total

27,280

100

18,765

100

46,045

100

70

27,375

100

9,246

100

36,621

100

31

22,945

100

31

29,930

100

31

In person/absentee (%)

59.2

40.8

74.8

25.2

Doboj

1997

2000

2004

2008

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

SDA (1)

1,253

3.3

12,100

72.6

13,353

24.2

17

46

0.2

2,371

31.0

2,417

6.4

2

1,346

5.1

2

1,827

4.4

1

SBiH (1)

499

1.9

SDP

455

1.2

1,311

7.9

1,766

3.2

2

422

1.4

3,453

45.1

3,875

10.2

3

1,161

4.36

1

2,744

6.7

2

SRS

7,975

20.7

299

1.8

8,274

15

10

108

0.3

0

SDS

18,798

48.9

592

3.6

19,390

35.2

24

13,565

44.9

167

2.2

13,732

36.3

12

9,933

37.27

13

18,407

44.8

14

HDZ

74

0.2

1,104

6.6

1,178

2.1

2

DSRS

1,045

2.7

55

0.3

1,100

2

1

SPRS

4,569

11.9

158

0.9

4,727

8.6

6

2,906

9.6

64

0.8

2,970

7.8

2

1,391

5.22

2

1,168

2.8

0

SNSD‐Dodik (2)

4,979

16.5

104

1.4

5,083

13.4

4

3,985

14.95

5

12,087

29.4

9

PDP‐Ivanić

3,749

12.4

37

0.5

3,786

10

3

5,106

19.16

6

1,950

4.7

2

SNS‐Plavšic

1,875

6.2

27

0.4

1,902

5

2

Pensioners RS

1,054

3.5

54

0.7

1,108

2.9

1

760

2.85

Others

4,308

11.1

1,046

6.3

5,354

9.7

0

1,598

5.3

1,382

17.9

2,980

8.0

2,469

9.3

2,812

6.9

1

Total

38,477

100

16,665

100

55,142

100

63

30,194

100

7,659

100

37,853

100

29

26,650

100

29

41,103

100

29

In person/absentee (%)

69.8

30.2

79.8

20.2

Jajce

1997

2000

2004

2008

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Voted in person

%

Voted absentee

%

Total

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

Votes

%

Seats

HDZ (4)

6,913

76.9

2,655

24.5

9,568

48.2

16.0

5,087

62.0

1,139

25.0

6,226

48.8

15

2,292

33.2

9

4,945

35.4

9

SDA (1)

1,609

17.9

7,449

68.6

9,058

45.7

15.0

1,468

17.9

2,014

44.2

3,482

27.3

9

2,152

31.2

9

6,630

47.4

13

SBiH (1)

627

9.1

2

SDP

201

2.2

379

3.5

580

2.9

1,254

15.3

1,124

24.7

2,378

18.6

6

987

14.3

4

1,049

7.5

2

NHI (3)

299

3.6

71

1.6

370

2.9

1

303

4.4

1

529

3.8

1

Others

262

3.0

369

3.4

631

3.2

94

1.2

207

4.5

301

2.4

537

7.8

824

5.9

Total

8,985

100

10,852

100

19,837

100

31.0

8,202

100

4,555

100

12,757

100

31

6,898

100

25

13,977

100

25

In person/absentee (%)

45.3

54.7

64.3

35.7

(1.) The SDA and SBiH ran in these opstina under united lists. In 1997, they ran with the Liberal Party and the Citizen's Democratic Party under the banner of the Coalition for a United and Democratic BiH (Kolaicija za Cjelovitu I Demokratsku Bosnu I Herzegovinu). In 2000 and 2008, the SDA and SBiH ran independently in largely Bosniak opstine but ran together in areas dominated by other political parties, especially the Serb and Croat nationalist parties.

(2.) The SNSD ran locally in 1997 and was only subsequently identified as “SNSD Milorad Dodik.”

(3.) The New Croatian Initiative (Nova Hrvatska Inicijativa, NHI) ran alone in 2000. It ran together with the Croatian Peasant Party of BiH (Hrvatska seljačka stranka, HSS) in local elections in 2004 and 2008.

(4.) HDZ ran together with HDZ 1990 and HKDU BiH in Jajce in 2008.

(p.335) (p.336)