- Title Pages
- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender
- 1 Surrender and Prisoners in Prehistoric and Tribal Societies
- 2 Surrender in Ancient Greece
- 3 Surrender in Ancient Rome
- 4 Surrender in Medieval Europe—An Indirect Approach*
- 5 Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades
- 6 Basil II the Bulgar-slayer and the Blinding of 15,000 Bulgarians in 1014: Mutilation and Prisoners of War in the Middle Ages
- 7 How Fighting Ended in the Aztec Empire and its Surrender to the Europeans
- 8 Surrender in the Northeastern Borderlands of Native America
- 9 Surrender in the Thirty Years War
- 10 Surrender and the Laws of War in Western Europe, c. 1660–1783
- 11 Ritual Performance: Surrender during the American War of Independence
- 12 Going Down with Flying Colours?
- 13 ‘Civilized, Rational Behaviour’? The Concept and Practice of Surrender in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815
- 14 Robert E. Lee, the Army of Northern Virginia, and Confederate Surrender
- 15 Surrender in Britain’s Small Colonial Wars of the Nineteenth Century
- 16 Surrender of Soldiers in World War I
- 17 By the book? Commanders Surrendering in World War I
- 18 The Breaking Point: Surrender 1918
- 19 French Surrender in 1940: Soldiers, Commanders, Civilians
- 20 The Issue of Surrender in the Malayan Campaign, 1941–2
- 21 ‘Neither Defeat nor Surrender’: Italy’s Change of Alliances in 1943
- 22 German Soldiers and Surrender, 1945
- 23 Kamikaze Warfare in Imperial Japan’s Existential Crisis, 1944–5
- 24 The German Surrender of 1945
- 25 Kosovo, the Serbian Surrender, and the Western Dilemma: Achieving Victories with Low Casualties
- 26 How Fighting Ends: Asymmetric Wars, Terrorism, and Suicide Bombing
- A ‘True Chameleon’?
Surrender in Ancient Rome
Surrender in Ancient Rome
- (p.29) 3 Surrender in Ancient Rome
- How Fighting Ends
Loretana de Libero
- Oxford University Press
This chapter deals with the moment of surrender between the Romans and their enemies in the last two centuries B.C. It raises the question of why and when they stopped fighting, and how surrender was brought about. Moreover, it will work out motivations, expectations, and emotions of the individual soldiers as well as of their commanders, which finally led to their giving in — or not giving in. Based on case studies like the famous ‘Mancinus affair’ not only the fates of defeated generals, towns or peoples are to be analysed but also Roman values and legal procedures, especially, the practice and consequences of deditio, an act of surrender, which in itself is unconditional.
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