- Title Pages
- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender
- 1 Surrender and Prisoners in Prehistoric and Tribal Societies
- 2 Surrender in Ancient Greece
- 3 Surrender in Ancient Rome
- 4 Surrender in Medieval Europe—An Indirect Approach<sup>*</sup>
- 5 Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades
- 6 Basil II the Bulgar-slayer and the Blinding of 15,000 Bulgarians in 1014: Mutilation and Prisoners of War in the Middle Ages
- 7 How Fighting Ended in the Aztec Empire and its Surrender to the Europeans
- 8 Surrender in the Northeastern Borderlands of Native America
- 9 Surrender in the Thirty Years War
- 10 Surrender and the Laws of War in Western Europe, <i>c.</i> 1660–1783
- 11 Ritual Performance: Surrender during the American War of Independence
- 12 Going Down with Flying Colours?
- 13 ‘Civilized, Rational Behaviour’? The Concept and Practice of Surrender in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815
- 14 Robert E. Lee, the Army of Northern Virginia, and Confederate Surrender
- 15 Surrender in Britain’s Small Colonial Wars of the Nineteenth Century
- 16 Surrender of Soldiers in World War I
- 17 By the book? Commanders Surrendering in World War I
- 18 The Breaking Point: Surrender 1918
- 19 French Surrender in 1940: Soldiers, Commanders, Civilians
- 20 The Issue of Surrender in the Malayan Campaign, 1941–2
- 21 ‘Neither Defeat nor Surrender’: Italy’s Change of Alliances in 1943
- 22 German Soldiers and Surrender, 1945
- 23 Kamikaze Warfare in Imperial Japan’s Existential Crisis, 1944–5
- 24 The German Surrender of 1945
- 25 Kosovo, the Serbian Surrender, and the Western Dilemma: Achieving Victories with Low Casualties
- 26 How Fighting Ends: Asymmetric Wars, Terrorism, and Suicide Bombing
- A ‘True Chameleon’?
Surrender in World War II
- (p.313) Introduction
- How Fighting Ends
Gerhard L. Weinberg
- Oxford University Press
Both sides in World War II expected the other to accept unconditional surrender. If Hitler had been overthrown by internal opposition there might have been a compromise peace. France and Finland were the only participants to secure an armistice. Stalin might have been interested in a separate peace with Germany but Hitler was not. German and Japanese war aims precluded serious negotiations. Concern over Germany's starting a third world war greatly influenced the Allies, and especially Roosevelt, to insist on unconditional surrender. Worry that Japanese soldiers might fight on after the occupation of the home islands and an official surrender led the Allies to agree to Japan keeping an imperial system subject to Allied command. The war ended with all participants on the defeated side with the exception of Finland completely occupied by the victors.
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