- Title Pages
- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender
- 1 Surrender and Prisoners in Prehistoric and Tribal Societies
- 2 Surrender in Ancient Greece
- 3 Surrender in Ancient Rome
- 4 Surrender in Medieval Europe—An Indirect Approach*
- 5 Surrender and Capitulation in the Middle East in the Age of the Crusades
- 6 Basil II the Bulgar-slayer and the Blinding of 15,000 Bulgarians in 1014: Mutilation and Prisoners of War in the Middle Ages
- 7 How Fighting Ended in the Aztec Empire and its Surrender to the Europeans
- 8 Surrender in the Northeastern Borderlands of Native America
- 9 Surrender in the Thirty Years War
- 10 Surrender and the Laws of War in Western Europe, c. 1660–1783
- 11 Ritual Performance: Surrender during the American War of Independence
- 12 Going Down with Flying Colours?
- 13 ‘Civilized, Rational Behaviour’? The Concept and Practice of Surrender in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815
- 14 Robert E. Lee, the Army of Northern Virginia, and Confederate Surrender
- 15 Surrender in Britain’s Small Colonial Wars of the Nineteenth Century
- 16 Surrender of Soldiers in World War I
- 17 By the book? Commanders Surrendering in World War I
- 18 The Breaking Point: Surrender 1918
- 19 French Surrender in 1940: Soldiers, Commanders, Civilians
- 20 The Issue of Surrender in the Malayan Campaign, 1941–2
- 21 ‘Neither Defeat nor Surrender’: Italy’s Change of Alliances in 1943
- 22 German Soldiers and Surrender, 1945
- 23 Kamikaze Warfare in Imperial Japan’s Existential Crisis, 1944–5
- 24 The German Surrender of 1945
- 25 Kosovo, the Serbian Surrender, and the Western Dilemma: Achieving Victories with Low Casualties
- 26 How Fighting Ends: Asymmetric Wars, Terrorism, and Suicide Bombing
- A ‘True Chameleon’?
Surrender in Medieval Times
- (p.41) Introduction
- How Fighting Ends
- Oxford University Press
In considering surrender in medieval times, one must first differentiate between pitched battles and siege warfare. Whereas the latter normally was a collective process, surrender on the battlefield typically was an individual one, not a mass phenomenon. Medieval surrender must be understood as a social interaction between two persons or two parties: the person or party who was surrendering and the person or party who was accepting the surrender. Therefore there were no standards or even laws for medieval surrender on battlefield. Success frequently depended on pure contingency and, even if there was a chance for the losing party to surrender, the winning party still had the option of refusing. The victor accepted the offer to surrender only if the reward was sufficient.
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