Abramson, C. I. (1994). A Primer of Invertebrate Learning: The Behavioral Perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Adolphs, R. (2001). The neurobiology of social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 231–39.
Adolphs, R. (2005). Could a robot have emotions? Theoretical perspectives from social cognitive neuroscience. In M. A. Arbib & J. M. Fellous (Eds.), Who Needs Emotions? The brain meets the robot. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 9–28.
Ainslie, G. (1975). Specious reward: A behavioral theory of impulsiveness and impulse control. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 463–96.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Allen, C., & Bekoff, M. (1997). Species of Mind: The Philosophy and Biology of Cognitive Ethology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Allen, T. A., & Fortin, N. J. (2013). The evolution of episodic memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110(Suppl. 2), 10379–86.
Allman, J. (1999). Evolving Brains. New York: Scientific American.
Allman, J. M, et al. (2005). Intuition and autism: A possible role for Von Economo neurons. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 367–73.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Anderson, D. J., & Adolphs, R. (2014). A framework for studying emotions across species. Cell, 157(1), 187–200.
Arathi, H. S., et al. (2000). Ethology of hygienic behaviour in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hymenoptera: Apidae: Behavioural repertoire of hygienic bees. Ethology, 106, 1–15.
Ariely, D. (2009). Predictably Irrational. New York: Harper Collins.
Arkin, R., et al. (2003). An ethological and emotional basis for human-robot interaction. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 42(3–4), 191–201.
Arnold, M. B. (1960). Emotion and Personality. New York: Columbia University Press.
Arnold, K., & Zuberbühler, K. (2006). Language evolution: Semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature, 441, 303.
Aunger, R. (2010). What’s special about human technology? Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34, 115–23.
Aunger, R., & Curtis, V. (2008). Kinds of behaviour. Biology and Philosophy, 23(3), 317–45.
Aunger, R., & Curtis, V. (2013). The anatomy of motivation: An evolutionary ecological approach. Biological Theory, 8, 49–63.
Aunger, R., & Curtis, V. (2014). The Evo-Eco approach to behaviour change. In D. W. Lawson & M. Gibson (Eds.), Applied Evolutionary Anthropology. London: Springer, pp. 271–95.
Austin, J. T., & Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 338–75.
(p.136) Avargues-Weber, A., et al. (2011). Conceptualization of above and below relationships by an insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278, 898–905.
Averill, J. R. (1980). A constructionist view of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience New York: Academic Press. 305–39.
Avital, E., & Jablonka, E. (2000). Animal Traditions: Behavioural Inheritance in Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Axelrod, R. (1986). An evolutionary approach to norms. American Political Science Review, 80, 1095–1111.
Baddeley, A. D. (1984). Neuropsychological evidence and the semantic/episodic distinction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 238–39.
Baldwin, J. M. (1896). A new factor in evolution. The American Naturalist, 30, 441–51.
Balleine, B. W., & Dickinson, A. (1998). Goal-directed instrumental action: Contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacology, 37, 407–19.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462–79.
Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. (2010). Unconscious behavioral guidance systems. In C. Agnew et al. (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research New York: Oxford University Press. 89–118.
Barker, R. G. (1963). The stream of behavior: Explorations of its structure and content. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Barker, R. G., & Wright, H. F. (1954). Midwest and its children: The psychological ecology of an American town. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson & Company.
Barlow, H. B. (1994). What is the computational goal of the neocortex? In C. Koch & J. L. Davis (Eds.), Large-scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain Boston, MA: MIT Press. 1–22.
Barrett, L. F. (2006). Emotions as natural kinds? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 28–58.
Bateson, P. (2000). Taking the stink out of instinct. In H. Rose & S. Rose (Eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments against evolutionary psychology London: Cape. 157–73.
Bateson, P. (2003). The promise of behavioral biology. Animal Behavior, 65, 11–17.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.
Baumeister, R. F., & Masicampo, E. J. (2010). Conscious thought is for facilitating social and cultural interactions: How mental simulations serve the animal–culture interface. Psychological Review, 117, 945–71.
Baxter, R., & Kimmel, H. D. (1963). Conditioning and extinction in the planarian. American Journal of Psychology, 76, 665–69.
Bekhtereva, N. P., et al. (2000). Study of the brain organization of creativity: II. Positron-emission tomography data. Human Physiology, 26, 516–22.
Bekoff, M. (1984). Social play behavior. Bioscience, 34, 228–33.
Bekoff, M., & Byers, J. A. (2004). Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative and ecological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Benzer, S. (1973). Genetic dissection of behavior. Scientific American, 229, 24–37.
Bergstrom, C. T., & Rosvall, M. (2011). The transmission sense of information. Biology & Philosophy, 26(2), 159–76.
Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Berridge, K. C. (2003). Comparing the emotion brain of humans to other animals. In R. J. Davidson et al. (Eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(p.137) Berridge, K. C. (2004). Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiology and Behavior, 81(2), 179–209.
Berridge, K. C., & Robinson, T E. (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews, 28(3), 309–69.
Beswick, D. G. (1971). Cognitive process theory of individual differences in curiosity. In H. I. Day et al. (Eds.), Intrinsic Motivation: A new direction in education Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 156–70.
Biederman, I., & Vessel, E. A. (2006). Perceptual pleasure and the brain. American Scientist, 94, 249–55.
Bindra, D. (1978). How adaptive behaviour is produced: A perceptual-motivational alternative to response reinforcement. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 41–91.
Biran, A., et al. (2014). Effect of a behaviour-change intervention on handwashing with soap in India (SuperAmma): A cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Global Health, 2(3), e145–e54.
Blackmore, S. (2011). Consciousness: An introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bock, J. (2005). What makes a competent adult forager? In Barry S. Hewlett and Michael E. Lamb (Eds) Hunt- er-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives., New Jersey: Aldine Transaction, 109–28.
Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the forest: The evolution of egalitarian behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bogin, B. (2009). Childhood, adolescence, and longevity: A multilevel model of the evolution of reserve capacity in human life history. American Journal of Human Biology, 21(4), 567–77.
Bohr, N. (1913). On the constitution of atoms and molecules. Philosophical Magazine, 26, 1–25.
Bolker, J. A. (2000). Modularity in development and why it matters to evo-devo. American Zoologist, 40, 770–76.
Bonabeau, E., et al. (1998). A model for the emergence of pillars, walls and royal chambers in termite nests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 353(1375). 1561–76.
Bonabeau, E., et al. (1999). Swarm intelligence: From natural to artificial systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bonasso, R. P., et al. (1997). Experiences with an architecture for intelligent, reactive agents. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 9, 237–56.
Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.
Boyd, Richard N. (1991). Realism, anti-foundationalism and the enthusiasm for natural kinds. Philosophical Studies, 61, 127–48.
Boyd, Richard N. (1999a). Kinds, complexity and multiple realization. Philosophical Studies, 95, 67–98.
Boyd, Richard N. (1999b). Homeostasis, species, and higher taxa. In R. A. Wilson (Ed.), Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 141–85.
Boyd, Robert, & Richerson, P. (1985). The evolution of culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Boyd, Robert, et al. (2011). The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(Suppl. 2), 10918–25.
Boyd, Robert, & Silk, J. (2006). How humans evolved (4th ed.). New York: Norton.
Brembs, B., et al. (2002). Operant reward learning in Aplysia: Neuronal correlates and mechanisms. Science, 296, 1706–09.
Bressler, S. L., & Menon, V. (2010). Large-scale brain networks in cognition: Emerging methods and principles. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(6), 277–90.
Brosnan, S., et al. (2003). Observational learning and predator inspection in guppies. Ethology, 109, 823–33.
(p.138) Brosnan, S. F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425, 297–99.
Brown, C., & Laland, K.N. (2003). Social learning in fishes: A review. Fish and Fisheries, 4, 280–88.
Bshary, R. (2010). Decision making: Solving the battle of the fishes. Current Biology, 20, R70–R71.
Bshary, R., et al. (2007). Social cognition in non-primates. In R. I. M. Dunbar & L. S. Barrett (Eds.), Evolutionary Psychology Oxford: Oxford University Press. 83–101.
Burghardt, G. M. (1984). On the origins of play. In P. Smith (Ed.), Play: In Animals and Humans Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Burghardt, G. M. (2005). The genesis of animal play. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Burghardt, G. M., et al. (1996). Problem of reptile play: Environmental enrichment and play behavior in a captive Nile soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx triunguis. Zoo Biology, 15, 223–38.
Burke, A., et al. (1992). Remembering emotional events. Memory & Cognition, 20, 277–90.
Burt, A. (2000). Perspective: Sex, recombination, and the efficacy of selection—was Weismann right? Evolution, 54, 337–51.
Buss, D. (2000). The dangerous passion: Why jealousy is as necessary as love and sex. New York: Free Press.
Buss, D. M. (2004). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind. Boston: Pearson.
Buss, D. M., & Dedden, L. (1990). Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 395–422.
Buss, D. M., & Haselton, M. G. (2005). The evolution of jealousy. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 506–07.
Butler, A. B. (2001). Brain evolution and comparative neuroanatomy. London: Macmillan Publishers), 1–8.
Butler, A. B., & Hodos, W. (2005). Comparative vertebrate neuroanatomy: Evolution and adaptation (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley-Liss.
Butler, P. J., & Jones, D R. (1997). Physiology of diving of birds and mammals. Physiological Reviews, 77, 837–99.
Butti, C., et al. (2013). Von Economo neurons: Clinical and evolutionary perspectives. Cortex, 49(1), 312–26.
Byrne, R. W., et al. (2001). Estimating the complexity of animal behaviour: How mountain gorillas eat thistles. Behaviour, 138, 525–57.
Cabanac, M. (1992). Pleasure—the common currency. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 155, 173–200.
Cahill, L., et al. (1996). Amygdala activity at encoding correlated with long-term free recall of emotional information. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 93, 8016–21.
Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1995). A novel demonstration of enhanced memory associated with emotional arousal. Consciousness and Cognition, 4, 410–21.
Calcott, B. (2005). Selection, variation, and development in major evolutionary transitions. International Society for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology. University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Calcott, B. (2011). Alternative patterns of explanation for major transitions. In B. Calcott & K. Sterelny (Eds.), The major transitions revisited. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 35–51.
Camerer, C., et al. (2005). Neuroeconomics: How neuroscience can inform economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 43, 9–64.
Campbell, A. (2004). Female competition: Causes, constraints, content, and contexts. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 16–26.
Carew, T. J. (2000). Behavioral neurobiology: The cellular organization of natural behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Carlson, N. (2013). Physiology of behavior (11th ed.). New York: Pearson.
Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and motivation structure and measurement. New York: World Book.
Chagnon, N. A. (1983). Yanomamo: The fierce people. New York: CBS College Publishing.
Chalmers, D. J. (1993). Self-ascription without qualia: A case-study. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 35–36.
Chalmers, D. J. (1995). Facing up to the problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2, 200–19.
Chandroo, K. P., et al. (2004). An evaluation of current perspectives on consciousness and pain in fishes. Fish and Fisheries, 5, 281–95.
Charland, L.C. (2002). The natural kind status of emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53, 511–37.
Chittka, L., & Niven, J. (2009). Are bigger brains better? Journal of Current Biology, 19, R995–R1008.
Chow, S. S., et al. (2004). Adaptive radiation from resource competition in digital organisms. Science, 305, 84–86.
Christoff, K., et al. (2001). Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement in relational integration during reasoning. Neuroimage, 14, 1136–49.
Christoff, K., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2000). The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: Evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organization within the human prefrontal cortex. Psychobiology, 28, 168–86.
Churchland, P., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1992). The computational brain. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Clark, A., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1993). The cognizer’s innards: A psychological and philosophical perspective on the development of thought. Mind and Language, 8, 487–519.
Clayton, N. S., & Dickinson, A. (1999). Scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) remember the relative time of caching as well as the location and content of their caches. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113, 403–16.
Coates, M. I., et al. (2002). Fins to limbs: What the fossils say. Evolution and Development, 4, 390–401.
Cohen, N. J., & Squire, L. R. (1980). Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science, 210, 207–10.
Cole, D. M., et al. (2012). Dopamine-dependent architecture of cortico-subcortical network connectivity. Cerebral Cortex 23 (7), 1509–16
Conway, M. A., et al. (1994). The formation of flash bulb memories. Memory and Cognition, 22, 326–43.
Conway, M. A. (2005). Memory and the self. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 594–628.
Conway, M. A., et al. (2001). The neuroanatomy of autobiographical memory: A slow cortical potential study of autobiographical memory retrieval. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 493–524.
Cooper, R. (2004). Why Hacking is wrong about human kinds. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 55, 73–85.
Cooper, R. P., & Shallice, T. (2006). Hierarchical schemas and goals in the control of sequential behavior. Psychological Review, 113, 887–916.
Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1994). Origins of domain specificity: The evolution of functional organization. In L. A. Hirschfeld & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. 85–116.
Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2000a). Consider the source: The evolution of adaptations for decoupling and metarepresentation. In D. Sperber (Ed.), Metarepresentation: A Multidisciplinary Perspective New York: Oxford University Press.
Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2000b). Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford. 91–115.
(p.140) Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2005). Neurocognitive adaptations designed for social exchange. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology New York, NY: Wiley. 584–627.
Craig, W. (1908). The voices of Pigeons regarded as a means of social control. American Journal of Sociology, 41, 86–100.
Crowley, S., & Allen, C. (2008). Animal behavior: E pluribus unum? In M. Ruse (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the philosophy of biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 327–48.
Cummins, D. (2006). Dominance, status, and social hierarchies. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 676–97.
Curtis, V. (2013). Don’t look, don’t touch, don’t eat: The science behind revulsion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Curtis, V. A., & Biran, A. (2001). Dirt, disgust and disease: Is hygiene in our genes? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 44(1), 17–31.
Curtis, V., et al. (2009). Planned, motivated and habitual hygiene behaviour: An eleven country review. Health Education and Behavior, 4, 655–67.
Curtis, V., et al. (2011). Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1563), 389–401.
Dahl, E. (2004). Social status versus formal rank of medical and other officers—an informal survey among passengers and seafarers on cruise ships. International Maritime Health, 55, 165–75.
Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
Damasio, A. R. (2003). Looking for Spinoza. New York: Harcourt.
Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.
Darwin, C. (1965). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1872)
Dawkins, R. (1976). Hierarchical organisation: A candidate principle for ethology. In P. Bateson & R. Hinde (Eds.), Growing Points In Ethology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7–54.
Dayan, P., & Abbott, L. F. (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: Computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Deacon, T. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York: W. W. Norton.
Debas, K., et al. (2010). Brain plasticity related to the consolidation of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. PNAS, 107(41), 17839–44.
Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105–15.
Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
Delancey, C. (2002). Passionate engines: What emotions reveal about mind and artificial intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dember, W. N., & Richman, C. L. (1989). Spontaneous alternation behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Dennett, D. (1978). Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Cambridge: Bradford Books/MIT Press.
Dennett, D. (1996). Kinds of minds: Toward an understanding of consciousness. New York: Basic Books.
Dennett, D. C. (1983). Intentional systems in cognitive ethology: The Panglossian paradigm defended. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 6, 343–90.
de Quervain, D. J., et al. (2004). The neural basis of altruistic punishment. Science, 305, 1254–58.
(p.141) Dethier, V. G. (1964). Microscopic brains. Science, 143, 1138–45.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1982). Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
de Waal, F. B. M. (1986). The integration of dominance and social bonding in Primates. Quarterly Review of Biology, 61, 459–79.
Dewey, J. (1896). The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3(4), 357.
Dewey, J. (1922). Human nature and conduct. New York: Holt.
Dickinson, A. (1985). Actions and habits: The development of behavioral autonomy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 308, 67–78.
Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L. F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 1, 95–109.
Dolins, F. L., & Mitchell, R. W. (2010). Spatial cognition, spatial perception: Mapping the self and space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dollard, J., & Miller, N. (1950). Personality and psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking and culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dretske, F. (2000). Perception, knowledge and belief. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Drews, C. (1993). The concept and definition of dominance in animal behaviour. Behaviour, 125, 283–313.
Dugatkin, L.A., & Wilson, D.S. (1992). The prerequisites for strategic behavior in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animal Behaviour, 44, 223–30.
Dunbar, R. (1998). Grooming, gossip, and the evolution of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dupré, J. A. (2000). Natural kinds. In W. H. Newton-Smith (Ed.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Science Oxford: Blackwell. 311–19.
Dusek, J. A., & Eichenbaum, H. (1997). The hippocampus and memory for orderly stimulus relations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 94, 7109–14.
D’Argembeau, A., et al. (2003). Phenomenal characteristics of autobiographical memories for positive, negative, and neutral events. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 281–94.
Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behaviour. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.
Ebisawa, T., et al. (2001). Association of structural polymorphisms in the human period3 gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome. EMBO Reports, 2, 342–46.
Editors (2006). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, F. Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1997). Die Biologie des Menschlichen Verhaltens: Grundriss der Humanethology [The Biology of Human Behaviour: Outline of Human Ethology]. Muenchen: Piper.
Eichenbaum, H. (2000). Declarative memory. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, 41–50.
Eichenbaum, H., et al. (2012). Towards a functional organization of episodic memory in the medial temporal lobe. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(7), 1597–608.
Eichenbaum, H., & Fortin, N. (2003). Episodic memory and the hippocampus: It’s about time. Current Directions in Psychological Research, 12, 53–57.
Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 169–200.
Ekman, P. (1999). Basic emotion. In T. Dalgleish & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of Cognition and Emotion Sussex: Wiley. 45–60.
Elena, S. F., & Lenski, R. E. (2003). Evolution experiments with microorganisms: The dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nature Reviews Genetics, 4, 457–69.
Elster, J. (1999). Alchemies of the mind: Rationality and the emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(p.142) Emery, N. J., & Clayton, N. S. (2004). The mentality of crows: Convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science, 306, 1903–07.
Ereshefsky, M. (2007). Psychological categories as homologies: Lessons from ethology. Biology and Philosophy, 22, 659–74.
Etienne, A. S., et al. (2004). Resetting the path integrator: A basic condition for route-based navigation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 1491–508.
Evans, D. (2002). The search hypothesis of emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 53, 497–509.
Everitt, B. J., et al. (1999). Associative processes in addiction and reward: The role of amygdala-ventral striatal subsystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 412–38.
Everitt, B. J., et al. (2001). The neuropsychological basis of addictive behaviour. Brain Research Reviews, 36, 129–38.
Fagen, R. (1991). Animal play behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fehr, E., & Gachter, S. (2002). Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature, 415, 137–40.
Ferkin, M. H., et al. (2008). Meadow voles, M. pennsylvanicus, have the capacity to recall the ‘what,’ ‘where,’ and ‘when’ of a single past event. Animal Cognition, 11(1), 147–59.
Fernald, R. D. (1997). The evolution of eyes. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 50(4), 253–59.
Fincham, J. M., et al. (2002). Neural mechanisms of planning: A computational analysis using event-related fMRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 99, 3346–51.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fisher, R. A. (1930). The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Fitts, P. M. (1964). Perceptual-motor skill learning. In A. W. Melton (Ed.), Categories of Human Learning New York: Academic Press. 234–85.
Fox, R. (1984). Kinship and marriage: An anthropological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Franken, R. (2001). Human motivation (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Frederich, S., et al. (2002). Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature, 40, 351–401.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotion in psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–26.
Freeman, W. J. (1999). How the brain makes up its mind. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Freeman, W. J. (2000). Emotion is essential to all intentional behaviors. In M. D. Lewis & I. Granic (Eds.), Emotion, Development, and Self-Organization: Dynamic Systems Approaches to Emotional Development Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 209–35.
Frijda, N. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Friston, K. (2010). The free-energy principle: A unified brain theory? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 127–38.
Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2012). Mechanisms of social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 287–313.
Fuster, J. (2003). Cortex and mind: Unifying cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gainutdinova, T. H., et al. (2005). Reconsolidation of a context long-term memory in the terrestrial snail requires protein synthesis. Learning and Memory, 12, 620–25.
Galliot, B., et al. (2009). Origins of neurogenesis, a cnidarian view. Developmental Biology, 332, 2–24.
Gallistel, C. R. (1990). The organization of learning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gamow, G. (1954). Possible relation between deoxyribonucleic acid and protein structures. Nature, 173, 318.
(p.143) Gärdenfors, P. (2003). How Homo became sapiens: On the evolution of thinking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gardner, H. (1986). The mind’s new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.
Gariépy, J. F., et al. (2014). Social learning in humans and other animals. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8.
Gat, E. (1998). On three layer architectures. In D. Kortenkamp et al. (Eds.), Artificial intelligence and mobile robots: Case studies of successful robot systems Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. 195–210.
Geary, D. C., & Flinn, M. V. (2001). Evolution of human parental behavior and the human family. Parenting: Science and Practice, 1, 5–61.
Gehring, W. J., & Ikeo, K. (1999). Pax 6: Mastering eye morphogenesis and eye evolution. Trends in Genetics, 15, 371–77.
Gentner, T. Q., et al. (2006). Recursive syntactic pattern learning by songbirds. Nature, 440, 1204–1207.
Ghiselin, M. T. (1974). A radical solution to the species problem. Systematic Zoology, 23, 536–44.
Ginsburg, S., & Jablonka, E. (2007a). The transition to experiencing: I. Limited learning and limited experiencing. Biological Theory, 2, 218–30.
Ginsburg, S., & Jablonka, E. (2007b). The transition to experiencing: II. The evolution of associative learning based on feelings. Biological Theory, 2, 231–43.
Ginsburg, S., & Jablonka, E. (2009). Epigenetic learning in non-neural organisms. Journal of Bioscience, 34, 633–46.
Gintis, H. (2007). The evolution of private property. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 64, 1–16.
Gintis, H. (2009). The bounds of reason: Game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Giurfa, M. (2013). Cognition with few neurons: Higher-order learning in insects. Trends in Neurosciences, 36 (5), 285–94.
Northcutt, R. G. (2002). Understanding vertebrate brain evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42, 743–56.
Glickman, S. E., & Sroges, R. W. (1968). Curiosity in zoo animals. Behaviour, 26, 151–88.
Glimcher, P.W., et al. (2007). Neuroeconomic studies of impulsivity: Now or just as soon as possible? American Economic Review, 97, 142–47.
Godfrey-Smith, P. (1996). Complexity and the function of mind in nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Godfrey-Smith, P. (2009). Darwinian populations and natural selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goffman, E. (1956). Embarrassment and social organization. American Journal of Sociology, 62, 264–71.
Golani, I. (1976). Homeostatic motor processes in mammalian interactions: A choreography of display. In P. P. G. Bateson & P. H. Klopfer (Eds.), New York: Plenum, 69–134.
Gould, S. J., & Vrba, E S. (1982). Exaptation—a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology, 8, 4–15.
Grafen, A. (1982). How not to measure inclusive fitness. Nature, 298(5873), 425–6.
Greenspan, R. J., & Dierick, H. A. (2004). ‘Am not I a fly like thee?’ From genes in fruit flies to behavior in humans. Human Molecular Genetics, 13, R267–73.
Gregory, P. T., et al. (1999). Conflicts and interactions among reproduction, thermoregulation and feeding in viviparous reptiles: Are gravid snakes anorexic? Journal of Zoology, 248, 231–41.
Griffiths, P. (1997). What emotions really are: The problem of psychological categories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(p.144) Griffiths, P. E. (1999). Squaring the circle: Natural kinds with historical essences. In R. A. Wilson (Ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 209–28.
Griffiths, P. E. (2004a). Emotions as natural and normative kinds. Philosophy of Science, 71, 901–11.
Griffiths, P. E. (2004b). Is emotion a natural kind? In R. C. Solomon (Ed.), Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions New York: Oxford University Press, 233–49.
Hacking, I. (2002). Making up people. In I. Hacking (Ed.), Historical Ontology Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 99–114.
Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–34.
Hamann, S. B. (2001). Cognitive and neural mechanisms of emotional memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 394–400.
Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–52.
Hampton, R. R., & Schwartz, B. L. (2004). Episodic memory in nonhumans: What, and where, is when? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14, 192–97.
Haralson, S. J., & Haralson, J. B. (1988). Habituation in the sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima): Spatial discrimination. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1, 245–53.
Hardcastle, V. G. (1995). Locating consciousness. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Hare, B., et al. (2006). Chimpanzees deceive a human by hiding. Cognition and Emotion, 101, 495–514.
Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Human-like social skills in dogs? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 439–44.
Harnish, R. (2001). Minds, brains, computers: An historical introduction to the foundations of cognitive science. London: Blackwell.
Hartwell, L. H., et al. (1999). From molecular to modular cell biology. Nature, 402, C47–C52.
Haslam, N. (1998). Natural kinds, human kinds, and essentialism. Social Research, 65, 291–314.
Hauser, M. (2000). Wild minds: What animals really think. New York: Henry Holt.
Hawkes, K. (2004). Mating, parenting and the evolution of human pair bonds. In B. Chapais & C. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and Behavior in Primates Oxford: Oxford University Press, 443–73.
Hawkins, J., & Blakeslee, S. (2004). On intelligence: How a new understanding of the brain will lead to the creation of truly intelligent machines. New York: Henry Holt & Company.
Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of behavior. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Heindel, W. C., et al. (1989). Neuropsychological evidence for multiple implicit memory systems: A comparison of Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s disease patients. Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 582–87.
Hennig, W. (1966). Phylogenetic systematics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. (2001). The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 165–96.
Hinde, R. A. (1970). Animal behaviour: A synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hoffman, J. L. (1949). Clinical observations concerning schizophrenic patients treated by prefrontal leukotomy. New England Journal of Medicine, 241, 233–36.
Holekamp, K. E, et al. (2013). Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1618), 20120350.
Hollis, K. L., et al. (1989). The biological function of Pavlovian conditioning: A mechanism for mating success in the blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103, 115–21.
(p.145) Hsu, M., et al. (2008). The right and the good: Distributive justice and neural encoding of equity and efficiency. Science, 320, 1092.
Huber, R., et al. (2011). Drug-sensitive reward in crayfish: An invertebrate model system for the study of SEEKING, reward, addiction, and withdrawal. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(9), 1847–53.
Huberman, B. A., et al. (2004). Status as a valued resource. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(1), 103–14.
Hughes, M. (1983). Exploration and play in young children. In J. Archer & L. I. A. Birke (Eds.), Exploration in Animals and Humans Berkshire, England: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 230–44.
Hughes, C., et al. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32, 477–92.
Hughlings Jackson, J. (1958). Selected writings of John Hughlings Jackson (Vols. 1 & 2). London: Staples Press.
Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory. New York: Appleton-Century Co.
Hull, D. (1978). A matter of individuality. Philosophy of Science, 45, 335–60.
Humphrey, N. (1976). The social function of intellect. In P. P. G Bateson & R. A. Hinde (Eds.), Growing Points in Ethology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 303–17.
Humphrey, N. (2006). Seeing red: A study in consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hutcherson, C. A., & Gross, J. J. (2011). The moral emotions: A social–functionalist account of anger, disgust, and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 719–37.
Hutchinson, G. E. (1957). Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 22, 415–27.
Hutt, C. (1966). Exploration and play in children. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 18, 61–81.
Inglis, I. R. (2000). Review: The central role of uncertainty reduction in determining behaviour. Behaviour, 137, 1567–99.
Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.
Jablonka, E., & Lamb, Marion J. (2006). The evolution of information in the major transitions. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 239, 236–46.
Jackson, S. R., et al. (1999). The selection and suppression of action: ERP correlates of executive control in humans. Neuroreport, 10, 861–65.
Jacobs, L. F. (2003). The evolution of the cognitive map. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 62, 128–39.
Jacobson, A. L., et al. (1967). Classical conditioning, pseudoconditioning, or sensitization in the planarian. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 64, 73–79.
Jacquet, J., et al. (2011). Shame and honour drive cooperation. Biology Letters, 7(6), 899–901.
James, W. (1884). What is an emotion? Mind, 19, 188–204.
James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. Boston: Henry Holt.
Johnson, M. C., & Wuensch, K. L. (1994). An investigation of habituation in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 61, 54–59.
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (2006). How we reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Macmillan.
Kandel, E. R., et al. (2014). The molecular and systems biology of memory. Cell, 157(1), 163–86.
Kandel, E. R., et al. (2000). Principles of neural science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kaplan, H. (1996). A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101(S23), 91–135.
(p.146) Kashdan, T. B., et al. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory. II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987–98.
Kassen, R., et al. (2004). Ecological constraints in a model adaptive radiation. Nature, 431, 984–88.
Katz, J. S., et al. (2007). Issues in the comparative cognition of abstract-concept learning. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 2, 79–92.
Kelley, J. L., & Magurran, A. E. (2003). Learned predator recognition and antipredator responses in fish. Fish and Fisheries, 4, 216–26.
Kelso, J.A. S. (1995). Dynamic patterns: The self-organisation of brain and behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2001). Social functions of emotions. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonanno (Eds.), Emotions New York: Guilford, 192–213.
Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2003). Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 297–314.
Keltner, D., et al. (2006). Social functionalism and the evolution of emotions. In M. Schaller et al. (Eds.), Evolution and Social Psychology Madison, CT: Psychosocial Press, 115–42.
Kenny, A. (1963). Action, emotion and will. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Kensinger, E. A. (2009). Remembering the details: Effects of emotion. Emotion Review, 1, 99–113.
Kensinger, E. A., & Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101, 3310–15.
Khalidi, M. A. (2013). Natural categories and human kinds: Classification in the natural and social sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kiefer, M., et al. (1998). The time course of brain activations during response inhibition: Evidence from event-related potentials in a go/no go task. Neuroreport, 9, 765–70.
Kielhofner, G. (2007). Model of human occupation: Theory and application (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kincaid, H., & Sullivan, J. A. (Eds.) (2013). Classifying psychopathology: Mental kinds and natural kinds. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
Kirschner, M. W., & Gerhart, J. C. (2006). The plausibility of life. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Kleinginna Jr., P., & Kleinginna, A. (1981). A categorized list of motivation definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 263–91.
Koechlin, E., et al. (2003). The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science, 302, 1181–85.
Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. London: Hutchinsons.
Kornblith, H. (2002). Knowledge and its place in nature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Krebs, J. R., & Davies, N B. (1978). Behaviour ecology: An evolutionary approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Kripke, S. A. (1972). Naming and necessity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kuba, M., et al. (2003). Looking at play in Octopus vulgaris. Berliner Paläobiol. Abh., 3, 163–69.
Kuba, M., et al. (2006). When do octopuses play? Effects of repeated testing, object type, age, and food deprivation on object play in Octopus vulgaris. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 184–90.
Kumar, P., et al. (2014). Differential effects of acute stress on anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. Neuroscience, 266, 1–12.
Kupfermann, I. (1974). Feeding behavior in Aplysia: A simple system for the study of motivation. Behavioral Biology, 10, 1–26.
LaPorte, J. (2004). Natural kinds and conceptual change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(p.147) Laland, K. N., et al. (2003). Learning in fishes: From three-second memory to culture. Fish and Fisheries, 4, 199–202.
Laland, K. N., & Reader, S. M. (1999). Foraging innovation in the guppy. Animal Behaviour, 57, 331–40.
Lawrence, A. D., et al. (2004). Dissociating fear and disgust: Implications for the structure of emotions. 149–71.
Lazarus, R. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 155–84.
Lepper, M. R., et al. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the‘overjustification’ hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 129–37.
Lepper, M. R., & Henderlong, J. (2000). Turning ‘play’ into ‘work’ and ‘work’ into ‘play’: 25 years of research on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for optimal motivation and performance San Diego, CA: Academic. 257–307.
Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: The origins of ‘theory of mind’. Psychological Review, 94, 412–26.
Levenson, R.W. (1999). The intrapersonal functions of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 481–504.
Lewicki, P., et al. (1992). Nonconscious acquisition of information. American Psychologist, 47, 796–801.
Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper and Row.
Libet, B. (2004). Mind time: The temporal factor in consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Libet, B., et al. (2000). The volitional brain: Towards a neuroscience of free will. Oxford: Imprint Academic.
Lillard, A. (2001). Pretend play as twin earth: A social-cognitive analysis. Developmental Review, 21, 495–531.
Lin, N. (1990). Social resources and social mobility: A structural theory of status attainment. In R. L. Breiger (Ed.), Social Mobility and Social Structure Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 247–71.
Llinas, R. (2002). I of the vortex: From neurons to self. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Loeb, J. (1900). Comparative physiology of the brain and comparative psychology. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity: A review and reinterpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 75–98.
Loewenstein, G. (1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 272–92.
Loftus, E. F., & Pickrell, J. E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25, 720–25.
Logan, F. A. (1999). Basic principles of learning. 〈http://www.unm.edu/~quadl%3E〉
Loizos, C. (1967). Play behaviour in higher primates: A review. In D. Morris (Ed.), London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. 176–218.
Lorenz, K. (1937). Uber die Bildung des Instinktbegriffs. Naturwissenschaften, 25, 289–331.
Lorenz, K. (1950). The comparative method in studying innate behaviour patterns. In J. F. Danielli & R. Brown (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lorenz, K. (1965). Evolution and the modification of behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lourdais, O., et al. (2002). Costs of anorexia during pregnancy in a viviparous snake (Vipera aspis). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 292, 487–93.
(p.148) Ludvico, L. R., & Kurland, J. A. (1995). Symbolic or not-so-symbolic wounds: The behavioral ecology of human scarification. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16, 155–72.
Machery, E. (2005). Concepts are not a natural kind. Philosophy of Science, 72, 444–67.
MacLean, P. D. (1990). The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. New York: Plenum Press.
Maestripieri, D. (1992). Functional aspects of maternal aggression in mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70(6), 1069–77.
Mallatt, J. (1996). Ventilation and the origin of jawed vertebrates: A new mouth. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 117, 329–404.
Mallon, R. (2003). Social construction, social roles, and stability. In F. Schmitt (Ed.), Socializing Metaphysics New York: Rowman and Littlefield. 327–53.
Mameli, M., & Bateson, P. (2006). Innateness and the sciences. Biology and Philosophy, 21, 155–88.
Maren, S. (1999). Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A mechanism for emotional learning and memory. Trends in the Neurosciences, 22, 561–67.
Marx, K. (1887). Capital. Moscow: Progress Publishers.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–96.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
Mather, J. A. (2008). To boldly go where no mollusc has gone before: Personality, play, thinking, and consciousness in cephalopods. American Malacological Bulletin, 24, 51–58.
Mather, J. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1999). Exploration, play and habituation in Octopus dofleini. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113, 333–38.
Maynard Smith, J. (2000). The concept of information in biology. Philosophy of Science, 67(2), 177–94.
Maynard Smith, J., & Szathmáry, E. (1995). The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maynard Smith, J., & Szathmáry, E. (1998). The origins of life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mayr, E. (1963). Animal species and evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McClelland, D. C. (1987). Human motivation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McClure, S. M., et al. (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306, 503–07.
McClure, S. M., et al. (2007). Time discounting for primary rewards. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 5796–804.
McDougall, W. (1908). An introduction to social psychology. London: Methuen.
McFarland, D. (1998). Animal behaviour: Psychobiology, ethology and evolution (3rd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.
McGaugh, J. L. (2004). The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 1–28.
McShea, D. W., & Simpson, C. (2011). The miscellaneous transitions in evolution. In B. Calcott & K. Sterelny (Eds.), The major transitions in evolution revisited. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 19–34.
Melanson, K. J., et al. (1999). Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception. British Journal of Nutrition, 82, 437–46.
Mele, A. R. (1992). Irrationality: An essay on akrasia, self-deception, and self-control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Menon, V. (2011). Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: A unifying triple network model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(10), 483–506.
(p.149) Mesquita, B., & Frijda, N H. (1992). Cultural variation in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179–204.
Mesulam, M. M. (1998). From sensation to cognition. Brain, 121, 1013–52.
Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of gratification: Dynamics and willpower. Psychological Review, 106, 3–19.
Metzinger, T. (2003). Being no one: The self-model theory of subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167–202.
Miller, E. K., et al. (2002). The prefrontal cortex: Categories, concepts, and cognition. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 357, 1123–36.
Miller, Geoffrey. (2000). The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. London: Heineman.
Miller, George A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81–97.
Miller, George A., et al. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Millikan, R. G. (1984). Language, thought and other biological categories. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Millikan, R. G. (1999). Historical kinds and the “special sciences.” Philosophical Studies, 95, 45–65.
Millikan, R. G. (in press). Thoughts of real kinds. In J. Prinz (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mineka, S., et al. (1980). Fear of snakes in wild- and laboratory-reared rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Learning & Behavior, 8, 653–63.
Mineta, K., et al. (2003). Origin and evolutionary process of the CNS elucidated by comparative genomics analysis of planarian ESTs. PNAS, 100, 7666–71.
Minsky, M. (2006). The emotion machine: Commonsense thinking, artificial intelligence, and the future of the human mind. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Mitchell, J. P., et al. (2005). The link between social cognition and self-referential thought in the medial prefrontal cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1306–15.
Montague, P. R., & Berns, G. S. (2002). Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation. Neuron, 36, 265–84.
Mountcastle, V. (1957). Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat’s somatic sensory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 20, 408–34.
Mountcastle, V. B. (1998). Perceptual neuroscience: The cerebral cortex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mulcahy, N. J., & Call, J. (2006). Apes save tools for future use. Science, 312, 1038–40.
Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers, D. G. (2006). Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth.
Nagel, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review, 4, 435–50.
Nairne, J. S., et al. (2007). Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behaviour Processes, 33, 263–73.
Nargeot, R., et al. (1999). Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 81, 1983–87.
Nesse, R. M. (1990). Evolutionary explanations of emotion. Human Nature, 1(3), 261–89.
Neuberg, S. L., et al. (2011). Human threat management systems: Self-protection and disease avoidance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(4), 1042–51.
Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(p.150) Niendam, T. A., et al. (2012). Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(2), 241–68.
Nimchinsky, E. A., et al. (1999). A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 96, 5268–73.
Nissen, H. W. (1930). A study of exploratory behavior in the white rat by means of the obstruction method. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37, 361–76.
Norman, D., & Shallice, T. (1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behavior. In R. Davidson et al. (Eds.), Consciousness and Self-regulation: Advances in Research and Theory, vol. 4. New York, NY: Plenum, 1–18.
Northcutt, R. G., & Kaas, J. H. (1995). The emergence and evolution of mammalian neocortex. Trends in the Neurosciences, 18, 373–79.
Nowak, M. A. (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science, 314(5805). 1560–63.
Nowak, M. A. (2013). Evolution, games, and God. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Oatley, K. J. (1993). Social construction in emotion. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of Emotions New York: Guilford Press, 342–52.
Oatley, K. J., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1987). Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Emotion and Cognition, 1, 29–50.
Ochsner, K. N., & Barrett, L. F. (2001). A multiprocess perspective on the neuroscience of emotion. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonnano (Eds.), Emotions New York: Guilford, 38–81.
Odling-Smee, F. J., et al. (2003). Niche construction: The neglected process in evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
O’Doherty, J., et al. (2001). Representation of pleasant and aversive taste in the human brain. Journal of Neurophysiology, 85, 1315–21.
Ohman, A. (1986). Face the beast and fear the face: Animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analysis of emotions. Psychophysiology, 23, 123–45.
Ohman, A., & Mineka, S. (2003). The malicious serpent: Snakes as a prototypical stimulus for an evolved module of fear. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 5–9.
O’Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Olds, J., & Milner, P. M. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of the rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419–27.
Ortony, A., et al. (2004). Affect and proto-affect in effective functioning. In J. M. Fellous & M. A. Arbib (Eds.), Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Robot Oxford: Oxford University Press, 173–202.
Osvath, M., & Gärdenfors, P. (2005). Oldowan culture and the evolution of anticipatory cognition. Lund University Cognitive Science, 122.
Ouellette, J., & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 54–74.
Oyama, S. (2000). The ontogeny of information: Developmental systems and evolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Panksepp, J., & Burgdor, J. (2003). ‘Laughing’ rats and the evolutionary antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior, 79, 533–47.
Papini, M. R. (2011). Comparative psychology: Evolution and development of behavior. New York: Psychology Press.
(p.151) Parrish, J. K., et al. (2002). Self-organized fish schools: An examination of emergent properties. Biological Bulletin, 202, 296–305.
Pasupathy, A., & Miller, E. K. (2005). Different time courses of learning-related activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Nature, 433, 873–76.
Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex (G. Anrep, Transl. and Ed.). London.
Pellegrini, A. D. (2003). Perceptions and functions of play and real fighting in early adolescence. Child Development, 74, 1522–33.
Penn, D. C., et al. (2008). Darwin’s mistake: Explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2), 109–78.
Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Perry, C. J., et al. (2013). Invertebrate learning and cognition: Relating phenomena to neural substrate. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 4(5), 561–82.
Pinker, S. (2012). The better angels of our nature: A history of violence and humanity. London: Penguin.
Pisula, W. (1998). Integrative levels in comparative psychology—the example of exploratory behavior. European Psychologist, 3, 62–69.
Pittman, S. E., et al. (2014). Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: Evidence for map and compass senses in snakes. Biology Letters, 10(3).
Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.
Poucet, B. (1993). Spatial cognitive maps in animals: New hypotheses on their structure and neural mechanisms. Psychological Review, 100, 163–82.
Power, T. G. (2000). Play and exploration in children and animals. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Prescott, T. J. (2007). Forced moves or good tricks in design space? Landmarks in the evolution of neural mechanisms for action selection. Adaptive Behavior, 15(9), 9–31.
Price, M. E., et al. (2002). Punitive sentiment as an anti-free rider psychological device. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 203–31.
Prinz, J. (2004). Gut reactions: A perceptual theory of emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Proust, J. (2006). Metacognition and animal rationality. In S. Hurley & M. Nudds (Eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 247–74.
Proust, J. (2013). The philosophy of metacognition: Mental agency and self-awareness Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pulvermüller, F. (2005). Brain mechanisms linking language and action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 576–82.
Pulvermüller, F. (2013). How neurons make meaning: Brain mechanisms for embodied and abstract-symbolic semantics. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(9), 458–70.
Purves, D., et al. (2011). Neuroscience (5th ed.). London: Sinauer Associates.
Putnam, H. (1975). The meaning of ‘meaning’. In H. Putnam (Ed.), Mind, Language, and Reality Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 215–71.
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1984). Computation and cognition: Toward a foundation for cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Queller, D. C. (1997). CoAperators since life began. Book review of The Major Transitions in Evolution, by J. Maynard Smith & E. Szathmáry. Quarterly Review of Biology, 72, 184–88.
Quine, W. V. (1969). Natural kinds. In N. Rescher (Ed.), Essays in Honor of Carl. G. Hempel Dordrecht: Reidel, 5–23.
Quinlan, R. J., & Quinlan, M. B. (2007). Evolutionary ecology of human pair-bonds: Cross-cultural tests of alternative hypotheses. Cross-Cultural Research, 41, 149–69.
Raby, C. R., et al. (2007). Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature, 445, 919–21.
(p.152) Raff, R. A. (1996). The shape of life. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Rajah, M .N., & McIntosh, A. R. (2005). Overlap in the functional neural systems involved in semantic and episodic memory retrieval. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 470–82.
Reason, J. (1990). Human error. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Reber, A. (1996). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Redgrave, P., et al. (1999). The basal ganglia: A vertebrate solution to the selection problem? Neuroscience, 89, 1009–23.
Redish, A. D. (2013). The mind within the brain: How we make decisions and how those decisions go wrong. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reichert, H., & Simeone, A. (2001). Developmental genetic evidence for a monophyletic origin of the bilaterian brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356(1414), 1533–44.
Reiss, S. (2008). The normal personality: A new way of thinking about people. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reiss, D., & Marino, L. (2001). Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence. PNAS, 98, 5937–42.
Rendell, L., et al. (2011). Cognitive culture: Theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(2), 68–76.
Rendell, L E., & Whitehead, H. (2001). Culture in whales and dolphins. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 309–82.
Reuter, M., et al. (2004). Personality and biological markers of creativity. European Journal of Personality, 19, 83–95.
Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The evolution of human ultrasociality. In I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt & F. K. Salter (Eds.), Indoctrinability, Ideology, and Warfare New York: Berghahn Books.
Riedl, K., et al. (2012). No third-party punishment in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 109(37), 14824–29.
Rieppel, O. (2005a). Modules, kinds, and homology. Journal of Experimental Zoology B. Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 304, 18–27.
Rieppel, O. (2005b). Monophyly, paraphyly, and natural kinds. Biology and Philosophy, 20, 465–87.
Rolls, E. T. (1999). The brain and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rolls, E. T. (2005). Emotion explained. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rolls, E. T. (2007). A computational neuroscience approach to consciousness. Neural Networks, 20, 962–82.
Rosslenbroich, B. (2009). The theory of increasing autonomy in evolution: A proposal for understanding macroevolutionary innovations. Biology & Philosophy, 24(5), 623–44.
Rosslenbroich, B. (2014). On the origin of autonomy: A new look at the major transitions in evolution. History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, 5. Dordrecht: Springer.
Routtenberg, A., & Lindy, J. (1965). Effects of the availability of rewarding septal and hypothalamic stimulation on bar pressing for food under conditions of deprivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60, 158–61.
Rozin, P., & Vollmeke, T.A. (1986). Food likes and dislikes. Annual Review of Nutrition, 6, 433–56.
Rubenstein, J. L., et al. (1999). Genetic control of cortical regionalization and connectivity. Cerebral Cortex, 9, 524–32.
Rubin, D. C. (1986). Autobiographical memory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rubin, D. C., & Skulking, M. (1997). The distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan. Memory & Cognition, 25, 859–66.
(p.153) Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.
Sahney, S., et al. (2010). Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica. Geology, 38, 1079–82.
Savage, L. J. (1954). Foundations of statistics. New York: Dover.
Savage-Rumbaugh, S. (1987). A new look at ape language: Comprehension of vocal speech and syntax. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 35, 201–55.
Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., et al. (2001). Apes, language, and the human mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sazima, I. (2008). Playful birds: Cormorants and herons play with objects and practice their skills. Biota Neotropica, 8, 259–64.
Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for memory. New York: Basic Books.
Schall, J. D. (2001). Neural basis of deciding, choosing and acting. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 33–42.
Schank, R., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans goals and understanding: An inquiry into human knowledge structures. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Scherer, K. R. (1992). What does facial expression express? In K. Strongman (Ed.), International Review of Studies on Emotion. Vol. 2. Chichester: Wiley, 139–65.
Scherer, K. R. (1999). Appraisal theory. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion. Chichester: Wiley, 637–63.
Scherer, K. R., et al. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schleidt, W. M., et al. (1984). A proposal for a standard ethogram, exemplified by an ethogram of the bluebreasted quail. Coturnix chinensis. Zeitschreift für Tierpsychologie, 64, 193–220.
Schneider, W., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review, 84, 1–66.
Schultz, W. (2002). Getting formal with dopamine and reward. Neuron, 36, 241–63.
Schwarzer, R. (2008). Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 1–29.
Seligman, M. E. P., & Hager, J. L. (1972). Biological boundaries on learning. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Semendeferi, K., et al. (1997). The evolution of the frontal lobes: A volumetric analysis based on three-dimensional reconstructions of magnetic resonance scans of human and ape brains. Journal of Human Evolution, 32, 375–88.
Semendeferi, K., et al. (2001). Prefrontal cortex in humans and apes: A comparative study of area 10. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 114, 224–41.
Sharot, T., & Phelps, E. A. (2004). How arousal modulates memory: Disentangling the effects of attention and retention. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4, 294–306.
Sheffield, F. D., & Roby, T. B. (1950). Reward value of a non-nutritive sweet taste. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 43, 471–81.
Sheldon, K. M., et al. (2001). What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 80, 325–39.
Sherry, D. F., & Schacter, D. L. (1987). The evolution of multiple memory systems. Psychological Review, 94, 439–69.
Sherwood, C. C., et al. (2009). Evolution of the brain: In humans—specializations in a comparative perspective. New York: Springer Verlag.
(p.154) Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127–90.
Shillito, J. F. (1963). Observations on the range and movements of a woodland population of the common shrew Sorex araneus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society London, 140, 533–46.
Shultz, S., & Dunbar, R. (2010). Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals but is associated with sociality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(50), 21582–86.
Siiter, J. R. (1999). Introduction to animal behavior. New York: Brooks/Cole.
Sillen-Tullberg, B., & Møller, A. P. (1993). The relationship between concealed ovulation and mating systems in anthropoid primates. A phylogenetic analysis. The American Naturalist, 141, 1–25.
Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of interest. New York: Oxford University Press.
Siviy, S. M. (1998). Neurobiological substrates of play behavior: Glimpses into the structure and function of mammalian playfulness. In M. Bekoff & J. A. Byers (Eds.), Animal Play: Evolutionary, Ecological, and Comparative Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Sloman, A. (2001). Beyond shallow models of emotion. Cognitive Processing: International Quarterly of Cognitive Science, 2, 177–98.
Smith, P. K. (1982). Does play matter? Functional and evolutionary aspects of animal and human play. Behavioral Brain Sciences, 5, 139–84.
Smuts, B. (1985). Sex and friendship in baboons. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Spencer, A. N. (1989). Chemical and electrical synaptic transmission in the Cnidaria. In P. A. V. Anderson (Ed.), Evolution of the First Nervous Systems New York: Plenum, 33–53.
Sperber, D. (2000). Metarepresentations in evolutionary perspective. In D. Sperber (Ed.), Metarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective Oxford: Oxford University Press, 117–37.
Spinka, M., et al. (2001). Mammalian play: Training for the unexpected. Quarterly Review of Biology, 76, 141–68.
Squire, L. R. (1986). Mechanisms of memory. Science, 232, 1612–19.
Staddon, J. E. R. (2003). Adapative behavior and learning (2nd electr. ed). 〈http://psychandneuro.duke.edu/research/labs/staddon-lab〉
Stanovich, K. E. (1999). Who is rational?: Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stanovich, K. E. (2004). The robot’s rebellion: Finding meaning in the age of Darwin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Stanovich, K. E. (2009). Distinguishing the reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous minds: Is it time for a tri-process theory? In J. Evans & K. Frankish (Eds.), In Two Minds: Dual processes and beyond Oxford: Oxford University Press, 55–88.
Sterelny, K. (1990). The representational theory of mind: An introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Sterelny, K. (1998). Intentional agency and the metarepresentation hypothesis. Mind and Language, 13, 11–28.
Sterelny, K. (2003). Mind in a hostile world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stich, S. (2001). Plato’s method meets cognitive science. Free Inquiry, 21, 36–38.
Stoytchev, A., & Arkin, R. (2001). Combining deliberation, reactivity and motivation in the context of a behavior-based robot architecture. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (IEEE CIRA 2001). Banff, Canada.
(p.155) Streidter, G. F. (1998). Progress in the study of brain evolution: From speculative theories to testable hypotheses. The Anatomical Record, 253, 105–12.
Streidter, G. F. (2005). The principles of brain evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Suddendorf, T., & Busby, J. (2003). Mental time travel in animals? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 391–96.
Sugrue, L. P., et al. (2005). Choosing the greater of two goods: Neural currencies for valuation and decision-making. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 363–75.
Suhler, C. L., & Churchland, P. S. (2009). Control: Conscious and otherwise. Trends in Cognitive Science, 13, 341–47.
Sun, R., et al. (2005). The interaction of the explicit and the implicit in skill learning: A dual-process approach. Psychological Review, 112, 159–92.
Swanson, L.W. (2000). What is the brain? Trends in Neuroscience, 23, 519–27.
Swanson, L. W. (2003). Brain architecture: Understanding the basic plan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Szathmáry, E., et al. (2006). The evolution of information in the major transitions. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 239(2), 236–46.
Szathmáry, E., & Fernando, C. (2011). Concluding remarks. In B. Calcott & K. Sterelny (Eds.), The Major Transitions Revisited Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 301–10.
Tangney, J. P., et al. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345–72.
Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamical systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Thompson, K. V. (1998). Self assessment in juvenile play. In M. Bekoff & J. A. Byers (Eds.), Animal Play: Evolutionary, Ecological, and Comparative Perspectives Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 221–42.
Thompson, E., & Varela, F. J. (2001). Radical embodiment: Neural dynamics and consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(10), 418–25.
Thorndike, E. L. (1901). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplement, 2, 1–109.
Thrun, S., et al. (2006). Stanley: The robot that won the DARPA Grand Challenge. Journal of Field Robotics, 23(9), 661–92.
Tien, J. H., et al. (2004). Dynamics of fish shoals: Identifying key decision rules. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 6, 555–65.
Timmermans, B., et al. (2012). Higher order thoughts in action: Consciousness as an unconscious re-description process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1594). 1412–23.
Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Tinbergen, N. (1963). On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–33.
Toates, F. (1986). Motivational systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tolman, E. C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychology Review, 55, 189–208.
Tomasello, M. (2014). The ultra-social animal. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(3), 187–94.
Tomkins, S. S. (1962). Affect, imagery and consciousness. New York: Springer Verlag.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1989). Adaptation versus phylogeny: The role of animal psychology in the study of human behavior. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2, 175–88.
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1990). The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology and Sociobiology, 11, 375–424.
(p.156) Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow et al. (Eds.), The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19–136.
Topál, J., et al. (2006). Reproducing human actions and action sequences: ‘Do as I do!’ in a dog. Animal Cognition, 9, 355–67.
Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2004). Show your pride: Evidence for a discrete emotion expression. Psychological Science, 15, 194–97.
Truppa, V., et al. (2011). Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks. PLoS One, 6(8), e23809.
Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there? American Psychologist, 40, 385–98.
van den Heuvel, O., et al. (2005). Frontal-striatal dysfunction during planning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 301–09.
Vehanen, T. (2003). Adaptive flexibility in the behaviour of juvenile Atlantic salmon: Short-term responses to food availability and threat from predation. Journal of Fish Biology, 63, 1034–45.
von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O. (1944). Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, A. N., & Gerlach, A. L. (2012). The relation between disgust-sensitivity, blood-injection-injury fears and vasovagal symptoms in blood donors: Disgust sensitivity cannot explain fainting or blood donation-related symptoms. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(1), 607–13.
Wagner, G. P. (1996). Homologues, natural kinds and the evolution of modularity. American Zoologist, 36, 36–43.
Wagner, G. P. (2000). What is the promise of developmental evolution? Part I: Why is developmental biology necessary to explain evolutionary innovations? Journal of Experimental Zoology, 288, 95–98.
Wagner, G. P., & Altenberg, L. (1996). Complex adaptations and the evolution of evolvability. Evolution and Development, 50(3), 967–76.
Wagner, W., & Wagner, G. P. (2003). Examining the modularity concept in evolutionary psychology: The levels of genes, mind and culture. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 135–65.
Walker, R. (1999). ‘Niche selection’ and the evolution of complex behavior in a changing environment: A simulation. Artificial Life, 5(3), 271–89.
Wang, R. F., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Human spatial representation: Insights from animals. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 376, 376–82.
Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. C. (1953). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature, 171, 737–38.
Watts, A. G. (2003). Motivation: Neural substrates. In M. A. Arbib (Ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 680–83.
Wayner, M. J., & Zellner, D. K. (1958). The role of suprapharyngeal ganglion in spontaneous alternations and negative movements in Lumbricus terrestris. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 51, 282–87.
Wegner, D. (2002). The Illusion of the conscious will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wegner, D. M., & Bargh, J. A. (1998). Control and automaticity in social life. In D. Gilbert et al. (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill, 446–96.
Weiner, B. (2013). Human motivation. Psychology Press.
Weismann, A. (1889). Essays on heredity and kindred biological subjects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(p.157) Wellman, H. M., et al. (1990). The child’s theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Wells, M. J. (1968). Sensitization and the evolution of associative learning. In J. Salánki (Ed.), Neurobiology of Invertebrates New York: Plenum Press, 391–411.
West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003). Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.
Whiten, A., et al. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682–85.
Whiten, A., & Byrne, R. W. (1991). The emergence of metarepresentation in human ontogeny and primate phylogeny. In A. Whiten (Ed.), Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mindreading. Oxford: Blackwell, 267–82.
Wilkinson, A., et al. (2009). Visual and response-based navigation in the tortoise. Geochelone carbonaria. Animal Cognition, 12, 779–87.
Wilkinson, A., & Huber, L. (2012). Cold-blooded cognition: Reptilian cognitive abilities. Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology, 1–8.
Willer, R. (2009). Groups reward individual sacrifice: The status solution to the collective action problem. American Sociological Review, 74, 23–43.
Williams, Z. M., et al. (2004). Human anterior cingulate neurons and the integration of monetary reward with motor responses. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1370–75.
Williams, H. L, et al. (2008). Autobiographical memory. In G. Cohen & M. A. Conway (Eds.), Memory in the Real World (3rd ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 21–90.
Wilson, E. O. (1975). Sociobiology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Wilson, T. (2004). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Belknapp.
Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1985). Competitiveness, risk taking, and violence: The young male syndrome. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 59–73.
Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (2003). Avian navigation: From historical to modern concepts. Animal Behaviour, 65, 257–72.
Winter, D. G. (1996). Personality: Analysis and interpretation of lives. New York: McGrawHill.
Wise, R. A. (2004). Dopamine, learning and motivation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 1–12.
Wisenden, B. D., & Millard, M. C. (2001). Aquatic flatworms use chemical cues from injured conspecifics to assess predation risk and to associate risk with novel cues. Animal Behaviour, 62, 761–66.
Wolfe, J. L. (1969). Observations on alertness and exploratory behavior in the eastern chipmunk. American Midland Naturalist, 81, 249–53.
Wong, R. (2000). Motivation: A biobehavioural approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, J. N., & Grafman, J. (2003). Human prefrontal cortex: Processing and representational perspectives. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 139–46.
Wood, W., & Neal, D. T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychological Review, 114(4), 843.
Wood, W., et al. (2002). Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1281–97.
Wood-Gush, D. G. M., & Vestergaard, K. (1991). The seeking of novelty and its relation to play. Animal Behaviour, 42, 599–606.
Yamada, H., et al. (2013). Coding of the long-term value of multiple future rewards in the primate striatum. Journal of neurophysiology, 109(4), 1140–51.
Yarkoni, T., et al. (2011). Large-scale automated synthesis of human functional neuroimaging data. Nature Methods, 8(8), 665–70.
(p.158) Yin, H. H., & Knowlton, B. J. (2006). The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 464–76.
Zacher, P. (2000). Psychological concepts and biological psychiatry: A philosophical analysis. New York: John Benjamins.
Zacks, J. M., & Tversky, B. (2001). Event structure in perception and conception. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 3–21.
Zentall, T. R., et al. (2008). Concept learning in animals. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 3, 13–45.
Zentall, T. R., & Galef Jr., B. G. (2013). Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives. New York: Psychology Press.