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Surpassing the Sovereign StateThe Wealth, Self-Rule, and Security Advantages of Partially Independent Territories$

David A. Rezvani

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780199688494

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688494.001.0001

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(p.316) (p.317) Appendix 3 Sham Federacy after 1946

(p.316) (p.317) Appendix 3 Sham Federacy after 1946

Source:
Surpassing the Sovereign State
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Core state

From

To

National group/territory

Afghanistan

1979

1985

Uzbeks

Afghanistan

1979

1985

Turkmen

Afghanistan

1979

1985

Nuristanis

Afghanistan

1986

1991

Uzbeks

Afghanistan

1986

1991

Turkmen

Afghanistan

1986

1991

Nuristanis

Afghanistan

1992

1995

Pashtuns

Afghanistan

1992

1995

Hazaras

Afghanistan

2002

Present

Baloch

Afghanistan

2002

Present

Turkmen

Afghanistan

2002

Present

Nuristanis

Afghanistan

2002

Present

Pashai

Afghanistan

2002

Present

Brahui

Azerbaijan

1995

Present

Autonomous Region of Nakhichevan

Bangladesh

1997

Present

Chittagong Hill Tracts

Benin

1996

Present

South/Central (Fon)

Bolivia

1953

Present

Quechua

Bolivia

1953

Present

Aymara

Cambodia

1979

Present

Lao and Siamese

Chad

1980

1982

Sara

Chile

1990

Present

Mapuche

Chile

1990

Present

Atacamenos

China

1947

Present

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

China

1951

Present

Tibet Autonomous Region

China

1955

Present

Xinjiang Autonomous Region

China

1984

Present

Zhuang

China

1984

Present

Manchu

China

1984

Present

Hui

China

1984

Present

Miao

China

1984

Present

Tujia

China

1984

Present

Yi

China

1984

Present

Bouyei

China

1984

Present

Dong

China

1984

Present

Yao

China

1984

Present

Koreans

China

1984

Present

Bai

China

1984

Present

Hani

China

1984

Present

Kazakhs

China

1984

Present

Li

China

1984

Present

Dai

China

1984

Present

She

China

1984

Present

Lisu

China

1984

Present

Gelo

China

1984

Present

Dongxiang

China

1984

Present

Lahu

China

1984

Present

Shui

China

1984

Present

Wa

China

1984

Present

Naxi

China

1984

Present

Qiang

China

1984

Present

Tu

China

1984

Present

Mulao

China

1984

Present

Xibe

China

1984

Present

Kirgiz

China

1984

Present

Daur

China

1984

Present

Blang

China

1984

Present

Maonan

China

1984

Present

Salar

China

1984

Present

Tajiks

China

1984

Present

Achang

China

1984

Present

Jing

China

1984

Present

Pumi

China

1984

Present

Nu

China

1984

Present

Uzbeks

China

1984

Present

Jinuo

China

1984

Present

Russians

China

1984

Present

Evenk

China

1984

Present

Bonan

China

1999

Present

Macau Special Administrative Region

Colombia

1992

Present

Afrocolumbians

Colombia

1992

Present

Indigenous peoples

Congo

1992

1994

Lari/Bakongo

Costa Rica

1946

Present

Afrocosta Ricans

Czechoslovakia

1948

1968

Slovak Republic

Ethiopia

1996

Present

Other Southern Nations

Ethiopia

1996

Present

Beni-Shugal-Gumez

Ethiopia

1996

Present

Gambela

Ethiopia

1996

Present

Harari

France

1950

1954

Cambodia Free State

France

1950

1954

Laos Free State

France

1950

1954

Vietnam Free State

France

1991

Present

Corsica

Georgia

2004

Present

Autonomous Republic of Ajara

Guatemala

1986

Present

Mayas

Guatemala

1986

Present

Xinca

Guatemala

1986

Present

Garifunas

Guinea-Bissau

2000

Present

Manjaco

Honduras

1946

Present

Lenca

Honduras

1946

Present

Miskitos

Honduras

1946

Present

Garifs (Black Caribs)

Honduras

1946

Present

Chorti

Honduras

1946

Present

Tawahka

India

1963

1971

Naga

India

1972

1976

Naga

India

1972

1976

Manipuri

India

1977

1986

Manipuri

India

1977

1986

Naga

India

1987

1991

Manipuri

India

1987

1991

Naga

India

1987

1991

Indigenous Tripuri

India

1987

1991

Mizo

India

1952

Present

Kashmir

India

1992

Present

Manipuri

India

1992

Present

Naga

India

1992

Present

Indigenous Tripuri

India

1992

Present

Mizo

India

1992

Present

Bodo

Indonesia

1949

1958

Sundanese

Indonesia

1949

1958

Minangkabaus

Indonesia

1949

1958

Dayak

Indonesia

1949

1958

Balinese

Indonesia

1949

1958

Madura

Indonesia

1949

1958

Minahasa

Indonesia

1949

1958

Ternate

Indonesia

1959

1962

Sundanese

Indonesia

1959

1962

Minangkabaus

Indonesia

1959

1962

Dayak

Indonesia

1959

1962

Achinese

Indonesia

1959

1962

Balinese

Indonesia

1959

1962

Makassarese and Bugis

Indonesia

1959

1962

Minahasa

Indonesia

1959

1962

Ternate

Indonesia

1963

1966

Minangkabaus

Indonesia

1963

1966

Dayak

Indonesia

1963

1966

Achinese

Indonesia

1963

1966

Balinese

Indonesia

1963

1966

Makassarese and Bugis

Indonesia

1963

1966

Minahasa

Indonesia

1963

1966

Ternate

Indonesia

1996

1998

Dayak

Indonesia

1999

2001

Dayak

Indonesia

1999

2001

Amboinese

Indonesia

2002

Present

Dayak

Indonesia

2002

Present

Papua

Indonesia

2002

Present

Amboinese

Indonesia

2001

Present

Special Autonomy of Aceh

Iraq

1970

1974

Kurdistan Region

Israel

1995

Present

Palestinian Territories

Japan

1972

1983

Okinawans

Japan

1984

Present

Burakumin

Laos

1953

1974

Khmu

Laos

1953

1974

Phuthai (incl. White, Black and White Tai)

Laos

1953

1974

Tai Lü and Tai Yuan

Laos

1953

1974

Other Lao Sung

Laos

1987

Present

Other Lao Thoeng

Laos

1987

Present

Khmu

Laos

1987

Present

Phuthai (incl. White, Black and White Tai)

Laos

1987

Present

Tai Lü and Tai Yuan

Laos

1987

Present

Other Lao Sung

Laos

1987

Present

Yao

Malaysia

1957

Present

Dayaks

Malaysia

1957

Present

Kadazans

Mexico

1995

Present

Indigenous peoples

Moldova

1991

1994

Gagauz

Mongolia

1946

Present

Kazakh

Myanmar

1962

Present

Shan State

Myanmar

1962

Present

Kachin State

Myanmar

1962

Present

Karenni State

Myanmar

1990

Present

Wa

Namibia

1990

Present

Nama

Namibia

1990

Present

Basubia

Namibia

1990

Present

Baster

Nicaragua

1978

Present

Atlantic Coast “Autonomous Region”

Nicaragua

1988

Present

Mayangnas

Nigeria

1960

1964

Yoruba

Nigeria

1965

1966

Igbo

Nigeria

1979

1983

Yoruba

Nigeria

1979

1983

Tiv

Nigeria

1999

Present

Tiv

Pakistan

1977

Present

Baluchistan

Pakistan

1977

Present

Federally Administered Tribal Areas

Peru

1970

Present

Quechua

Peru

1970

Present

Aymara

Philippines

1977

1989

Mindanao

Republic of Vietnam

1954

1975

Hoa (Chinese)

Romania

1989

1995

Hungarians

Slovakia

1993

1997

Hungarians

South Africa

1963

1993

Transkei Homeland

South Africa

1972

1993

Bophuthatswana Homeland

South Africa

1972

1993

Ciskei Homeland

South Africa

1972

1993

Lebowa Homeland

South Africa

1973

1993

Venda Homeland

South Africa

1973

1993

Ganzakulu Homeland

South Africa

1975

1993

Basotho Qwa Qwa Homeland

South Africa

1975

1993

Swazi Homeland

South Africa

1975

1993

S. Ndebele Homeland

South Africa

1976

1993

KwaZulu Homeland

Sri Lanka

1987

2009

Sri Lankan Tamils

Sudan

1972

1982

Dinka

Sudan

1972

1982

Nuer

Sudan

1972

1982

Bari

Sudan

1972

1982

Azande

Sudan

1972

1982

Shilluk

Sudan

1972

1982

Latoka

Syria

1946

1948

Alawi

Syria

1946

1948

Druze

Tajikistan

1994

Present

Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region

Thailand

1946

1952

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1953

1965

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1966

1971

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1972

1973

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1974

1976

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1977

1979

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1980

1983

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1984

1998

Malay Muslims

Thailand

1999

2001

Malay Muslims

Thailand

2002

Present

Malay Muslims

US

1851

Present

Northeast Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

California Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Southwest Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Great Basin Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Plateau Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Plains Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Southeast Sovereign Indian Tribes

US

1851

Present

Northwest Coast Sovereign Indian Tribes

USSR

1946

1956

Tatars

USSR

1946

1956

Chuvashes

USSR

1946

1956

Mordva

USSR

1946

1956

Bashkirs

USSR

1946

1956

Kirghis

USSR

1946

1956

Udmurt

USSR

1946

1956

Mari

USSR

1946

1956

Ossetes

USSR

1946

1956

Lezgins

USSR

1946

1956

Kabardins

USSR

1946

1956

Karelians

USSR

1946

1956

Avars

USSR

1946

1956

Kumuks

USSR

1946

1956

Dargins

USSR

1946

1956

Komi

USSR

1946

1956

Buryats

USSR

1946

1956

Yakuts

USSR

1946

1956

Karakalpaks

USSR

1946

1956

Tuvinians

USSR

1946

1956

Finns

USSR

1946

1956

Circassians

USSR

1946

1956

Adyghe

USSR

1946

1956

Abkhaz

USSR

1946

1956

Khakass

USSR

1946

1956

Altai

USSR

1957

1991

Byelorussians

USSR

1957

1991

Tatars

USSR

1957

1991

Uzbeks

USSR

1957

1991

Kazakhs

USSR

1957

1991

Chuvashes

USSR

1957

1991

Mordva

USSR

1957

1991

Bashkirs

USSR

1957

1991

Kirghis

USSR

1957

1991

Udmurt

USSR

1957

1991

Chechens

USSR

1957

1991

Mari

USSR

1957

1991

Ossetes

USSR

1957

1991

Circassians

USSR

1957

1991

Dargins

USSR

1957

1991

Kumuks

USSR

1957

1991

Ingush

USSR

1957

1991

Buryats

USSR

1957

1991

Kabardins

USSR

1957

1991

Karakalpaks

USSR

1957

1991

Kalmyks

USSR

1957

1991

Karelians

USSR

1957

1991

Komi

USSR

1957

1991

Lezgins

USSR

1957

1991

Avars

USSR

1957

1991

Yakuts

USSR

1957

1991

Tuvinians

USSR

1957

1991

Karachai

USSR

1957

1991

Adyghe

USSR

1957

1991

Abkhaz

USSR

1957

1991

Khakass

USSR

1957

1991

Altai

USSR

1957

1991

Balkars

Uzbekistan

1991

Present

Karakalpak

Vietnam

1954

1974

Hoa (Chinese)

Sources: This list attempts to be an exhaustive articulation of sham federacy after 1945. In part it draws from Cederman et al. (2009a) Ethnic Power Relations (EPR) dataset which features a list of ethnic groups that have “regional autonomy.” In order to compile a list of sham federacies, however, various groups were removed from the EPR’s “regional autonomy” list including: PITs (such as Northern Ireland), non-territorially based autonomous arrangements (such as the “Germans” of Belgium), member-units of sham federations (such as the Republics of the USSR and the member-units of the Russian Federation), and where data were indiscernible (such as the reference of “others” being associated with Lebanon). Additionally, a wide range of territories and groups that were not included in the EPR were added to the list, such as the Free States of Indochina, America’s Indian Territories, and many others. It should also be noted that in a limited number of areas, such as Sudan, the groups listed are associated with a single territory, such as South Sudan. In other areas, such as the Indian Territories of the US, in order to make the 305 Indian tribes of America more feasible to articulate, large numbers of tribes were grouped under regional headings.