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Population in the Human SciencesConcepts, Models, Evidence$
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Philip Kreager, Bruce Winney, Stanley Ulijaszek, and Cristian Capelli

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199688203

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.001.0001

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Population Genetics

Population Genetics

the study of the genetic structure of human populations

Chapter:
(p.86) Chapter 2 Population Genetics
Source:
Population in the Human Sciences
Author(s):

Walter Bodmer

Bruce Winney

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199688203.003.0003

Over the twentieth century, population genetics has enabled progressively finer subpopulation specification. This chapter traces the development of concepts and methods, beginning with the use of blood types to differentiate human populations into Mendelian groups. As variation in blood grouping began to be studied in terms of constituent proteins, and other genetic marker systems became available, further subpopulation differentiation was possible, so that spatial distribution could identify broadly defined continental groups across the world. Following the discovery of DNA structure, molecular genetics has steadily expanded the range of identifiable subpopulations, opening up further sources of population variation. Markers of genetic inheritance visible in the genetic make-up of regional populations enable major historical population movements to be traced, an approach which is shown to illuminate the historical peopling of Britain.

Keywords:   population genetics, history of, genetic marker systems, Mendelian populations, DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphisms

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