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Multidisciplinary EconomicsA Methodological Account$

Piet Keizer

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199686490

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686490.001.0001

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(p.520) Appendix C  Jung for Economists

(p.520) Appendix C  Jung for Economists

Multidisciplinary Economics
Oxford University Press

C.1 Introduction

Neoclassical economics is based on a number of axioms, one of which is the assumption of perfect rationality. A perfectly rational person has enough willpower to act according to the preferences of the true Self. By using the term true Self it is suggested that there are more selves, which strive for different things. A realistic account of human behaviour needs a fundamental analysis of the essential elements of the psyche. As the term ‘psychology’ suggests, its essential task is to search for the logic of the psyche, which means the search for mechanisms that keep the psyche in balance.

In this appendix we will discuss ways of designing a psyche, so as to be able to develop ideas about this mechanism. Therefore, we present the psyche as part of a biological system, called ‘human person’. In particular, we will discuss the way Carl Jung has designed and analysed the psyche as such. Jung is the representative of psychology par excellence (Stevens, 1994). Many schools of thought within psychology do not analyse the psyche or have adopted very restrictive assumptions about its abilities. Jung, however, is one of a few analytical psychologists’ who refused to abstract from the analysis almost everything important. Even more than Freud and Adler, he focused on the ontological aspects of the psyche, making his approach a very valuable start for an understanding of the functioning of a psyche or mind.4 In Section C.2 we will approach the human person as a biological system, consisting of a psyche or mind and a body, both aspect-systems of the whole system called ‘human person’. We will discuss the elements constituting the psychic system according to Jung in Section C.3. In Section C.5, C.6, and C.7 we discuss Jung about homeostasis, rationality, and psycho-dynamics respectively. In Section C.4 we will deal with a number of psychic types that are distinguished. In Section C.8 we will pay attention to the core of psychological analysis and answer the question of what we mean by the logic of the psyche. In Section C.9 we will apply the ideas of Jung to a series of economic phenomena, illustrating that the analytical psychology of Jung can contribute significantly to a better understanding of economic phenomena.

C.2 The Human Person as a Biological System

Biological systems are characterized by their teleological character. Plants, animals, and humans have a built-in drive to wholeness; they can be interpreted as a bundle of potentials or drives that become manifest when triggered by particular circumstances. Economists are used to approaching a human person as an economic man, driven by an economic force, aimed at a reduction of (p.521) scarcity of natural resources as much as possible. But there are more forces that co-determine human behaviour.

In social science we are used to distinguishing between three primary forces, namely the economic, the social, and the psychic force. In this text we distinguish a biological force, which is a synthesis of the physiological and the psychic force.

The organic character of biological systems implies that different forces, connected to different emotions and needs, have a dialectical relationship with each other: they are in conflict with each other, but since they need each other to let the system as a whole function well, they are also inclined to search for synthesis. This tendency towards balance is called homeostasis, and is well known in physics. In economics the law of increasing, constant, and decreasing marginal utility and marginal returns are expressions of this law.

In Section C.3 we will discuss the constitution of a psyche as an aspect-system of the whole system ‘human person’.

C.3 Archetypes and Complexes in the Unconscious

According to Jung, every psyche consists of a collective unconscious, a personal unconscious, and a personal conscious. In order to understand what is meant by a collective unconscious we must imagine our reality as a biological system; in other words, the universe or cosmos has a body and a mind. This collective mind is located in all living creatures. We stick our analysis to human persons: they all carry the human heritage—all the experiences of man from their creation until now. In the modern evolutionary-economic and Austrian literature the concept of tacit knowledge comes close to this idea of a collective unconscious. It is the location where humans have stored their so-called archetypes. These are potentials of a psycho-neuro-logical character—altogether they tell the story of human life. When a child grows up, circumstances trigger these potentials or forces, and drive his behaviour and experiences. These experiences trigger and develop more specific archetypes, called ‘complexes’, which are located in the personal unconscious. Life as it is lived every day results from a confrontation between complexes in the unconscious and outer circumstances. If a child is born into a poor family the primary needs that result from manifest complexes cannot easily be satisfied. Lack of food and lack of attention from the parents has a negative effect on the physical and psychic growth of the child. If there is no mother figure during the first years, this affects psychic growth very negatively. Every stage of life is characterized by a particular set of complexes that are manifest, and must be developed and satisfied. If this does not happen, the psyche will remain unbalanced, which is harmful for the growth and integration of the psyche.

Now we will give a few examples of archetypes and complexes, to illustrate in which ways they regulate the human life cycle. In the first years a child is strongly connected to the mother figure, and develops a strong mother complex. But after some years an ego complex emerges, which is responsible for a growing distance between child and mother. During this stage a child begins to explore the world around him, and the father figure becomes increasingly important as a guide in this process. In this way a person develops two complexes or centres of consciousness: the Ego or ‘I’ of a person and the Self of a person. He is able to look at himself; the sentence ‘I look at my Self’ expresses nicely the fact that the two entities are distinguished from each other, and increasingly establish an interrelationship. The relationship between the two complexes can be clarified as follows: in the process of development the Ego of the child must increasingly take over the task of (p.522) the protection of the Self from the mother. So, the Ego becomes increasingly the ‘executive’ of the Self, and if things happen that are against the interests of the Self, the ego must be able to avoid particular behaviours and situations.5

When the ego screens the desires that claim immediate satisfaction, it must select those desires or needs that are urgent and in the long-term interest of the Self, and reject those that are bad for the long-term interest. In this permanent conflict two complexes are formed: the persona, representing the desires and needs that are acceptable in a particular cultural context or even forced by this context on someone, and the shadow, representing the desires and needs whose satisfaction is a threat to the survival of the person. In other words, the persona is the mask of the person, or the public relations officer, and the shadow is the enemy of the true Self. The shadow complex is formed through continuing familial repression and cultural indoctrination; of course, the formation of this complex is based on the universal shadow archetype, which lives in the collective unconscious.6

A fourth example of a specific archetype is the gender complex. In each person lives a complex that has some masculine and some feminine properties. In Buddhism we find the distinction between yin and yang, which represents comparable properties. In a man we do not only find some masculinity, but also some hidden feminine properties. These are called his anima. In a woman we do not only find some femininity, but also some hidden masculine properties. These are called animus. There is an ongoing conflict between the persona and the anima or animus. Over time, a person must solve this conflict by creating a synthesis between the two powers. As with all inner conflicts, not reconciling the antagonisms threatens the development of an integrated personality. As long as a person is a self-divided person, much energy is used to fight these conflicts, and the focus (or attitude or disposition) is directed to these conflicts, rather than to the solution to social and economic conflicts.

In Section C.4 we will discuss a series of psychic types, and we will see that different capacities of the mind lead to different personalities.

C.4 Psychic Types

Jung distinguishes four psychic capacities, which fulfil different functions. The first function is sensation, and it tells the person that something exists—an object or a threat, for instance. The second function is ‘thinking’, which tells the person what it is that exists. A third function is ‘feeling’, telling the person whether that which exists is agreeable or not. And the fourth function is intuition, telling the person when ‘it’ comes and where ‘it’ is going. Besides these four functions Jung distinguishes between two attitudes or dispositions, namely an extroverted and an (p.523) introverted focus. When taking the four functions and two foci together we can construct eight types of personalities. Because the capacity to develop skills is scarce, Jung assumes that every person can develop only two functions and one type of focus. Since thinking and feeling are two different rationalizing functions, a person always chooses one of these two. The same holds for sensation and intuition, which are non-rational functions; a person chooses one of these two. It means that a person is a thinker who uses his intuition, or a person who uses his feelings and sensations. Now we are left with four types of personalities:

  1. (1) An extraverted personality who trusts his well-developed capacity of feeling and his sensation.

  2. (2) An extraverted personality who trusts his well-developed capacity of thinking and his intuition.

  3. (3) An introverted personality who trusts his well-developed capacity of feeling and his sensation.

  4. (4) An introverted personality who trusts his well-developed capacity of thinking and his intuition.

It looks as if Jung is saying that sensitive persons have a comparative disadvantage in doing philosophical work. Jung’s distinction between non-rational and rational capacities is based on the idea that rationality and intuition are separate capacities. In practice, however, the four psychic capacities might better be considered as different aspects of one and the same phenomenon, which is the human epistemological or knowledge-acquisition capacity.

In Section C.5 we will discuss the problems which result from homeostatic imbalance, and see how we can interpret the concept of rationality, which is so important in economic analysis.

C.5 Homeostatic Imbalance

The satisfaction of certain archetypal needs is essential to the development of the programme of a person’s life. If these essential needs cannot be satisfied, a psychic imbalance develops. For instance, the mother figure malfunctioned in the early years of childhood. Or the father figure wasn’t there when the child needed introduction into the external world. Then the ego might remain relatively weak, with far-reaching consequences for the person’s social skills, for instance. Persons with a weak ego are inclined to compensate for it by satisfying a strong need for social recognition: if the person is unable to respect their own Self, others must fill this gap. Two psychic imbalances have become well known in the analytical psychological literature, namely psychosis and neurosis. Jung interprets these two mental illnesses in terms of the functions and foci discussed in Section C.4. In case of extreme introversion, where the person is using his thinking and his intuition especially, there is a chance of developing a psychosis. The person lives primarily in his inner world, which is quite separated from the external world. This separation creates a continuous flow of misunderstandings when interpreting the behaviour of others—a very painful experience. In a case of extreme extroversion, where the person is particularly using his feeling and sensations, there is a chance of developing a neurosis. A neurosis is an emotion connected to a particular need or desire, which is not under control of the person. He is unaware of this problem because of a lack of inner reflection. Therefore, he is not using any willpower to correct his behaviour.

(p.524) Strong introversion can lead to a withdrawal from the outer world; a move which can be interpreted as a form of autism.7 Strong extroversion can lead to a lack of connection with the unconscious, rootlessness, and a loss of intuition. With respect to the gender complex it is obvious that a man who is unable to see his ‘anima’, or a woman who is unable to see her ‘animus’, has a serious problem in understanding people who have more self-knowledge and self-acceptance.

In Section C.6 we will discuss the concept of perfect rationality, as used by the typical economic analysis, in Jungian terms.

C.6 A Jungian Conception of Perfect Rationality

Our ontology of the mind leads to the following elements in the psychic system:

  1. (1) An ‘I’ who is the decision-maker; when thinking, the ‘I’ uses its ratio, which is the capacity to structure information in a logically consistent way.

  2. (2) A True Self, as experienced by the ‘I’ (TSE), advises the ‘I’. This is the person’s source of intuitive knowledge of himself and his situation, and can therefore also be called ‘intuition’. The Jungian psychic capacities play an important role here.

  3. (3) An Actual Self (AS), who is a bundle of emotions, connected to needs and desires of a psychic or physical nature, and claiming immediate satisfaction. This actual Self receives sense impressions from the outer world. The sensation of these impressions leads to feelings in a way that is influenced by the personality of the person. These feelings are an important incentive to behave in particular ways. Emotions trigger feelings and thoughts, and both are sent to the decision-maker.

  4. (4) A system of framing, which structures the ‘information’ before it reaches the ‘I’. This act of framing has two functions. First, it makes information understandable, thereby making it possible for the person to react. Second, the framing should protect the person against discoveries, which are unwanted by the AS—in other words, a typical irrational element.

  5. (5) The decision-maker ‘I’ has some willpower, which helps him to execute his decisions by influencing the emotions of the actual Self.

This system must be read as follows: a person is permanently bombarded with impressions. He receives signals from the body about physiological needs that want to be satisfied. From the mind he receives signals about psychic needs, such as safety. These impressions are framed in such a way that they become understandable and acceptable to the person. Understanding means: knowing the meaning of a particular phenomenon; being able to see something functioning as an important part of a bigger whole. Only if a person understands impressions are emotions triggered which set him in motion. In other words, without understanding, a particular phenomenon does not trigger emotions, and without emotions there will not be any behavioural reaction to that phenomenon.

Emotions are connected to all sorts of needs, and some of them claim immediate satisfaction. But there are also emotions reminding the person of the importance of his long-term interest. (p.525) These emotions produce feelings and thoughts and send these to the decision-making ‘I’. We can imagine that the emotions which serve long-term interests say to the ‘I’: ‘wait a second’, ‘let’s first think about the long-term consequences for the satisfaction of this particular need’. So it triggers the ‘I’ to use its ratio and make a more careful analysis of the costs and benefits of a particular action.

The analysis made by the ratio is based on a paradigm, which is delivered by the intuition of the true Self, as experienced by the ‘I’. So this true Self offers a map of the world or a world-view, including a picture of the personality of the person. On the basis of a specified ‘model’ of the situation the ‘I’ decides whether or not to use willpower in an attempt to influence actual behaviour.

In a previous section we have seen that Jung makes a distinction between the personal conscious (1), the personal unconscious (2), and the collective unconscious (3). The wall between the three worlds is porous, which means that the three worlds are, at least to a certain extent, open to each other. This means that the archetypes in the collective unconscious and the resulting complexes in the personal unconscious are constantly affecting the processes in the conscious. These influences can be interpreted as a permanent bombardment of exogenous shocks, affecting the development of the intuition of the experienced true Self and of the needs and desires of the actual Self. In this way the archetypes and complexes give the life of a person its structure.

C.7 The Psychic System in Motion

In the living world systems and subsystems are teleological in nature and therefore not only characterized by their structure, but also by their goal. We have just sketched the structure of the mind: its elements and their interrelationships. The goal of the personal system as a whole can be formulated as follows: survival and manifestation of the Self.

We have made a distinction between three aspects of human behaviour. In the relationship between the human person and non-human elements in reality—the typical economic aspect of life—the person wants to reduce his scarcity of natural resources as much as possible; in other words, the person wants to be as wealthy as possible. In the relationship between the person and other human persons—the typical social relationship—the person wants to reach a position in the ranking as high as possible; in other words, the person strives for a maximum of social recognition or status. In the relationship between the person and his Self—the typical psychic relationship—the person strives for a maximum of self-respect; in other words, he wants to maximize his status in his own eyes. This division into three aspects of human life fits nicely with the idea of survival and manifestation. The economic, the social, and the psychic goal are all inputs necessary for the output or ultimate goal: manifestation of the Self.8 In the evolutionary approach, as we find in many parts of social science including economics, the main drive is assumed to be ‘survival’. But the question ‘what must survive’ has never been answered. In biology survival means ‘life, not death’; but when it comes to human behaviour it makes sense to distinguish (p.526) between economic survival (no poverty), social survival (no humiliation or exclusion), and psychic survival (no self-hatred). Existential philosophy is about the Self in his manifestation to the world so as to leave an eternal footprint. Now we can define perfect rationality as the perfect and eternal footprint of the true Self.

C.8 What Do We Mean by Psychic Logic?

As economics is about the economic logic, and sociology is about the social logic, so is psychology about the psychic logic. In economics the economic motivation explains why a change in the economic situation –a lower price for bikes, for instance—leads to a change in economic behaviour, which means a higher quantity of bikes demanded. So we can construct a psychic logic, where the psychic motivation to maximize self-respect explains why a change in the psychic situation—a decline in willpower, for instance—leads to a change in psychic behaviour, which means less control of the emotion that says ‘take another glass of beer’, for example. If the person gives in and drinks another glass of beer, it is because of the short-term satisfaction that beer consumption gives to the drinker, or because of the status it gives the drinker in the group to which he belongs (social status). On the other hand, this behaviour leads to a lower level of self-respect: the true Self says: don’t drink too much beer; nevertheless the ‘I’ cannot prevent the person drinking another beer. After a series of bad experiences the ‘I’ can decide to invest in willpower, so as to prevent these bad experiences in the future. Such investments promote long-term psychic growth. In other words, the person becomes more rational over time.

In our model of the mind, we have isolated the psyche from its economic and its social environment. It does not give us a realistic picture, and we can improve the quality of our knowledge significantly by connecting this analysis with a typical economic and a typical social analysis. But the focus of this text is directed to the typical psychic factor. It means that we assume that our person grows up in a very rich environment, with family and colleagues and friends, who all think highly of him. What then can still go wrong?

Rich persons have solved their economic problem. People in prestigious positions have solved their social problem. The typical psychic problem is a lack of self-respect, and the solution to the economic and to the social problem contributes definitely to the solution of the psychic problem. But on the essential level genuine self-respect can only be given by a person himself. Even if all efforts to get out of the misery of being poor fails, and even if nobody appreciates you as a person very much, a person can be convinced of the value of his true Self, and keep on acting according to his guidelines. This autonomous component of self-respect is the basis for a true life—not economic success and the applause of other people.

Besides a lack of autonomous self-respect persons have insufficient willpower to perform so well as to compensate for that lack of autonomous self-respect. Lack of willpower leaves emotional conflicts unresolved. The result is a kind of border liner attitude of trying to satisfy all desires that pop up as soon as possible. The long term is just the aggregate of short-term solutions and the personality is far from integrated.

Another problem is the imperfection of the intuition of the true Self as experienced by the decision-making ‘I’. As said, the intuition is based on a particular paradigm, which is settled in the (un)conscious. Paradigms are composed of a set of axioms characterizing the essence of life. What if impressions are framed in such a way that an increasing number of anomalies become manifest? Then the person has a strong interest in searching for explanations (p.527) for these anomalies within the existing framework. So small adjustments are applied or the anomalies are considered as incidents or the result of errors in the observation. It is very human to prevent paradigmatic changes, and to surround the established paradigm with a protective belt, since the costs of changing the structure of someone’s intuition are extremely high.9

* * *

The three primary problems in life, the economic, the social, and the psychic problem are substitutable to a certain extent. Less focus on the economic and the social problem makes more energy available for a stronger focus on the development of the true Self, and for more investments in willpower necessary to reach this goal. This search means an increasing open-mindedness. This means that a person accepts a more porous protective belt around his intuition or established paradigm. Closed-mindedness is the result of protecting the actual intuition that led to so much economic and social success. But it prevents the search for the true intuition of the person and an increase in autonomous self-respect.

As already said, perfect rationality means the perfect manifestation of the true Self. Since life is a discovery process we will never be able to fully understand our true Self. We must accept that we just meet the true Self as actually experienced.

The two causes of imperfect rationality—lack of willpower and biased framing—are related to each other. If willpower (WP) is weak the bias in the framing (BIAS) compensates for the loss of self-respect.

We express this negative relationship graphically in Figure C1.

The curve expresses a type of protective belt around the intuitively experienced Self and prevents a decline in self-respect that is below a minimum necessary for psychic survival. The higher the position of the curve the more the person has closed their mind to a more realistic picture of the world, including the true Self; in other words, the less rational the person.

Appendix C  Jung for Economists

Figure C.1. The Trade-Off between Willpower and the Frame Bias

(p.528) C.9 Jungian Analysis Applied to Economic Phenomena

As we all know, there is an essential difference between economics and the economy. When talking about economic phenomena we mean everything that happens in the economy: the behaviour of consumers, investors, workers, and management, for instance. Economics studies economic phenomena from a typical economic point of view, leaving out the typical social and the typical psychic elements. Because Jung’s analysis comes quite close to what can be called the typical psychic analysis (leaving out the other types of factors), it makes sense to show how this analysis can contribute to a better understanding of economic phenomena.

A first example is the explanation of consumer behaviour. In neoclassical economics the preferences of the people are given, and so with the information about prices and qualities of the various goods which are offered. Given the budget, every consumer can calculate the number of different goods that must be bought in order to reach optimal allocation of scarce resources. In reality, preferences as well as information about what is on offer, are not givens at all. In our modern economies a very large institution of marketing has emerged. According to the typical economic explanation, the function of this institution is the delivery of information about preferences and the quality and price of goods. According to the typical sociological explanation, the organizations in the marketing industry are creating a culture that stimulates consumption. According to a Jungian approach, the institution of marketing is trying to influence the battle between the different complexes in the personal unconscious in such a way that consumption is stimulated. Clothing firms organize fashion shows which express independence or masculinity, or show one belongs to a prestigious group. In some cases, consumption of particular goods can help people to find homeostatic balance in their psyche. It is in the interest of the marketing industry, however, that the solutions they offer are short-term solutions only. Otherwise, consumption would decline. So advertising must continuously suggest that the solutions found are inadequate, and that the latest fashion is a better solution to the problem of psychic imbalance.

A second example is about the explanation of worker behaviour in their bargaining about labour conditions. The Dutch union of medical specialists is a good example. Its power is based on the skills of the specialists to solve health problems. At present most specialists are males, who behave in quite a masculine way, thereby denying their anima. In a less powerful situation males are less seduced to misbehave and exploit situations. Were their psyches more in balance they would change their behaviour and become more caring creatures, who do not exploit their power so much.

A third example is about financial investor behaviour. In the last two decades the Western financial world has been confronted with aggressively operating hedge funds and private equity. These organizations develop strategies focused on the maximization of short-term capital gains and profits, by buying shares, restructuring firms, and selling the newly formed organizations. These strategies are also profitable by ignoring the interests of people who cannot defend themselves sufficiently. It is not that difficult to seek short-term gain while ignoring the long-term gains of other stakeholders. Daily life is full of situations where people have short-term power. If we all constantly exploited our short-term powers, life would be hell. But some people do not have a balanced psyche, so if they discover a way to become filthy rich, they cannot control themselves.

A last example is about the explanation of the behaviour of leaders of large companies. Over the last few decades many mergers and acquisitions have taken place. Economic logic tells us (p.529) that scale matters, and so a merger can be profitable. But empirical research shows that, in many cases, the merger appears unprofitable in the end. The drive to be the captain of a huge empire is so strong that some analyses, about differences in cultures between the candidates, for instance, are ignored. Again, people placed in a very powerful position often cannot withstand the triggering of unconscious complexes. In many cases captains of industry are confronted with a number of serious objections against particular strategies. But the typical psychic process of repression makes it possible for the captain to decide against economic logic.

In Section C.10 we will draw some conclusions.

C.10 Conclusion

Carl Jung must be considered to be a typical psychologist. He is searching for the logic of the mind in a way which is comparable with the way in which orthodox economics searches for the logic of the economic world. This makes him a valuable source of knowledge for economists. In his constitution of the mind he does not completely abstract the mind from the body; it is important to see that physiology plays an important role in his design.

In Jung’s construction the archetypes in the collective unconscious play a decisive role in the whole of factors which determine human behaviour. They manifest themselves in the minds of individual persons through a series of complexes. During childhood, the role of the mother and the father figure are the most important ones. During adulthood, the relationship between man and woman and between senior and junior, or between boss and subordinate, are the decisive positions. It goes without saying that the experiences in the first structure affect experiences in the second configuration significantly.

The psyche of a person is in balance if he has dealt with the various complexes in a harmonious way. Otherwise, the person becomes neurotic in some respects. In our Western world many people have developed one or more neuroses, which affect the quality of their decisions negatively.

With respect to autism we must take into account the fact that many people are autistic to a certain extent only. Among scientists, autism is widespread. Many scientists are very good in one aspect of science, while bad in other important aspects. In gamma-science especially this is a serious problem. Some gamma-people are alpha types, and try to avoid beta-elements in their scientific research. Other gamma-people are beta types, and try to avoid the alpha-aspects in their field. In economics it is obvious that econometricians try to avoid a discussion about the paradigm and the analysis upon which their hypotheses are based. On the other hand, economic philosophers don’t like to explain differential and difference equations, which describe mathematically the course of a business cycle. The way in which economics has developed itself makes it clear that the econometricians are the dominant group at the moment.

In orthodox economics individuals are assumed to be perfectly rational. This assumption is made in order to isolate the economic problem from the typical psychic problem. The architecture of the mind, as constituted by Jung, helps us better understand what rationality of an individual person means. Perfect rationality means that human willpower is not scarce, and that a person has discovered his true Self and is able to manifest his true Self to the world, including himself. Of course, nobody will ever become perfectly rational. Human life is like a journey. We experience and we grow—and suddenly it is over.


(4) In modern psychology monism rather dualism dominates the discussion. Descartes has been blamed for a dualistic approach by separating mind and body (Damasio, 1994). But this accusation is wrong: Descartes explicitly denied being a dualist. He only distinguished analytically between the mind and the body. In other words, he considered them aspect-systems rather than subsystems. When doing this we go beyond the dualism-monism controversy, and recognize that there is no mind without a body, and there is no body without a mind.

(5) Keizer (2015) offers a slightly different picture of the mind. A distinction has been made between two selves, namely a true Self and an actual Self. In this constitution the ‘I’ or ego is ‘advised’ by the true Self, and screens the claims of the actual Self to see whether the satisfaction of them is in the long-term interest of the true Self. In some other analyses a superego is introduced to represent a moral complex inside the mind of a person. This complex can be interpreted as an important part of the true Self, and will be highly affected by the prevailing culture in which the child grows up.

(6) Girard has written many books and articles about ancient myths and primitive religions which all show the universality of these archetypes. He explains the so-called scapegoat mechanism that reflects the social logic by referring to the tacit knowledge of primitive man (Girard, 1978).

(7) In France there is a group of economists who call neoclassical economists autistic. Although I personally don’t like to use words with a strong negative connotation, this is exactly what is at stake. Neoclassical economists live in their own economic world, and are isolated from the real world, ignoring social and psychic problems. The French group calls its own approach ‘post-autistic economics’.

(8) In the ecological view we should formulate the goal in terms of manifestation of the Self and the enjoyment of the manifestation of other beings. Later in this appendix we will see that the essential true Self strives for wholeness, which is similar to the ecological view.

(9) The concept of protective belt is borrowed from the scientific-philosophical analysis of Lakatos. He defends the position that it is not irrational not to immediately change the paradigm in case of one or a few anomalies (Lakatos, 1970).