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Strategic IntelligenceConceptual Tools for Leading Change$

Michael Maccoby

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780199682386

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682386.001.0001

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(p.152) (p.153) Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

(p.152) (p.153) Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Source:
Strategic Intelligence
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

If you have answered the questions at the end of the chapters, you have begun to develop strategic intelligence. It’s rare that individuals can develop all the qualities of strategic intelligence. However, a team that’s leading change is better able to develop these qualities. For each member, developing strategic intelligence starts with what Carol S. Dweck terms a growth mindset.1 This includes making an effort to develop oneself with attitudes of embracing challenges, persisting in the face of obstacles, and learning from criticism and from the success of others. Developing strategic intelligence also requires a systems-thinking mindset, starting with a focus on purpose—yours and the organization’s. With a systems-thinking mindset, you view organizations and individuals holistically and question how parts and actions interact to further the system’s purpose. With this mindset, you ask how the organizational system is adapting to a larger system. In so doing, you will be more likely to gain foresight and openness to the need for change. When the growth and systems-thinking mindsets strengthen each other, you will gain the capability for double-loop learning, the attitude of testing theories with openness to changing those that do not predict expected results.

With these mindsets, you can focus on developing the elements of strategic intelligence. It helps to do this with others. That way, you can see differences in the strengths of each other. In workshops on leadership and strategic intelligence, I have given participants the Strategic Intelligence Inventory (see Table A.1) to diagnose their strengths and the qualities they want to develop. When this exercise is done together with teammates, they can coach each other. They can also compare how they score themselves with how others score them. It may help to have an experienced facilitator to aid in these exercises.

Exercise A.1 Strategic Intelligence Inventory

Score yourself from 1 (low) to 5 (high) on the Strategic Intelligence Inventory (Table A.1).

  1. 1. What areas of your strategic intelligence show strength?

  2. 2. What areas most need developing?

  3. 3. What can you do to improve your personal strategic intelligence?

  4. 4. Invite some of your colleagues to partner with you in the spirit of joint learning and development.

(p.154) Summarize and discuss the differences.

When you give yourself a score between 1 (low) and 5 (high), note the evidence for your score and if it is low, what you plan to do to improve it. If you are doing this exercise with your leadership team, you should display the results of the inventory so that everyone can learn about the team’s strengths and challenges.

Table A.1. Strategic Intelligence Inventory

Foresight

1

I scan the business or professional environment for trends that present threats to and opportunities for my organization.

1 2 3 4 5

2

I seek out and listen to people whose knowledge helps me foresee future trends.

1 2 3 4 5

3

I construct scenarios of possible futures and think about how I would deal with each scenario.

1 2 3 4 5

4

I talk to customers and suppliers about their needs.

1 2 3 4 5

5

I study organizations that are very successful and unsuccessful.

1 2 3 4 5

6

I look for patterns in my business environment that indicate future trends.

1 2 3 4 5

7

I keep track of leading indicators from employees and customers that suggest future trends.

1 2 3 4 5

8

I look for talented people who can become future leaders.

1 2 3 4 5

9

I study unexpected results, consider their implications and opportunities for the future, and act accordingly.

1 2 3 4 5

Visioning

1

I can describe how my vision uniquely positions my company in the market.

1 2 3 4 5

2

I can describe how my vision takes account of threats and opportunities for the organization.

1 2 3 4 5

3

I can describe my vision as an idealized design of a social system.

1 2 3 4 5

4

My vision for the organization includes how people will interact with one another.

1 2 3 4 5

5

My vision for the organization includes the practical values essential to its implementation.

1 2 3 4 5

6

I can describe the competencies we need to implement the vision.

1 2 3 4 5

7

My vision includes the design and redesign of processes essential to achieving it.

1 2 3 4 5

8

I incorporate the best ideas of my partners in developing the organizational vision.

1 2 3 4 5

9

My vision includes a plan for its implementation.

1 2 3 4 5

Systems Thinking

1

I evaluate parts of the organization on how well they further the purpose of the system.

1 2 3 4 5

2

I manage the interactions among different parts of the organization.

1 2 3 4 5

3

When I have a problem, I look for contributing factors before I try to solve it.

1 2 3 4 5

4

When I have several things to do, I try to understand how each action will affect the short- and long-term consequences for the system before I act.

1 2 3 4 5

5

When my theories don’t work, I question my assumptions about my understanding of the interdependencies within the system.

1 2 3 4 5

6

I make sure we are developing and hiring people with the competence and values essential to achieve the purpose and vision of the system.

1 2 3 4 5

7

I advocate values that further the purpose of the system I lead.

1 2 3 4 5

8

I make sure incentives and rewards strengthen the organizational values and purpose of the system.

1 2 3 4 5

9

I think of my own well-being as an interaction of my physical, mental, and spiritual selves and I work on all three.

1 2 3 4 5

Engaging and Motivating

1

I communicate a philosophy that people in my organization find meaningful.

1 2 3 4 5

2

I affirm people’s strengths and offer them roles that engage their intrinsic motivation.

1 2 3 4 5

3

I do not punish honest mistakes but use them as an opportunity for learning, so that people are not afraid to be open.

1 2 3 4 5

4

I use opposition to reach better solutions.

1 2 3 4 5

5

I understand the motivating values of the employees who are essential to my organization.

1 2 3 4 5

6

I make sure that our processes and incentives strengthen collaboration.

1 2 3 4 5

7

I can tell when people are paying only lip service to the vision.

1 2 3 4 5

8

I make sure people’s contributions are recognized.

1 2 3 4 5

9

People in my organization are empowered to propose improvements.

1 2 3 4 5

Partnering

1

I know my strengths and seek out partners who complement my strengths.

1 2 3 4 5

2

I know my weaknesses and seek out partners who can help me develop or can compensate for my weaknesses.

1 2 3 4 5

3

I make sure that my partners in the organization share my philosophy of leadership.

1 2 3 4 5

4

I spell out what I expect from partnering.

1 2 3 4 5

5

I break off ineffective partnering relationships in a timely way.

1 2 3 4 5

6

I partner with key customers to reduce total costs in our joint systems.

1 2 3 4 5

7

I partner with key suppliers to reduce total costs in our joint systems.

1 2 3 4 5

8

I build trust with partners by making sure our philosophies are compatible.

1 2 3 4 5

9

I make sure that my partners will also benefit from our partnerships; relationships are win–win.

1 2 3 4 5

(p.155) Understanding Yourself and Others

Understanding others starts with understanding yourself. Based on the theories of Freud and Fromm, I developed The Leadership Personality Survey in 2003 and for the past ten years I have given it to hundreds of leaders in workshops and participants in the HEC-Oxford program, Consulting and Coaching for Change. It is reproduced in Table A.2 with a scoring guide and description of the most common types.

Table A.2. Maccoby Leadership Personality Survey

How well does this describe you?

Never

Almost never

Seldom

Sometimes

Frequently

Almost always

1

I want my work to further my own development.

0

1

3

6

10

15

2

I try to develop a vision for the ideal future of the institution.

0

1

3

6

10

15

3

I am an idealistic person.

0

1

3

6

10

15

4

I am satisfied at work if my job allows a great deal of autonomy.

0

1

3

6

10

15

5

I follow the rule that practice makes excellence.

0

1

3

6

10

15

6

I adapt easily to people I like.

0

1

3

6

10

15

7

I’ve developed my own view about what is right and wrong.

0

1

3

6

10

15

8

I see myself as a free agent.

0

1

3

6

10

15

9

I make my bosses into colleagues.

0

1

3

6

10

15

10

I adapt myself to continual change.

0

1

3

6

10

15

11

I feel I should take the initiative more.

0

1

3

6

10

15

12

Whatever my job, I try to provide high-quality work.

0

1

3

6

10

15

13

I try to keep my skills marketable.

0

1

3

6

10

15

14

I have a lot of aggressive energy I need to direct.

0

1

3

6

10

15

15

I keep my views to myself because I want to avoid an argument.

0

1

3

6

10

15

16

I put so much energy into responding to others that I feel I lose my sense of self.

0

1

3

6

10

15

17

The best boss for me is a good facilitator.

0

1

3

6

10

15

18

I try to be tough so I won’t seem too soft.

0

1

3

6

10

15

19

I am bothered when there is a lack of neatness.

0

1

3

6

10

15

20

I find that the market gives me feedback on my value.

0

1

3

6

10

15

21

I have conversations with myself to clarify what I should do.

0

1

3

6

10

15

22

The best boss for me is like a good father who recognizes my achievements.

0

1

3

6

10

15

23

I want to feel appreciated.

0

1

3

6

10

15

24

I try to keep my options open.

0

1

3

6

10

15

25

I compare myself to highly successful people.

0

1

3

6

10

15

26

I like to collect things.

0

1

3

6

10

15

27

I believe the best decision will result from consensus.

0

1

3

6

10

15

28

I would rather be loved than admired.

0

1

3

6

10

15

29

I like to feel needed by people I care about.

0

1

3

6

10

15

30

What I like about games is the challenge to improve my personal score.

0

1

3

6

10

15

31

I admire creative geniuses.

0

1

3

6

10

15

32

I have difficulty completing projects on time because I want my work to be perfect.

0

1

3

6

10

15

33

Loyalty does not get in my way of doing what is best to succeed.

0

1

3

6

10

15

34

I feel alone and isolated.

0

1

3

6

10

15

35

I am thorough rather than quick.

0

1

3

6

10

15

36

I don’t give in when I feel I am in the right.

0

1

3

6

10

15

37

I trust people.

0

1

3

6

10

15

38

I use organizations as instruments to achieve my goals.

0

1

3

6

10

15

39

I keep up with the latest trends.

0

1

3

6

10

15

40

I follow my ideas despite what people say.

0

1

3

6

10

15

41

My sense of security comes from supportive family and friends.

0

1

3

6

10

15

42

I judge people according to strict moral standards.

0

1

3

6

10

15

43

Before I accept an idea, I check it out with people I respect.

0

1

3

6

10

15

44

The best boss for me makes the work group into a kind of family.

0

1

3

6

10

15

45

I feel that I get taken in by people I’ve trusted.

0

1

3

6

10

15

46

I like to help people.

0

1

3

6

10

15

47

I define quality in terms of what experts value.

0

1

3

6

10

15

48

I don’t act until I have fully weighed up the alternatives.

0

1

3

6

10

15

49

I evaluate behavior in terms of what is considered appropriate by the people I respect.

0

1

3

6

10

15

50

I create meaning for myself and for others at work.

0

1

3

6

10

15

51

I am building a network of others who share my values.

0

1

3

6

10

15

52

I enjoy loving more than being loved.

0

1

3

6

10

15

53

I enjoy being part of a cooperative group.

0

1

3

6

10

15

54

I feel better when I save rather than spend.

0

1

3

6

10

15

55

I would rather be admired than liked.

0

1

3

6

10

15

56

I am very tolerant about what others do.

0

1

3

6

10

15

57

I like bringing people together.

0

1

3

6

10

15

58

I sense when people are working against me.

0

1

3

6

10

15

59

I spend a lot of time on details.

0

1

3

6

10

15

60

I like to associate with the top people.

0

1

3

6

10

15

61

I spend a lot of time chatting with my friends.

0

1

3

6

10

15

62

My creativity depends on maintaining my freedom.

0

1

3

6

10

15

63

I enjoy interactions where I can learn something new.

0

1

3

6

10

15

64

I feel I give in too much.

0

1

3

6

10

15

65

Once I start talking I tend to go on.

0

1

3

6

10

15

66

I approach my work as a means to a self-fulfilling life.

0

1

3

6

10

15

67

I try to know everything about everything that impacts my institution.

0

1

3

6

10

15

68

I like to have a schedule and keep to it.

0

1

3

6

10

15

69

The best thing about playing games is having a good time with my friends.

0

1

3

6

10

15

70

I seek out people who can contribute to my plans.

0

1

3

6

10

15

71

I test out my ideas systematically.

0

1

3

6

10

15

72

To be successful, I try to look good.

0

1

3

6

10

15

73

People at work are either with me or against me.

0

1

3

6

10

15

74

I like to keep up with old friends.

0

1

3

6

10

15

75

I rely on certain people who care about me.

0

1

3

6

10

15

76

I put my own spirit into my products and creations.

0

1

3

6

10

15

77

My sense of security is based on my reputation in my field.

0

1

3

6

10

15

78

My self-esteem depends on being seen as successful.

0

1

3

6

10

15

79

I like to develop ways to improve efficiency.

0

1

3

6

10

15

80

I admire people who have helped those in need.

0

1

3

6

10

15

Note that the scoring is an ordinal, not a rational scale. I have increased the scoring intervals to emphasize the differences among people, adding weight to stronger affiliations.

(p.156) (p.157) (p.158) Table A.3 contains the key to scoring the Leadership Personality questionnaire. Write your answer (numerical score) to each question here:

Interpreting the Maccoby Leadership Personality Survey

Table A.3. Scoring chart for Personality Survey

1

———

2

———

3

———

4

———

8

———

7

———

6

———

5

———

10

———

9

———

11

———

12

———

13

———

14

———

15

———

19

———

16

———

21

———

18

———

22

———

17

———

25

———

23

———

26

———

20

———

31

———

28

———

30

———

24

———

34

———

29

———

32

———

27

———

38

———

37

———

35

———

33

———

40

———

41

———

36

———

39

———

50

———

44

———

42

———

43

———

52

———

45

———

48

———

47

———

55

———

46

———

54

———

49

———

58

———

53

———

59

———

51

———

60

———

57

———

65

———

56

———

62

———

61

———

68

———

63

———

67

———

64

———

71

———

66

———

70

———

69

———

74

———

72

———

73

———

75

———

77

———

78

———

76

———

80

———

79

———

TOTAL:

————

————

————

————

Adaptive

Visionary

Caring

Exacting

(p.159) Leadership Personality

The personalities of leaders color their relationships and influence their strategic decisions and behaviors. Personality focuses the leader’s attention on aspects of the future, and may also narrow that focus. Personality influences the types of visions that are meaningful to leaders and the way they think about organizational systems. Their personalities influence the types of people they consider as partners in accomplishing their visions—and the way they recruit, motivate, and empower them.

The Maccoby Leadership Personality Survey provides insight into the way a leader’s personality interacts with an organization and the larger society. It is a survey—meaning that it is wide ranging, a full consideration of the aspects of personality affecting leadership. Just as a survey of land has as one of its goals the creation of a map to make the landscape more understandable, the Maccoby Leadership Personality Survey generates a diagram to assist in making the leader’s personality more understandable. Only when we understand our personalities are we able to improve them, to become more productive.

You can map your questionnaire scores on this diamond (see Figure A.1).

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.1. Graph for personality type questionnaire

Your highest score is your dominant type, the next highest your secondary type. Keep in mind that each person is unique. However, the types are patterns of our value drives or motivational values. You can use the results as a frame for understanding yourself and others.

The personality of every person—and therefore every leader—is a combination or blend of types, which work together as a system. To understand these personality systems, the following pages first present the four types and then consider them in their various combinations with the other types—with an emphasis on leadership.

(p.160) For some people, a single type is clearly dominant, but never to the total exclusion of elements of the other types. For other people, one type may be dominant and blended with a clear secondary type. Many combinations of the four types are possible.

The Four Primary Leadership Personality Types

  1. 1. Caring

  2. 2. Visionary

  3. 3. Exacting

  4. 4. Adaptive2

The Caring (Freud’s Erotic) Leadership Personality

The most important value of the caring type (see Figure A.2) is loving and being loved. Leaders of this type want to help and care for people. They also want to be seen by others as helpers, to be recognized for their good deeds, to be loved and appreciated, more than respected or admired. They want to believe in other people; to have the trust they naturally place in others be rewarded by reciprocal trust and personal loyalty.

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.2. Graph for caring personality

The caring type dominates the social services, the caring fields—teaching, nursing, social work, mental health and therapy—and service industries, careers that involve nurturing creativity and growth, encouraging others to make more of their lives. They keep our social services running, on both an organizational and personal level, by teaching our children, caring for the elderly, helping displaced, homeless, or poor people, and on a smaller scale, by setting up this friend with that one, lending a hand with moving, or coming over to cook dinner for a sick colleague. They are drawn to (p.161) organizations that pursue social causes or have social consciences. Yet, they can also be found in sports and the military.

Caring types are typically good listeners; receptive to others and open to hearing about their experiences, ideas, and emotions. They like to share news of personal events and quite naturally expect others to want to do the same.

They never like to say “no” to a favor, thriving on service and cooperation, trusting and relying on friends and family for a sense of security. When caring types rise to leadership positions, it’s usually in the caring fields. However, when they are in military leaders, they mentor and forge strong bonds of friendship. They also shine as musicians and performers, who stimulate love in their audiences. However, they can also be found in technical roles as helpers to other leaders. See Table A.4 for a list of strengths and weaknesses of the caring personality.

Table A.4. Strengths and weaknesses—caring personality

Strengths

Weaknesses

Caring

Dependency

Bringing people together

Gullibility and disillusionment

Reinforcing social interdependence

Inability to make tough decisions

Fear of taking a stand

Service and cooperation

Excesses of emotion

Trust

The need for everyone to like them

Stimulating love

Devoted

Submissive

Optimistic

Wishful thinking

Sensitive

Easily perceive rejection

Helpful

Smothering or intrusive

The Visionary (Freud’s Narcissistic) Leadership Personality

The productive leaders of this type (see Figure A.3) impress us as personalities; disrupting the status quo and bringing about change.

Visionaries have very little or no psychic demands that they have to do the right thing. Freed from these internal constraints, they are forced to answer for themselves what is right, to decide what they value, what, in effect, gives them a sense of meaning. The productive ones create their own vision, with a sense of purpose that not only engages them, but may also inspire others to follow them. This vision may be either ethical or unethical, for the common good or for personal power. The visions of unproductive narcissists may be grandiose or irrational, isolating them from others.

Visionaries are accustomed to listening to themselves, their inner voices. They may debate different sides of an issue (e.g. “to be or not to be”), finally reaching a decision about what to do and the best way to do it. They tend to block out the voices of others.

Without the support of others, it’s easy to see how visionaries have a highly developed “me- against-the-world” way of looking at things. It often comes out as paranoia, a heightened awareness of danger, which may be realistic, given narcissistic ambition, competitiveness, and unbridled aggressive energy. There’s not a lot of gray area in the visionary-narcissistic view of the world—you are either a friend or a foe, for or against the vision, which has become merged with the narcissist’s sense of self.

(p.162)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.3. Graph for visionary personality

Because they have not internalized a strong super-ego in childhood, they are able to be more aggressive than other types.

Productive visionaries are not limited to any particular field; you can find them in almost any field, in any domain. They may not change the entire world (though some certainly have), but they may re-invent their part of the world. See Table A.5 for a list of strengths and weaknesses of the visionary personality.

Table A.5. Strengths and weaknesses—visionary personality

Strengths

Weaknesses

Visioning to change the world and create meaning that others can share

Extreme sensitivity to criticism

Not listening

Independent thinking/risk taking

Paranoia

Passionate about ideas

Extreme competitiveness

Charisma

Anger and put-downs

Voracious learning

Exaggeration

Persevering

Lack of self-knowledge

Alert to threats

Isolated

Sense of humor

Grandiose

The Exacting (Freud’s Obsessive) Leadership Personality

Exacting leadership personalities (see Figure A.4) are inner-directed. They live by the rules, and the rules are usually determined by internalized parental figures, forging a strict conscience, or “the way things have always been done around here.” People of this type are motivated to live up to the high standards and ideals they set for (p.163)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.4. Graph for exacting personality

themselves, to show, at all times, that they fit the ideal of “good child” to internalized parental figures. When they fail or rebel against these internalized demands, they feel guilty.

They are the conservatives who preserve order and maintain moral values, with a strong work ethic. They focus on the importance of right and wrong, whether at work or in their friendships. Once they believe in someone or something, they stick to it, showing loyalty. They want good, orderly fashion in everything they touch or do, whether it’s in their well-kept closets or work space or how they organize their time. The most productive of these types are systematic. They systematically break a task down into its components, and set out to tackle it, one bit at a time.

They are the kind of people who say, “If you're going to do anything, you should do it right.” Exacting experts see work as performance, meeting a standard, not necessarily helping anyone. In the past, they were the independent farmers and craftsmen. Today, they are doctors, engineers, financial experts, accountants, scientists, researchers, technicians and craftsmen like electricians, bricklayers and carpenters, as well as the majority of middle managers and some top managers, especially CFOs, COOs, and some CEOs.

An exacting type may make it to the top of a corporation and take on a leadership role, but they are most effective in a company that is itself exacting; a company generally in manufacturing or retail that is conservative, focused on the bottom line, whose success depends on creating processes that improve quality and cut costs, or a government agency. See Table A.6 for a list of strengths and weaknesses of the exacting personality. (p.164)

Table A.6. Strengths and weaknesses—exacting personality

Strengths

Weaknesses

Systematic

Resist anything new or different

Maintain order and stability

Get mired in details and rules, lose sight of overall goals

Preserve tradition

Loyal and faithful to their commitments

More concerned with doing things in the right way than doing the right thing

Exacting standards, high-quality work

Control freak, paper-pushing, bean-counting bureaucrat

Judgmental, stubborn

Disciplined and diligent

Determined

Stingy

Extremely neat and clean

Responsible and accountable

Always right, know-it-all

The Adaptive (Fromm’s Marketing) Leadership Personality

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.5. Graph for adaptive personality

These leaders (see Figure A.5) operate by radar, sensing what the market wants and needs, and then either developing themselves to fit it or just conforming to it. Their self-esteem or self-valuation comes from what could be called a personal stock that goes up and down depending on what they’re selling: their accomplishments, how well they align themselves with key people, a client or account base, good looks and style, new skills and expertise, or “whatever,” as they are fond of saying. Everything they do is relative; it needs to meet the approval of other people. They rarely use the words right or wrong (as does the exacting type); they want their behavior to be “appropriate.” They intuitively know how to adapt to changes in the marketplace, and are not as unsettled by upheaval in the corporate or economic climate as others are. They see change as an opportunity for success and fun.

(p.165) The most productive adaptive personalities are interactive self-developers. They think of their life and career as continuing education, a chance to pick up new skills, continually learn and grow, intellectually and emotionally. They are the types who want to do well, feel and look good. They exercise, diet, talk to therapists, organize reading and study groups and take classes. They are some of the most productive freelancers, setting their own goals and working well on their own; they are a big part of the current trend towards self-employment, and are excellent at self-promotion. However, they are also natural networkers and team players and enjoy interacting with people like themselves.

This type does well in all manner of sales professions: real estate, public relations, advertising, publicity, events planning, venture capital, money raising. They are effective in consulting, technical design, acting, the arts, publishing, and entertainment. They increasingly play a part in the legal and medical professions because of their ability to bring people together. They are often chosen as school principals and college or university presidents because they make all the different interest groups feel understood and supported; they build coalitions that don’t insult anyone. They are the most effective facilitators and the best such leaders, like Bob Iger of Disney, partner with innovative visionaries and exacting operational leaders. See Table A.7 for a list of strengths and weaknesses of the adaptive personality.

Table A.7. Strengths and weaknesses—adaptive personality

Strengths

Weaknesses

Intuitively adapts to changes in the marketplace

Indecisive, non-committal

No center, no inner core that directs them

Superior networking skills

Continual reinvention

No lasting commitment to their work or to people

Self-marketing

Interactive

Anxiety and uncertainty hang over them, the nagging question “Is this the appropriate answer? Am I doing OK? Is this working?”

Natural mediator and interpreter between other personalities

Tolerant

Adaptable

Indifferent

Combinations of Types

Characteristics of the four personality types are, to some degree, present in every person. Neither the Visionary nor the Adaptive internalize parental commands about right and wrong. But while Adaptives identify with peers and seek consensus about moral decisions, Visionaries determine their own sense of what is right and wrong. A focus on four types is useful as a starting point, but a consideration of the various combinations of types reveals subtleties and the working of the types together as a system to form unique personalities. (p.166)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.6. CARING—visionary personality

CARING—Dominant Mixed-leadership Types

CARING—Visionary (Humanitarian)

This type (see Figure A.6) is a humanitarian leader, attuned to the needs of others and ready to take up a social cause or effort for the betterment of others who are in need. They will pour enormous effort into even long-shot chances to help the disadvantaged—often soliciting the help of others in their efforts. Some, like Mother Teresa, begin by caring for individuals in need and then create an order and mission to continue the work.

The unproductive type can let the needs of others drive their business or financial decisions and may give to others to the point that they lose their capacity to give more.

CARING—Exacting (see Figure A.7)

The productive leader is the caring but exacting mentor or good counselor, sensing the needs of others, offering advice and helping other people to make their own decisions, or the prototype of the good mother, caring and hardworking and concerned with the health of her children. This combination can be effective as general practitioner doctors and nurses. Some with strategic intelligence have done well as military commanders, such as Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower. Caring artists like Wynton Marsalis bring out the best in their collaborators.

The unproductive version is a type that worries obsessively about health issues or about whether they are loved. This type can be too easily manipulated because they fear losing love and can be too trusting.

CARING—Adaptive (see Figure A.8)

The productive leader is a helper, sensitive and receptive to the needs of many others at one time—or the collective needs of a small group. They excel in situations (p.167)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.7. CARING—exacting personality

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.8. CARING—adaptive personality

where they can support a small group of people or a team. Many psychotherapists are this type.

The unproductive types are constantly looking for a fulfilling relationship. They have many infatuations where they believe they have found themselves, but inevitably decide they have lost themselves. (p.168)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.9. VISIONARY—caring personality

VISIONARY—Dominant Mixed Leadership Types

VISIONARY—Caring (see Figure A.9)

The productive version is the institution builder who not only builds an institution, such as a hospital or school, but also leads it and cares for the people, like Father William Wasson (who created Nuestros Pequeños Hermanos, an orphanage in nine countries), creative musicians or actors, like Orson Welles or Marlon Brando. There are also organizational leaders of this type who need to partner with exacting types because they ignore processes and details, focusing on caring for the people who sign on to their vision.

The unproductive version is the Don Juan or Mata Hari type, seductive and exploitative; using the sensitivity to others’ needs to find paths open to manipulation and gaining personal power.

VISIONARY—Exacting (see Figure A.10)

The productive version is what Freud considered the best strategic leader, combining vision and systematic approaches to implementation. They want results to be accomplished according to a plan, and see the planning process as rehearsal and preparation for action. Jack Welch is a good example of this type. Freud also thought himself this type. Others are Larry Ellison, Steve Jobs, and Jeff Bezos.

The unproductive version is the authoritarian bureaucrat, paranoid, hoarding, and without a creative vision, and lacking interpersonal sensitivity. Rather, the vision is total control and domination.

VISIONARY—Adaptive (see Figure A.11)

The productive version uses marketing traits in order to recruit others without being controlled by others or trying to please them. Their visions are adapted to people’s (p.169)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.10. VISIONARY—exacting personality

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.11. VISIONARY—adaptive personality

needs. Jan Carlzon was this type of leader at Scandinavian Airlines in the 1980s and ’90s. Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg are other examples. This is the emerging type of the new entrepreneur.

The unproductive individuals tend to suffer from frustrated grandiosity as they continually crank out visions that no one buys, trying to find new and better ways to convince people that their latest project or idea is different than past failed attempts. (p.170)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.12. EXACTING—caring personality

EXACTING—Dominant Mixed Leadership Types

EXACTING—Caring (see Figure A.12)

The productive leader is the exacting teacher; in business, the person who can identify problems and recommend specific steps to remedy them. They are ideal clinicians and careful doctors. This type is also attracted to professional roles that require people to be systematic and thorough but that want to help people succeed.

The unproductive version is the dependent but rigid type. As bureaucrats, they are servile to bosses but unbending to clients and subordinates.

EXACTING—Visionary (see Figure A.13)

The productive version is the process creator; the leader who can create structure and order in systems that seem otherwise unmanageable. These types believe that making the organization run more efficiently is a great vision. It is likely that they are conscientiously attempting to improve the organization, but not to change the world.

The unproductive version becomes a controlling micro-manager, insisting on compliance with processes and rules that do not contribute to meaningful outcomes.

EXACTING—Adaptive (see Figure A.14)

The productive leader is the technical consultant, with an emphasis on what they have to offer rather than what others need from them. They focus on developing their skills and looking good, adapting to the market in order to succeed. They are careful to walk the walk, talk the talk, and be informed on all the latest trends that may have an effect on their jobs or their customers.

(p.171)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.13. EXACTING—visionary personality

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.14. EXACTING—adaptive personality

The unproductive version is the proverbial “solution in search of a problem.” They are so eager to apply their knowledge and expertise that every situation seems to fit in exactly with what they know. (p.172)
Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.15. EXACTING—caring personality

ADAPTIVE—Dominant Mixed Leadership Types

ADAPTIVE—Caring (see Figure A.15)

The productive leader is the consensus builder. Because they value the needs of many people at the same time, they naturally try to get people to see things from each other’s viewpoint. They focus on finding and creating areas of agreement, while gaining some economic and social advantage from helping others. This type is particularly good at sales and public relations.

The unproductive version believes that if they look right and give others what they seem to want they will be loved. They may run into trouble by agreeing with too many people and leaving the impression that they do not have an opinion or standard of their own. They are the perpetual consumers, who believe that they will find satisfaction through buying or experiencing what is fashionable.

ADAPTIVE—Visionary (see Figure A.16)

The productive leader is the guru who is quick to assess the situation and package a customized solution. Because they value both speed and novelty, they are often among the early adopters of new technology, but they can tire of it quickly. In marketing or public relations, they can be the extremely innovative ones who create the perception of new needs in the market.

The unproductive version is unsure of their ideas, continually looking to others to affirm them. They may also suffer from multi-tasking, over-commitment to multiple visions or projects, or from continually changing visions. (p.173)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.16. ADAPTIVE—visionary personality

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.17. ADAPTIVE—exacting personality

ADAPTIVE—Exacting (see Figure A.17)

The productive version is especially effective as a technical salesperson or leader of a technical organization or team. Professionals of this type are able to build useful networks and provide value for their clients because they listen well to problems and are systematic in following through. They keep up on the latest information and make good use of it.

(p.174)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.18. Farming-craft social character

The unproductive version can be obsessive about getting more information than they can use. They compulsively surf the Internet or wade thought the latest books, magazines, and newspapers in search of the “new.”

Mixed Type and Social Character

Personality types are best understood in the context of social character. The socialization process and relationship to the dominant means of production in a society have a significant influence on the meaning that people create for themselves and their value drives. For that reason, the same type will mean something different in each social character.

Farming-craft Social Character

The prototype of the Farming-craft social character is exacting-dominant with a secondary caring (see Figure A.18). Fromm and Maccoby did not find any adaptive types in their study of Mexican villagers. The visionaries were the entrepreneurs who were changing the culture. The productive version of this type is the traditional self-sufficient local producer of agricultural or material goods. In the Farming-craft social character, the dominant personality types tend to be expressed as follows:

  • Caring—love is directed to family members or apprentices.

  • Visionary—entrepreneurs starting new business and investing in new technology.

  • Exacting—in traditional work, done independently, or in the case of farming, with help from family members.

(p.175) Bureaucratic Social Character

In the Bureaucratic social character, the prototype personality is similar to the Farming-craft, but with a little more strength of the visionary and the emergence of the adaptive (see Figure A.19). This type is related to a means of production with strong organizational roles and rules. Production is typically either formatted manual work or more abstract office work; using words and symbols rather than the hand tools of the Farming-craft mode of production.

In the Bureaucratic social character, the dominant personality types tend to be expressed as follows:

  • Caring—a mentor or a helper to authorities; their caring includes loyalty to organizations or persons they feel are loyal to them.

  • Visionary—introducing innovative or disruptive ideas within bureaucratic structures; creation of new organizations to seize and control new markets.

  • Exacting—creation and adherence to structure and process; organization of workflows and systems in linear or hierarchical manners; becoming an expert to gain status and power in the bureaucracy.

  • Adaptive—first to respond to the visionaries; seeking networks for support.

    Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

    Figure A.19. Bureaucratic social character

Interactive Social Character

The prototype of the Interactive social character is adaptive-dominant, followed by Exacting, Caring and Visionary (see Figure A.20). The moderately productive version of this type is the average personality in the knowledge-service age. They smoothly fit right into the team-based organization of modern knowledge work.

(p.176)

Appendix Developing Strategic Intelligence for Leading Change

Figure A.20. Interactive social character

In the Interactive social character, the dominant personality types tend to be expressed as follows:

  • Caring—focused on a person or group; easily directed away to a new person or group that promises greater gain or enjoyment.

  • Visionary—the “change-the-world” mentality; dissatisfied with the status quo and a desire to recruit people to their change efforts.

  • Exacting—solving problems or selling services; creating holistic systems that adapt to business needs and make information available across functions.

  • Adaptive—sensing shifts in market forces and trends, networking, forming and reforming groups to do project-based work; seeking new ways to add value; looking for ways to increase their own marketability.

Your Leadership Personality

(p.177) Developing a Leadership Philosophy

Chapter 4 presents the elements of a leadership philosophy. Now that you have read the other chapters, you can see how a leadership philosophy influences visioning and motivating. You should also be able to compare your personal philosophy with your leadership philosophy. When they are consistent, your spontaneous actions will be seen as authentic. You build trust when your actions and decisions model both your personal values and the values you have articulated.

Your leadership philosophy should be consistent with your personal philosophy, and you should be in a role in an organization governed by a philosophy that fits well with yours. The following exercise attempts to clarify your philosophy and how it fits with your leadership role.

Exercise A.2: Leadership Role and Philosophy

  1. 1. What is your role as a leader?

  2. 2. How does your purpose fit the organization’s purpose?

  3. 3. Compare your values with the values practiced in the organization.

  4. 4. What level of moral decision making do you want to operate as a leader? What is the level practiced in your organization? If there is a difference, what can you do about closing the gap?

  5. 5. How do you define results for yourself? How are results defined in your organization? Are these definitions inconsistent? If so, what can you do about it?

The Aim of Change—Building a Learning Organization

In reviewing efforts at transforming healthcare bureaucracies into learning organizations, Cliff and Jane Norman and I constructed a guide to evaluate the components of an organization.3 It is reproduced in Table A.8 as a final tool for leading change. Idealized design should move your organization’s score toward a 10 on all the components. To do so you, and your colleagues will need to employ the qualities of strategic intelligence. (p.178)

Table A.8. Building a learning organization component evaluation

Components

Score = 0

Score = 2

Score = 4

Score = 6

Score = 8

Score = 10

Purpose and practical values

No written statements

Statement exists

Purpose and practical values defined and visible

Communicated and understood by employees

Used to align and guide the business; roles of people are aligned

Fully integrated into the structure

Processes: systems view

Work as a process is not understood

Major processes and products have been documented.

Relationships between processes are documented

Systems thinking is common.

Systems diagrams are used in business; people’s roles are linked to the system

Management systems have integrated the systems view

Partnering

No formal partners

Commodity supplier based on specs and RFQ

Preferred suppliers; recognized quality; traditional contractual relationship

Value-added supplier; distinctive competency; traditional contractual relationship

Alliance partnerships with suppliers; joint projects; sharing of knowledge; relationship at start of project

Strategic partnerships/common vision; mutual success

People

People are viewed as necessary but replaceable in the bureaucratic organization

People are appreciated for skills they bring; training is viewed as an optional expense

Knowledge and skills of people are important to the organization today; training and education are necessary

People are viewed as important to accomplishing the purpose of the system; development is important

People have a defined role that allows them to contribute to the larger system purpose; people take responsibility for their development

People understand how their role serves the larger purpose and their importance to the future of the organization and achieving the vision

Results: system measures

Financial data is viewed periodically

Financial and other operational measures are used

Family of measures is assembled aligned with purpose

Measures are tracked over time; leading indicators are used for prediction of future results

Variation is understood; measures are aligned with individual roles

Measures are integrated into management systems, values, and roles

Information sources: aid to foresight

Information is gathered on ad hoc, reactive basis

System is based on passive information

System is well documented and includes active sources

Information is documented and communicated; industry leading sources are identified

Comprehensive system with analysis/synthesis for decision making are used in planning and communication

Information sources are synthesized to enable foresight and input to vision

Visioning—idealized design of the future

No vision

Vision statement about being best in class

Vision describes ideal results

Vision is communicated and inspires stakeholders

Vision guides behavior, strategy, developing, testing, and implementation of changes

Idealized vision is realized; a new idealized design is created

Planning to achieve the purpose and implement the vision

No formal planning; reactive planning culture

Planning for improvement is done on an informal basis; inactive

A formal, documented process exists for proactive planning

Integrated process identifies objectives, efforts, and resources

All other planning processes are defined and linked within the organization and with partners

Interactive backwards planning of ideal future system

Leading and integrating change

No formal method exists to manage improvements

Improvements recognized as needed and resources assigned

Learning and improvement utilizes charters and PDSAs routinely

A formal method exists with leaders providing formal guidance for individuals and teams; results are tracked over time

The impact of improvements is understood for the system and fits practical values; improvement is linked to planning and other key business activities

Improvement system is integrated in organization and regularly improved; improvement is completely integrated into all aspects of operating and developing the business

Motivating and aligning people

Employees measured on following commands

Use of financial incentives

Supportive management and recognition

Employees empowered with clear objectives

Managers use all five Rs to motivate

The five Rs are aligned with employee skills and values

(p.179)

Notes:

(1.) Carol S. Dweck, Mindset, The New Psychology of Success (New York: Ballantine Books, 2006), p. 245.

(2.) Reliability and Validity: The Maccoby Leadership Personality Survey is comprised of four independent scales, with Cronbach’s Alpha for internal consistency as follows (n = 834):

Caring

0.738

Visionary

0.773

Exacting

0.714

Adaptive

0.714

Face validity of the tool has been very high; there is near-universal acceptance by participants of their descriptions of their leadership personality—especially when the tools are properly facilitated and participants have been guided to read not just one of the primary descriptions, but also the mixed-type descriptions. The survey is a self-discovery tool, not a diagnostic instrument. No construct validity tests have been performed. The data represented here was collected from training programs and seminars over several years.

(3.) Michael Maccoby, Clifford L. Norman, Jane Norman, and Richard Margolies, Transforming Health Care Leadership: A Systems Guide to Improve Patient Care, Decrease Costs, and Improve Population Health (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2013).