In this chapter we survey the history of mathematics and astronomy in the emerging University, from earliest times (c.1200) to the Black Death (c.1350). Among the notable figures with an interest in mathematics were Robert Grosseteste (the first University Vice-Chancellor), Roger Bacon, and Richard of Wallingford. The founding of Merton College in 1264 led to the development of the renowned Merton School, with scholars such as Simon Bredon, John Killingworth, and Thomas Bradwardine.
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