This last, concluding chapter, examines the efects of effendi culture, or the role that generations of efendis played in the social, cultural and political landscape of modern Egypt. The theme of this book was effendi becoming, his formation through different social, cultural and institutional practices; therefore this chapter looks only very broadly at what happens when the efendi “returns”—when the formed and transformed modern Egyptian subject assumes his role in public life. As the local sons who have been modernized, the efendis believed themselves to be in exclusive ownership of the right mixture of “authentic roots” and modern knowledge and expertise. Thus constructed, efendi subjectivity places itself into a privileged position against both “traditional” society and against western (colonial) modernity. It allowed generations of efendis to concentrate in their hands key social, cultural and political capital as reformers responsible for bringing modernity to the “other” Egyptians, as anti-colonial elites, and as the makers of a modern national state, both before and after the 1952 revolution.
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