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Institutionalizing State ResponsibilityGlobal Security and UN Organs$

Vincent-Joël Proulx

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199680399

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680399.001.0001

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(p.353) Index

Source:
Institutionalizing State Responsibility
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Abu Sayyaf 40
accountability models 6, 15, 18–19, 21, 59, 90, 95, 103, 105, 123–6, 161, 177, 279, 295, 326, 330, 340, 347, 351–2
active participation 5, 92
acquiescence 34–5, 40, 45, 63, 171, 215, 294
adjustment of disputes 94, 130n, 144n
admissibility 104n, 121, 127n, 146, 256n, 263, 266
African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) 173n
African Union (AU) 66, 316
agency 23, 30–1, 44, 78, 103n, 294–6, 309n, 327n, 331–2
aggravation 176
aggression, acts of 33, 86n, 90, 124, 165n, 172n, 176, 187–9, 193–4, 206–11, 221n, 232n, 237n, 285n, 305, 316, 320–2, 325, 328, 338n
aircraft 39n, 195n
Al Mourabitoune 172
al-Nusra Front 2n
Al-Qaeda 39, 40, 43, 46–7, 156, 163, 171, 233, 251, 262, 292, 296, 298, 325, 329, 330n, 349
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 172
Al-Qaida 2n, 157n
Al-Shabaab 64, 67, 273, 287, 339, 350
Albania 101–2, 133, 319
Algeria 326
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) 324–5
Angola 206, 210, 233, 251
Ansar Eddine 172
apartheid 90, 189, 195, 209, 257
apology 168
appropriate remedies 97n, 126–7
Arab League 66
Argentina 193n, 205
armed attack 24, 28, 30–5, 38, 68–9, 113, 183, 190, 210, 273, 277, 280, 283, 289, 292–5, 298–306, 316–31, 336, 340, 342n, 343n
armed reprisals 167, 243n, 272n, 279–85, 289–92, 309n, 310
Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) 106
Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 18–28
autoqualification 27–9
mechanics 20–7
primary/secondary divide 18–20
self-judging 27–9
assassination 42, 64n, 163, 195n, 206, 260
asset freezing 5, 160
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 66
assurances or guarantees of non–repetition 97n, 165, 168, 188n, 195, 196, 211–14, 255, 307
asylum protection 160
asymmetric power relations 94, 167, 169, 174, 178, 228, 235, 239, 344, 351
attribution 13–18
abolishment 31
analytical and legal tool 283
armed attack 32–3, 323–4, 329, 343
asymmetry 69
automatic 31
burden of proof 204
classical rules 45–7, 65–7, 69, 103
concept 23–9, 150n, 243
critical issue 324
cyberwarfare 328n
‘effective control’ standard 31–3, 103, 106, 109, 330
evidentiary concerns 150n
global security 65–6
indirect 45n
international breaches 108
liability 220n
non-attribution 24n
SC application 213, 218, 233, 243–8, 251–2, 258, 263, 275
SR principles 78–9, 249, 262, 331, 348, 351
subjectivity 126
unlawful conduct 263
use of force and SR repertoire 24, 29–37, 275, 283, 295, 323–4, 327–8, 343–4, 348
wrongful acts / conduct 24n, 26, 37, 97, 163, 249, 294–5, 327, 332
Australia 39, 71
Austria 211n
autoqualification 27–9, 94, 132, 167, 169, 179, 344, 350
aviation, civil 139, 244
ballistic weapons 213n
Beirut 39n, 284, 291
Belgium 39, 315
bilateral treaties 238
(p.354) bilateralism 16, 39, 54, 100, 104, 113, 175, 184, 187, 228–9, 238, 241–2, 324, 342, 345
biological weapons 213n
blockades 176
Boko Haram 40, 287, 350
border raids 297
border security 5
Bosnia-Herzegovina 106, 198–9, 215n, 220n
Bosnian Serbs 233
Botswana 210
breach of communitarian norms 89n, 256, 352
breach of consular obligations 97n
breach of international duty 282n, 294
breach of international law 19, 21, 23, 27, 50, 108, 153, 194, 196, 219, 201, 282n
breach of international obligations 3, 5, 86n, 102, 117, 119, 167–70, 201, 205, 218, 272
breach of the peace 144, 165n, 176, 187, 189, 193–4
breach of peremptory norms 22, 97n, 229n
Burma 316
Cambodia 210
Cameroon 87n
Canada 39, 236n
causation-based model 35n, 103n, 293
centralized enforcement 19, 229
cessation 48, 107–8, 165, 188n, 195–200, 204, 206, 210, 212, 214, 215, 246, 255, 282, 307, 321, 341
Chad 36, 39, 214
China 123, 178
civil society 56, 274
civil war 1, 49
civilian populations 68, 195n, 197, 205–6
Classical approaches
doctrine of SR 241, 293–4
philosophy 240n
climate change 5, 7, 49–56, 62, 70, 102, 162, 227, 335, 350
coalitions 156, 183, 203, 241, 254, 271, 285–7, 313, 323, 333
coercive order 239, 243n, 285n
coexistence 18n, 169
Cold War 48, 177, 250n
collaboration 5, 133
collective action 89, 110, 162, 211, 239, 285–9, 316n, 322n
collective enforcement 112, 228, 288, 312, 343
collective interests 59, 84–5, 89, 110–13, 116–17, 119, 123, 144, 176, 183–4, 188, 192–5, 220–2, 230, 254, 314
collective intervention 288
collective security 7, 48–9, 91, 140, 149n, 152n, 163, 181–4, 190, 214, 219, 225n, 254, 259, 276, 286, 296n, 310, 335
collective values 112n
Colombia 171
see also FARC
colonial domination 90, 189
common law 54, 226
communication 176, 191, 217n, 335n
communication technologies 70
community interests 89, 93, 111–12, 150n, 185, 228, 234n
Community law 95, 229
community solidarity 112
compliance 21, 54, 57, 95, 109n, 116, 119–20, 148, 159n, 169, 174–6, 199, 207, 211, 223, 228, 230, 237, 239, 241–2, 261, 275, 279, 298, 309, 334
compromissory clauses 104–5, 151, 238
conduct
acceptable/unacceptable standards 22n
criminalization 2, 44, 70, 157, 159–160, 216n
harmful 55n
illegal 97, 309
international norms 209
internationally wrongful 4, 20, 26, 46–7, 55n, 163, 184, 187, 192–3, 195–200, 205, 207, 210n, 225, 291, 299–300, 306, 335
IOs 161
non-State actors 17, 39n, 301
of persons or group of persons 103n, 327n
predictable patterns 178, 239
primary norms 26
public v private 24n
unlawful 4, 7, 26, 94, 113, 124, 132, 197, 204, 209n, 262–3, 276, 309
conflict prevention 81n
constitutional court/cour de cassation 140, 264
constitutionalization 119n, 230n
constructivist approach 17n, 190–1, 335n
continued performance 321, 341
continuing relationship paradigm 297
continuing violation 55n, 282n
control, concept of 103
convictions 97n
cooperation principle 18–19, 22–3, 55–6, 91, 111, 143, 148, 157, 158n, 160, 217, 256, 287, 293, 308, 344, 349
cost-benefit analysis 57, 240
Costa Rica 317
(p.355) countermeasures 166–73
collective 307–17
forcible 298–301
counter-radicalization 5
counterterrorism
Chapter VII powers 187–90, 200–11
Council practice 190–223
assurances of non–repetition 211–14
collective interests 192–5
debates 221–3
duty to cooperate 214–17
forcible countermeasures 219–20
guarantees 211–14
internationally wrongful conduct 195–200
non-recognition of third States 214–17
obligations erga omnes 192–5
reparation 200–11
return to legality 200–11
satisfaction 211–14
scholarly reactions 221–3
strict sanctions 217–19
international responsibility, determination of 223–48
political v legal divide 223–43
SC as implementer 223–43
SC application of attribution 243–8
SC and SR commonalities 248–60
Chapter VII and SR 248–50
SC power and secondary norms 250–4
SC and implementation of SR 254–7
sui generis and global security 257–60
SC and SR norms 155–87
countermeasures 166–73
inter-State implementation mechanism 167–73
political v legal divide 178–87
reciprocity 166, 173–8
see also war on terror
Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) 159n, 160
Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) 70
Court of First Instance (CFI) 143
crimes 89n
crimes against humanity 288n
criminal activity 235
criminal law 2, 25n, 50n, 235, 245, 337
criminal responsibility 81n, 187, 195n, 246–7
criminalization of SR 216
crisis management 90
Croatian Army 198
customary international law 24, 59, 63, 264n, 285, 326n, 335n, 340
cyberaggression 328
cyberattack 68, 328
cyber-crime 5
cyberterrorism 43n, 66–71, 162, 332
Cyprus 284
damages 51n, 204, 206
dangerous materials 1
de facto 7, 23, 47n, 103, 163–4, 262, 327n
de lege ferenda 112
de minimis 41
decentralization 19, 27, 55, 64, 179, 182, 230, 237, 239, 345
defensive armed reprisal 272n
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 45, 107n, 113, 194n, 198–9, 201n, 204, 324–5, 348n
demonstrations 176
Denmark 39
determinations (SC) 235
dictatorial government 287n
diplomatic relations 167, 169, 217n, 351
direct responsibility 103n
disarmament 112, 213, 264, 273
disease 1, 49, 350
dispute resolution 54, 84n, 125, 130, 144
Distributed denial of service (DDOS) 68
doctrine of State responsibility 253
domestic immigration 2
droit institutionnel 180
droit relationnel 180
due diligence 37, 51, 67, 80–1, 286, 323
due process 2, 127n, 142, 244
East Timor 195n
economic relations 176
effective control test 30–3, 103, 326n, 328n, 330
effectiveness 176–7
Egypt 39n, 195n, 260, 325
El Salvador 32, 317
embargo-type measures 217
environmental degradation 5, 7, 49–56, 61n, 62n, 66, 96, 350
environmental disputes 53, 100, 145
environmental law 50n, 53–7, 100, 168
environmental protection 50–2, 102, 115, 227, 334
equality
amongst litigants 128n
of arms 28, 127
between States 174n, 175
sovereign 34, 95, 121, 227, 240, 310, 343, 345
erga omnes 16, 31n, 54, 85, 88–93, 110–13, 116, 185–6, 192–5, 215n, 217n, 229, 231n, 243, 252, 254, 284n, 307, 323, 333
Estonia 68
ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna) 263
Ethiopia 65, 118n, 163, 316
ethnic cleansing 190, 195, 215n
ethnic hatred 199
European Commission (EC) 186n
(p.356) European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 80
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 142–3
European Union (EU) 61, 142, 161, 178, 329
ex post facto 24n, 84n, 107, 236, 316
exceptionally grave delicts 89n
executive functions 82, 84, 163, 225, 237n, 238, 260
export controls 227n
extradition 5, 41, 105, 139, 147, 173, 231, 244–5, 260
extraordinary rendition 254n
extraterritoriality 218
fairness 83, 93–6, 344
Falkland Islands 193n
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) 171
finding of responsibility 97, 330
foodstuffs 218n
forcible countermeasure 8, 45, 79, 164, 171, 176, 219–20, 280, 286, 289–91, 298–301, 304, 309, 312, 314–18, 323–4, 326–7, 331–3, 337, 340, 350
foreign affairs 204, 208
forum prorogatum 104
fragmentation 143
France 36, 39, 78, 105, 140, 173, 193n, 196n, 211n, 214, 245–6
fraud 73, 159
‘full and effective’ response 140, 246
functional approach 249n
functional overlap 83, 143–8
functional parallelism 144
fundraising 38, 63, 67, 70
General Assembly (GA) 114–18
institutional limitations 115–17
supportive role 117–18
general international law 16, 20, 22, 85, 86n, 88–9, 97n, 100n, 120, 167, 171, 189, 210, 215, 221, 226n, 252, 280n, 295, 308n
general principles of law 264n, 310
genocide 5, 58, 78, 90, 91n, 103–4, 106, 113, 190, 195, 200, 250n, 257, 288
Georgia 68
Germany 186n, 202n, 211n, 333
global governance 161, 266
global security 39–71
sui generis 257–60
threats 48–71
global warming 49–57, 70
Greece 87n, 211n, 284
Greenpeace 42
guerrilla warfare 44, 108
Guinea 194n, 210
Guinea-Bissau 316
Gulf of Aden 65
Gulf of Guinea 65
Gulf War 203n, 225n
Haiti 134, 212n, 220, 224n
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen 4, 171, 251
health 57, 145
Hezbollah 16, 31, 46, 136, 171, 271n, 273, 292n, 326–7
Honduras 211, 317
horizontal relationships 19, 145n, 228–30, 260, 289
hostage-taking 102, 107, 113, 160
human rights violations 96, 189, 195, 257–8, 311, 314, 343
human security 6, 57
humanitarian intervention 273n, 288, 304–5, 310–12, 315
illegal occupation 201
illegitimate regimes 332
impartiality 28, 108, 240, 244n
impunity 244–5, 312, 351
indirect responsibility 47n, 249, 251, 293–8, 349
individual criminal responsibility 81n, 187, 195n, 246–7
individualism 184, 229n
information-sharing 5
injunctions 226n
injury to property and life 297
institutional countermeasures 125, 141, 150, 217, 234
institutionalization 1, 4, 11, 13, 16, 19, 48, 56, 73, 79, 83–8, 92–6, 119n, 121, 126, 135, 161–2, 178–9, 185, 230, 261, 274, 279, 296, 345
institutionalized SR 4, 39, 217, 251n
instrumental processes 150
Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) 4, 22, 80
inter-State models 241–2
interactional theory 191n, 192
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 80, 312–13, 334
international community 267
international society 27, 46n, 111n, 287, 335
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 96–114
constitutional court function 264
jurisdictional limitations 104–110
legal environment 113–14
‘legislator’ role 98–104, 264
obligations erga omnes 110–13
Security Council, conflicts with 136–50
complementary roles 143–8
(p.357) functional overlap 143–8
judicial review 136–43, 264n
lis pendens and global security 148–50
other tribunals 141–43
use of force 289–93
International Criminal Court (ICC) 123
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 307n
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 106, 189
international humanitarian law (IHL) 5, 48, 73, 90, 108, 174, 183, 195, 198–200, 220
International Law Commission (ILC) 3, 14, 50, 78, 98, 185–6, 192–3, 196, 200–2, 211n, 214, 216n, 222, 223n, 227, 259, 264n, 280, 283, 289–94, 296, 306, 315, 317, 319–20, 332n, 340–3
international organizations (IOs) 3, 77, 155, 196, 258, 264, 291, 305, 350
political and judicial organs 232n
international peace and security 52, 81–2, 86, 89–91, 94–6, 115, 116n, 117n, 119, 122–3, 125, 130–2, 134n, 135, 144, 146–8, 153, 157n, 160, 163, 165–7, 176, 179, 181, 183, 186
international relations (IR) 7, 18–19, 29, 51, 57n, 94, 113, 118, 165, 174–5, 192, 239–40, 254, 264n, 271n, 276, 287, 297, 300, 310, 314–15, 319, 321, 325, 338n, 344–5, 351
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) 60, 109n, 110
international tribunals 264–5
‘interstitially’ 7, 99
interventionist model 335n
ipso facto 121
Iran 16–17, 23, 68n, 87n, 102, 107, 113, 152n, 183, 208n, 296, 300–1, 318n
Iraq 5, 40, 52, 54n, 64, 68, 127, 130, 134, 151, 181, 193n, 194n, 195n, 197, 201–8, 211n, 212–13, 215n, 217n, 219, 220n, 223–6, 247n, 256, 262, 273n, 274, 279, 286–8, 298n, 325, 348, 350–1
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 2n, 5, 37, 39n, 40, 64, 67, 273, 287, 298n, 325, 339, 350
isolationism 176
Italy 211n
Janjaweed 233
joint and several liability 54
judicial appeal 236
judicial decisions 61, 99n, 147, 232, 264n
judicial review 7, 80, 83, 119–22, 136–43, 147, 234, 235n, 240, 264n, 265
other tribunals 141–3
jurisdictional functions 84
jurisprudence constante 143, 145
jurisprudential incoherency 143
jus ad bellum 2, 7, 11, 34n, 175, 282
jus cogens 16, 22–3, 85–6, 89n, 137n, 217n, 221–2, 250, 254, 307–8, 323
Kenya 38, 39, 260, 296
kidnapping 160
Kosovo 65, 195n, 198, 213, 311, 313
Kuwait 52, 54n, 127, 130, 134, 193n, 194n, 195n, 197, 201–5, 212n, 213, 215n, 219, 223–6, 247n, 262, 279, 348, 351
League of Nations 134
leges speciales 281n
legibus solutus 120
Lesotho 208–9
lex ferenda 333, 343
lex specialis 14, 21, 33, 35, 48, 73, 92, 171, 329, 343, 350
liability 201–2
liberal democratic States 285, 287
liberal theory 241
Liberation Movement of Congo 103n
Liberia 118n, 220, 224n
Libya 5, 40, 63, 78, 81, 105, 120, 123, 139–40, 181, 195n, 198, 214, 218n, 220n, 238, 243–7, 262, 284, 303, 325
lis pendens 80, 83, 148–50
litispendence 149–50
lobbying 93, 222
Malaysia 39
Mali 36, 39, 64n, 172–3
maritime delimitation methodology 109–10
mass atrocity 309
media 39, 56, 274
medical supplies 218n
mens rea requirement 235
Mexico 65, 87n
military force 44, 210, 282–3, 305, 310
mission civilisatrice 241, 287
Morocco 136
Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa (MUJAO) 172
multilateralism 4, 6n, 15–16, 54, 56, 77, 95, 132, 147, 151, 156–7, 161, 166–7, 176–8, 183–4, 228–30, 237–8, 241, 261, 286n, 308, 333, 343
conventions 41, 100, 104–5, 115, 238
(p.358) Namibia 215n, 231n
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 233
necessity principle 256, 314–16
negligence 3, 294
neo-liberal approach 174
New Zealand 71
Nicaragua 29, 32, 108, 290
Niger 214
Nigeria 39, 40, 211n, 326
non-forcible measures 141, 176, 299, 334, 343
non-intervention 5, 35, 68n, 172, 319n, 333
non-proliferation see nuclear non-proliferation
non-recognition 214–17
norm-creation 3n, 259n
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 286, 298, 312–13, 329
North Caucasus 326
North Korea 193n
Norway 39
nuclear aggression 210
nuclear non-proliferation 3, 77, 102, 151, 227, 264, 275, 350
obiter dicta 266
Operation Babylon 207
Operation Opera 206
opinio juris 33, 37–8, 99, 118, 296, 329, 338n
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 66
Organization of American States (OAS) 298
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 186n
outer-space activities 66
‘overall control’ standard 103n
overreaction 59, 121, 158, 176, 311, 351
pacification 95, 144
Palestine 136, 297
pardon 236–7
pari passu 146
peaceful settlement procedures 123, 127, 145–6, 150, 164, 173–4, 233, 247, 350n
Permanent Five 123, 285
persuasiveness 96n, 117, 176, 266n
petroleum 203
philosophical approaches 174
pillaging 297
piracy 3, 65–6, 252, 264
pluralism 287
police forces 172, 235–6
‘evil-doing’ 286n
police State 287n
Polisario Front 136
pollution 49, 50n, 52, 54–6, 70, 73, 282
Portugal 186n, 194n, 210, 211n
poverty 1, 49
pre-emptive self-defence see self-defence
precautionary principle 41, 56–63, 73
prevention 2–3, 21n, 34, 50–1, 55–8, 81, 102, 157, 163, 173, 218, 288, 301, 323, 334
prima facie assessment 189n, 195, 235
primary norms 14–15, 21, 23, 26–7, 77, 82, 100, 107, 136, 264, 295, 319
primary obligations 14–18, 22n, 23n, 24, 27, 36, 56, 91, 116, 149, 157, 205, 275–6, 305, 315, 320, 340, 349
primary sources 264n
private acts 294
privatistic conception 184, 229n
proportionality principle 24–5, 45, 101n, 170, 182, 186–7, 213, 256, 281–2, 298, 322, 333
protection of civilians (POC) 81n
protection of property 6
public order 58, 230, 235, 237n
public relations 67
Qibya raid 297
quasi-judicial powers 7, 80, 82–3, 98, 119, 126–36, 142, 144, 152, 205, 225, 232, 234, 236n, 238, 241
racial discrimination 195, 217n
radicalization 5, 67, 70
rapports de force 178
rapprochement 4, 7, 8, 36, 64, 79, 82, 91, 99, 136, 144, 166, 170, 180, 182–3, 190, 192–3, 331, 334, 338
rationae materiae 265
rationality 174n
reasonableness 45, 333
reciprocity 104, 166, 229, 230n, 239–40, 309–10
limitations 173–8
recourse to force 280–98
ARSIWA and use of force 280–3
indirect responsibility for terrorism 293–8
institutional perspectives 289–93
Security Council 289–93
State and institutional practice 283–9
refugee protection 46n, 160
renvoi 149, 189, 272n, 316, 317, 327, 331
reparation 27, 90, 106–8, 126, 181, 183, 188n, 200–14, 238, 255, 262, 274, 281, 287, 307, 321, 340–1, 350–1
repressive regimes 159n, 332
reprisal 243n, 272n, 282, 285n, 291, 305, 310
(p.359) Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 36, 80–1, 162, 184, 285, 288–9, 303–4, 307, 312–14, 333–5, 343
‘responsible’ killing 303–42
definitions of SR 303–4
future research 338–42
policy prospectus 338–42
self-defence 304–38
restitutio in integrum 97n
restitution 13, 26, 54, 168, 200–2, 213, 247n
retaliation 158, 187, 241, 282, 286
retribution 158
return to legality principle 48, 91, 93–4, 182–3, 200–11, 219–20, 233, 235, 243n, 252, 257, 261, 344, 351
risk assessment 56–63
rogue States 176, 265
Russia 39n, 68, 123, 165, 316n
sabotage 297
safeguards 93, 306–7
sanctions 217–19
sanctuary States 31, 34–5, 40, 64, 171, 176, 183, 218, 250–1, 263, 272n, 273–4, 326, 328, 339–40
satisfaction 65n, 78, 128, 165, 168, 200–1, 211–14
Saudi Arabia 296, 326
Second World War 123
secondary legislation 159
secondary norms 13–38
ARSIWA 18–28
autoqualification 27–9
mechanics 20–7
primary/secondary divide 18–20
self-judging 27–9
attribution 13–18
use of force and SR repertoire 29–37
codification 13–18
opinio juris 37–8
SC powers 250–4
see also primary norms
Security Council (SC) 118–36
deliberative process 266–7
ICJ, conflicts with 136–50
complementary roles 143–8
functional overlap 143–8
judicial review 136–43
other tribunals 141–43
lis pendens and global security 148–50
as implementer 151–3
international peace and security 265–6
as legislator 151–3, 261–4
prospects and limits 119–26
quasi-judicial powers 126–36
self-contained regimes see use of force
self-defence 304–38
bypassing the SC 307–17
collective countermeasures 307–17
as countermeasure 304–7
internationally wrongful acts 317–26
SR law 326–33
self-determination 115, 190, 195, 215n, 243n, 249, 314
self-help 19, 85, 94, 98, 132, 169, 173, 238, 287, 301, 318–19, 326, 342, 344
self-interest 57, 240, 242
self-judging 27–9, 94, 132, 167, 169, 179, 344, 350
self-restraint 171, 174n
Senegal 38, 194n, 316
sentences 97n
Serbia and Montenegro 103, 106, 217n
shared responsibility 49, 70n, 71n
Sharia law 252
Sierra Leone 220, 224n
sine qua non criterion 174, 190, 191, 194, 282
Slovakia 211n
sociological approaches 1, 112
solidarity principle 86, 91, 112
Somalia 64–5, 171, 183, 220, 251–2, 263, 287, 316
sources of law 227
South Africa 194n, 195n, 206, 208–10, 215n, 217n, 231n
South Korea 193n
South Ossetia 68
Southern Rhodesia 194n, 195n, 196–7, 210n, 215n, 217n, 243n
sovereign equality principle 196–7, 210n, 215n, 217n
sovereignty see State sovereignty
Special Rapporteurs 14, 22, 86–7, 89, 181–2, 186n, 187, 217, 222, 289, 320, 342
Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) 142–3
species extinction 54
stare decisis 98
State-centrism 5n, 55, 243, 325, 326n, 328n, 330, 336
State liability 54n
State responsibility (SR)
commonalities with SC 248–60
Chapter VII provisions 248–50
secondary norms 250–4
SR implementation 254–7
sui generis and global security 257–60
definitions 303–4
implementation 84–153
fairness 93–6
institutionalized 84–93
limitations 48–71
climate change 49–56
(p.360) cyberterrorism 66–71
environmental degradation 49–56
global warming 49–56
precautionary approaches 56–63
risk assessment 56–63
ungoverned spaces and territories 63–6
norms 155–87
countermeasures 166–73
inter-State implementation mechanisms 167–73
political v legal divide 178–87
reciprocity 166, 173–8
self-defence 326–33
use of force 29–37, 44–8
vicarious 331
State sovereignty 1, 5, 134, 172n, 303, 311, 334, 343
State-to-State model 52–3, 65, 156, 242n
State voluntarism 112n
Straits of Corfu 133
Straits of Malacca 65
strict liability 35n, 51n, 66, 68, 103n, 293n
stricto sensu 123, 188, 320n
structural realism 111n
sub-Saharan Africa 64
Sudan 38, 64, 105n, 123, 163, 181, 195n, 233, 262, 284, 296, 307n, 332n
Suez Crisis 274
sui generis 82, 134, 166, 177, 222, 230, 257–60, 342, 348
Switzerland 136
Syria 5, 37, 40, 64, 81, 183, 215n, 263, 273n, 284, 287, 291, 325
Tajikistan 38, 316
Taliban 38, 47–8, 142, 157n, 160, 171, 273n, 297, 301, 325
Tallinn Manual 69
Tanzania 38, 211n, 260, 296
teleological approach 249n
terra nullius 162
terrorist attacks 2, 6, 30n, 38, 41–2, 47–8, 58n, 63, 79, 84, 90, 117–18, 149, 150n, 157n, 172n, 173, 190, 195, 216, 249–52, 263, 288, 292, 297–9, 326n, 328, 332n, 337, 339n, 342n, 343n, 349
terrorist groups 4, 36, 39n, 42, 46, 117, 157n, 158–9, 171–2, 198, 214, 218, 245, 249, 291, 297n, 332, 340, 349
terrorist networks 5–6, 31, 39–40, 47, 64, 67, 136, 155, 251, 326n, 332
Thailand 39, 316
theft 297
théorie de la contrainte 243n, 285n
Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) 95n
threat pre-emption model 46n, 110n, 257
threat to the peace 141, 165n, 176, 180, 182, 187, 189, 193–4, 196, 253
time and the law 224n
tit-for-tat justice 228
torture 175
transnational phenomena 39–71
9/11 attacks, impact 44–8
cooperation 55
crime 1, 65
global security and SR 39–71
threats 48–71
harm 6, 55
limits of SR 48–71
climate change 49–56
cyberterrorism 66–71
environmental degradation 49–56
global warming 49–56
precautionary approaches 56–63
risk assessment 56–63
ungoverned spaces and territories 63–6
pollution 50n, 56, 70n
State support of terrorism 41–4
use of force and SR repertoire 44–8
travaux préparatoires 138, 140
treaty obligations 224, 226, 244
Tunis 284, 291
Tunisia 39n, 209
Turkey 37, 39n
Uganda 45, 103n, 107n, 113, 199, 201n, 204–5, 324–5
ultra vires 119–20, 134, 139, 141, 203, 259
UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) 124
UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) 52, 203
UN mandated High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change 1, 5, 49, 188n
UN Security Council (UNSC) see Security Council (SC)
unfriendly acts 174
ungoverned spaces and territories 63–6, 162
unilateralism 4, 28, 95, 158, 170, 177–8, 240, 311, 350, 352
United Kingdom (UK) 40, 71, 105, 125, 133, 139–40, 196, 214, 215n, 243n, 244–7, 292, 329
United States of America (US) 35, 37–8, 40, 43, 46–8, 65, 101–3, 105, 107–8, 110, 123, 134, 139–40, 145–6, 149, 156, 171, 175, 178, 203, 214, 236n, 244–8, 272–4, 284, 286, 290–1, 295–301, 318n, 322, 329, 330–1, 333
Uniting for Peace resolution 117n, 312n
(p.361) ‘unwilling or unable’ doctrine 34, 37, 45, 241, 241n, 287, 327, 339
use of force
ARSIWA 280–3
forcible countermeasures 298–301
SR repertoire 44–8, 279–301
Venezuela 211n
vertical enforcement 230, 237–8, 274
veto rights 86, 123, 177, 254, 285
virtual control test 69
voting procedures 122–3
war on terror 2, 39, 291, 327n
weaponry 32–3, 35, 40, 81n, 213, 340
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs) 48, 49n, 73, 110, 153n, 227n, 313
Western Sahara 136
World Court 238
World Trade Organization (WTO) 15, 24, 168
Dispute Settlement Body 59
wrongful acts 317–26
wrongful conduct 4, 20, 26, 43n, 47, 54, 55n, 69, 97, 106, 162–4, 184–5, 187, 192–3, 195–200, 205, 207, 210, 225, 249, 262, 276, 282, 291, 300, 314, 335, 351
wrongfulness 25n, 38n, 97n, 300, 306, 315, 319–20
Yemen 64, 171, 263, 287, 326
Yugoslav People’s Army 198
Zambia 194n, 210n