The concluding chapter offers some theoretical reflections, ponders the future of electoral authoritarianism, ventures some practical lessons, and outlines pending tasks for research. In theoretical terms, it highlights the transformative nature of the politics of uncertainty and its embedded autonomy. In predictive terms, it conjectures the continuing relevance of electoral authoritarianism. Electoral autocracies are unstable, yet likely to receive new members from both liberalizing non-electoral autocracies and de-democratizing electoral democracies. In practical terms, the chapter formulates some advice to the international community: embrace multiparty elections, reinforce the organizational capacity of the opposition, weaken exclusionary institutions, and strengthen representative ones. In terms of future research, it stress two desiderata: In order to deepen the study of authoritarian uncertainty, we need to revise our methodologies, concepts, and theories. In order to deepen the study of authoritarian elections, we need to broaden our attention to authoritarian campaign dynamics and voter choices.
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