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TanzaniaA Political Economy$
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Andrew Coulson

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199679966

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679966.001.0001

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(p.159) 15 Zanzibar

Andrew Coulson

Oxford University Press

The British governed Zanzibar through the Arab sultans. They left, rather abruptly, in December 1963. Africans had been largely excluded from political and economic power. They were divided between the hadimu or indigenous population, squatters most of whom were freed slaves or their descendants, and those who had come as migrant labourers from the mainland. Most of the clove trees on Zanzibar were owned by a few wealthy Arab families. Most of the businesses were run by Asians. One month after Independence there was a coup, in which the Afro-Shirazi Party, which had received more votes but fewer seats in a series of elections ahead of Independence, took power. Its main support was from mainland Africans on Zanzibar and it had close links with TANU. Within a few weeks it was negotiating a union with the mainland. The United Republic of Tanzania was announced to the world on 23 April 1964.

Keywords:   hadimu, squatters, arab sultans, asians, afro-shirazi party, union with mainland, united republic of tanzania

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