In 1920, Britain was given responsibility for Tanganyika under a mandate from the League of Nations. Sir Donald Cameron, Governor from 1925–1931, was influenced by Lord Frederick Lugard, the ideologist of ‘indirect rule’, administration by chiefs approved by the colonial government. A few educated Africans, such as Martin Kayamba who ran the government office in Tanga, were promoted. The alliance with the chiefs broke down when the British used them to try and enforce unpopular agricultural rules and regulations. It was not until the 1950s that Britain realized the potential of marketing co-operatives as a means of involving educated Africans in the administration, and creating leaders.
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