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Shariʿa and Social EngineeringThe Implementation of Islamic Law in Contemporary Aceh, Indonesia$

R. Michael Feener

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199678846

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199678846.001.0001

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(p.283) Appendix II Chronology of Events1

(p.283) Appendix II Chronology of Events1

Source:
Shariʿa and Social Engineering
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

1873

First Dutch invasion of Aceh

1903

Surrender of last sultan, Muhammad Daud Syah and the leadership of the Acehnese resistance to the Dutch

1919

The Dutch colonial administration establishes an Advisory Board of Ulama in Aceh

1939

Foundation of PUSA unites reform istulamaunder Daud Buereueh

1942

Members of the “Fujiwara Kikan” associated with PUSA help to prepare the groundwork for the Japanese invasion of Aceh

1944

Japanese wartime occupation administration establishes a system of Islamic religious courts in Aceh

1945

Japanese surrender to Allied Powers at the end of WWII Indonesian independence declared at Jakarta

1946

Violent “Social Revolution” ends ulèëbalang authority in Aceh

1947

Daud Beureueh, then serving as Indonesia’s military governor of Aceh, extends state control over Acehnese madrasas

1948

Republican Sumatra formally divided into three Provinces, making Aceh nominally part of North Sumatra

1949

Indonesian Vice Premier Sjafruddin Prawiranegara authorizes the establishment of Aceh Province

1951

Aceh merged back into the province of North Sumatra

1953

Daud Beureueh proclaims Aceh part of the Negara Islam Indonesia (NII), launching the Darul Islam movement of armed conflict with the Indonesian Republic

1957

Aceh re-established as a province, with Ali Hasjmy appointed as governor

New provincial regulation of Aceh’s Shariʿa Courts

1959

Negotiations lead to end of Darul Islam rebellion, in return for “Special Area” status. These provisions granted Aceh a greater degree of control over the administration of religion, custom and education. Daud Beureueh himself, however, refuses to submit until 1962

1960

Founding of the Faculty of Shariʿa at the State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Ar-Raniry in Banda Aceh

1961

Passage of local by-laws limiting the sale and consumption of alcohol in Aceh

1963

Passage of provincial legislation on “Syiar Islam”

1965

Coup attempt against Army leadership; General Suharto seizes control in Jakarta; massacres of communists across Indonesia, including in Aceh

1965

Founding of Aceh’s Ulama Council

1966

Suharto replaces Sukarno as President; beginning of the New Order period

1968

Founding at Banda Aceh of the first Faculty of Dakwah in the Indonesian IAIN system

Provincial bill on the implementation of “Elements of Shariʿa Law” struck down by the Indonesian Interior Minister

1971

Mobil discovers natural gas in North Aceh; Production begins 1977

1973

Indonesia’s “Main Outlines of National Direction” (GBHN) calls for the use of law as a “tool”in the service of national development

1974

Passage of a new Indonesian code of Muslim marriage law; expanding the role of Islamic Religious Courts

1974–79

Indonesia’s second Five Year Development Plan (Replita II) further stipulates the importance of law as part of national development projects

1976

Hassan Di Tiro declares “the independence of Aceh, Sumatra” thus launching the Free Aceh Movement (GAM)

1977

Beginning of counter-insurgency operations by the Indonesian armed forces

1979

Hassan di Tiro leaves Aceh; much of GAM’s leadership is killed or fled to Malaysia

1982

Ali Hasjmy becomes head of Aceh’s Ulama Council

1985

Indonesian national regulation recognizes the appointment of female Shariʿa Court judges

1987–89

GAM fighters obtain military training in Libya

1989

GAM begins serious strikes against the Indonesian military in Aceh, prompting strong retaliation and a further escalation of violence

1989

Major reforms of Indonesia’s Islamic court system outlined in the Religious Judicature Act

1990–91

Indonesian military advances push much of GAM’s leadership into exile abroad

1991

Presidential Instruction on the Compilation of Islamic Law

1998

Suharto forced to resign, thus ending the New Order and the beginning of a new period of “Reform” (I. Reformasi)

B.J. Habibie becomes Indonesia’s new president, after which he agreed to a referendum on independence for East Timor and called for a de-escalation of violence in Aceh

1999

Mounting campaign for a referendum on independence for Aceh; instead a Special Autonomy Law was passed with provisions for the implementation of Islamic law

Abdurrahman Wahid becomes President

2000

Henri Dunant Centre begins work on the peace process between GAM and Jakarta

Passage of first substantive Regional Regulation on the administration of Islamic law in Aceh

2001

Megawati becomes President and signs the Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Autonomy Law, which came into effect 2002.

2002

Peace talks resume in Geneva; Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA) signed

2002

Passing of new qanun on Islamic religious observance

2003

Governor Abdullah Puteh indicted for corruptionSusilo Bambang Yudhoyono becomes president

New qanun passed on gambling, alcohol, and khalwat

2004

Massive earthquake and tsunami strikes Aceh, killing thousands

Foreign disaster relief and reconstruction agencies begin arriving in Aceh

2005

Peace agreement in Helsinki between GAM leadership and Indonesian Government

First application of caning punishments for violations of Aceh’s qanun

2006

Acehnese autonomy restructured with the Law on Governing Aceh (LOGA)

Former GAM figure Irwandi Yusuf elected as governor

2007

Aceh’s Ulama Council fatwa on “deviant teachings”

2009

Partai Aceh, headed by former GAM members and supporters, obtains a plurality of seats in the Provincial Legislative Assembly

Passing of a Shariʿa Criminal Code (Qanun Jinaya) by the outgoing, Golkar-dominated Provincial Legislative Assembly

2010

District-level regulation on modest Muslim dress passed in West Aceh

2012

Former GAM affiliate Zaini Abdullah becomes governor after the electoral defeat of incumbent Irwandi Yusuf

(p.284) (p.285)

Notes:

(1) This timeline of Aceh history builds upon a chronology of events prepared by Michelle Ann Miller and Anthony Reid for Verandah of Violence: The Background to the Aceh Problem (Singapore: NUS Press, 2006). I would like to thank them both for their generous permission to draw upon their work here.