Government expenditure plays an important role in promoting economic development and social justice. Based on international standards, China’s government expenditure should also include subsidies to state-owned enterprises and social security expenditure. This chapter examines China’s budgetary and extra-budgetary expenditure, the composition of government budgetary expenditure, and the challenges of government spending. It argues that the Chinese government spends too little on education, healthcare, and scientific development. The public expenditure system has been distorted by unbalanced fiscal responsibilities at different government levels. There is also a lack of transparency of government expenditures.
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